This book constitutes the proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Computer Algebra in Scientific Computing, CASC 2014, held in Warsaw, Poland, in September 2014. The 33 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in this book.

The papers address issues such as Studies in polynomial algebra are represented by contributions devoted to factoring sparse bivariate polynomials using the priority queue, the construction of irreducible polynomials by using the Newton index, real polynomial root finding by means of matrix and polynomial iterations, application of the eigenvalue method with symmetry for solving polynomial systems arising in the vibration analysis of mechanical structures with symmetry properties, application of Gröbner systems for computing the (absolute) reduction number of polynomial ideals, the application of cylindrical algebraic decomposition for solving the quantifier elimination problems, certification of approximate roots of overdetermined and singular polynomial systems via the recovery of an exact rational univariate representation from approximate numerical data, new parallel algorithms for operations on univariate polynomials (multi-point evaluation, interpolation) based on subproduct tree techniques.