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## Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes Part I of the refereed four-volume post-conference proceedings of the 4th IFIP TC 12 International Conference on Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture, CCTA 2010, held in Nanchang, China, in October 2010. The 352 revised papers presented were carefully selected from numerous submissions. They cover a wide range of interesting theories and applications of information technology in agriculture, including simulation models and decision-support systems for agricultural production, agricultural product quality testing, traceability and e-commerce technology, the application of information and communication technology in agriculture, and universal information service technology and service systems development in rural areas.

## Inhaltsverzeichnis

### 3-D Turbulence Numerical Simulation for the Flow Field of Suction Cylinder-Seeder with Socket-Slots

The flow field has significantly impact on seeding performance in the suction seeding device. A three-dimensional, incompressible, viscous, RNG turbulence model and the SIMPLE method were used by computational fluid dynamics(CFD), and the flow fields of suction cylinder-seeder with different socket’s radiuses were simulated by Fluent. When vacuum is 4kPa and productivity is 350 trays/h, the simulant results show that pressure is uniform, velocity is stable, energy loss mainly occurs near slots and outlet, and there is less interaction among socket-slots; The effect of flow field on socket’s radius to the cylinder isn’t significant by contrasting different socket’s radiuses on the average turbulent kinetic energy, the average vacuum and the maximum difference of velocity behind slots; The experimental results show that the best seeding performance is 84.73% when the socket’s radius is 5.5mm. Although the performance should be improved, but any sockets are never plugged, which shows enough that the seeder is a very promising precision seeding device.

Yanjun Zuo, Xu Ma, Long Qi, Xinglong Liao

### An Architecture for the Agricultural Machinery Intelligent Scheduling in Cross-Regional Work Based on Cloud Computing and Internet of Things

The paper introduces the problems in china’s agricultural machinery information. We provide an architecture for the agricultural machinery intelligent scheduling in cross-regional work. We put forward constructing the private cloud of agricultural machinery with the aid of cloud computing technology, and forward agricultural machinery will link together through Internet of Things technology. We provide an information platform and simplified it to three components including information service system, communication line and monitoring front-end equipment machine carrying. We also describes two modes to realize the intelligent scheduling function of agricultural machinery cross-regional working.

Sun Zhiguo, Xia Hui, Wang Wensheng

### A Comparative Study of Modified Materials of Acetylcholinesterase Biosensor

In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and Prussian Blue (PB) were used for modifying glassy carbon working electrode (GCE) to construct acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor respectively. Chitosan membrane was used for immobilizing AChE through glutaraldehyde cross-linking attachment to recognize pesticides selectively. Before the detection, the enzyme membrane was quickly fixed on the surfaces of modified electrode with O-ring to prepare an ampero-metric acetylcholinesterase biosensor for organophosphate pesticides. The fabrication procedures were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and amperometric i-t curve. The electrochemical behaviours of three modified sensors were compared, and the results showed that AChE-PB/GCE possessed higher oxidation peak current at a lower potential. Based on the inhibition of organophosphorus pesticides to the enzymatic activity of AChE, using dichlorvos as model compound, the sensitivity of three modified biosensors were compared, the results showed that the detection limit of AChE-PB/ GCE was lowest.

Xia Sun, Xiangyou Wang, Wenping Zhao, Shuyuan Du, Qingqing Li, Xiangbo Han

### A Detection Method of Rice Process Quality Based on the Color and BP Neural Network

This paper proposed a detection method of rice process quality using the color and BP neural network. A rice process quality detection device based on computer vision technology was designed to get rice image, a circle of the radius R in the abdomen of the rice was determined as a color feature extraction area, and which was divided into five concentric sub-domains by the average area, the average color of each sub-region H was extraction as the color feature values described in the surface process quality of rice, and then the 5 color feature values as input values were imported to the BP neural network to detection the surface process quality of rice. The results show that the average accuracy of this method is 92.50% when it was used to detect 4 types of rice of different process quality.

Peng Wan, Changjiang Long, Xiaomao Huang

### A Digital Management System of Cow Diseases on Dairy Farm

A digital management system of cow diseases is presented in this paper, which based on standardization disease management framework. It can manage dairy cow disease from each stage including cow file creation, routine monitoring, disease prevention and control. Integrate electronic medical records was set up, which based on medical records include cow basic information and routine monitoring results and disease prevention information and can implement statistical analytic function of disease rate and guide cow immunization. The Unique numbers and integrated medical records information of every cow will lay the foundation for food of animal origin traceability. This system includes four subsystems, cow basic information management subsystem, cow individual health monitoring and evaluation subsystem, cow electronic medical records subsystem and cow disease prevention and control subsystem. With the help of system analysis and software design techniques, it is can manage cow disease on dairy farm effectually.

Lin Li, Hongbin Wang, Yong Yang, Jianbin He, Jing Dong, Honggang Fan

### A General Agriculture Mobile Service Platform

Most of today’s information services on the web are designed for PC users. There are few services fit to be accessed by mobile devices. In the countryside of China, most of the mobile phone users can not access the Internet. For this reason, We developed General Agriculture Mobile Service Platform. The Platform is designed to make these information services fit to be accessed by mobile users, and to make those mobile phone users can use these services without Internet connection. To achieve that, a descriptive language is designed to describe the services’ inputs and outputs, used to passing requests and responses between the platform and the mobile client software. With those descriptions, client software can generate user interface on the client mobile device. Using that interface, user can manipulate service. The communication between client side and the platform can be carried by SMS, MMS as well as TCP, so that the devices which don’t have Internet connection can access those services.

Hu Haiyan, Su Xiaolu

### A Halal and Quality Attributes Driven Animal Products Formal Producing System Based on HQESPNM

Usually, halal animal products formal producing system consists of several components that cover major stages including Pre-processing, Processing and Post-processing. In this paper, we present five information systems to implement fundamental functions of formal management, scientific foods management, animal epidemic disease diagnose and prevention, processing standardization and market management, which respectively map to those components mentioned above. As halal animal products formal producing system, there are Halal & Quality attributes existing in all of the five information systems. Thereby, concentrated and systematic controlling of Halal & Quality attributes could improve whole quality of the producing system and ensure products is halal. Addressed to the problem of controlling scheme, first, this paper given a Halal & Quality Elements Extended SPN Model (HQESPNM) in detail. Second, it propose Platform-Independence architecture of the formal producing system based on HQESPNM through infrastructure of database integrate middleware. Finally, this paper given an Electronic-Agriculture Services case through Platform-Specified Software based on SOA to certificate that the model proposed by this paper is feasible for halal animal products system.

Qiang Han, Wenxing Bao

### A Metadata Based Agricultural Universal Scientific and Technical Information Fusion and Service Framework

The paper introduced a metadata based Agricultural scientific and technical Information fusion and Services framework. Through Agricultural scientific and technical Information dataset core metadata and Services core metadata, the distributed and platform-independent Information fusion can be implemented, based on the information fused resources in base layer of the framework, many applications can be developed, such as mobile communication based mobile Information service, voice text converter based voice information service, smart Q & A application etc., and the solution is an available and effective solution for the fusion and services of agricultural scientific and technical information resources, because the solution can integrate the data with different format from different data sources, so the solution can be used to construct the data layer of agricultural scientific and technical universal information services.

Cui Yunpeng, Liu Shihong, Sun SuFen, Zhang Junfeng, Zheng Huaiguo

### A Method to Calibrate the Electromagnetic Tracking Instrument When Measuring Branches of Fruit Trees

To reduce the effect from instrument error when getting characteristic parameters of branches of fruit trees by the electromagnetic tracking instrument, a calibration method was sounded based on a discussion of the instrument error of electromagnetic tracking instrument. Finally, the method was tested in an experiment. By comparing the data of the experiment and the standard data which was got by slide caliper, we proved that the method is effective in increasing the accuracy of measurement.

Ding-Feng Wu, Jian Wang, Guo-Min Zhou, Li-Bo Liu

### A Method of Deduplication for Data Remote Backup

The paper describes the Remote Data Disaster Recovery System using Hash to identify and avoid sending duplicate data blocks between the Primary Node and the Secondary Node, thereby, to reduce the data replication network bandwidth, decrease overhead and improve network efficiency. On both nodes, some extra storage spaces (the Hash Repositories) besides data disks are used to record the Hash for each data block on data disks. We extend the data replication protocol between the Primary Node and the Secondary Node. When the data, whose Hash exists in the Hash Repository, is duplication, the block address is transferred instead of the data, and that reduces network bandwidth requirement, saves synchronization time, and improves network efficiency.

Jingyu Liu, Yu-an Tan, Yuanzhang Li, Xuelan Zhang, Zexiang Zhou

### A Localization Algorithm for Sparse-Anchored WSN in Agriculture

The location information is very crucial for the sensing data in modern agriculture. However, positioning errors and sparse anchors are two key problems that should first be solved for the localization of the sensor nodes. We proposed a novel algorithm to tackle with these challenges. When the system of adjacent anchor distance equations is ill, a minimized-stress search algorithm (MSS) can decrease positioning error greatly. A collaborative sparse-anchored scheme (CSA) has an excellent positioning effect on low density of anchor, specifically on marginal sensor nodes. Our experimental result verified validity and accuracy of the algorithm. It improved feasibility and cost of WSN positioning technique, significantly.

Chunjiang Zhao, Shufeng Wang, Kaiyi Wang, Zhongqiang Liu, Feng Yang, Xiandi Zhang

### A New Method of Transductive SVM-Based Network Intrusion Detection

Based on the existing Transductive SVM and via introducing smooth function

P

(

$\triangle$

,

λ

) to construct smooth cored unconstrained optimization problem, this article will build the optimization model accessible to degenerate solutions to generate an improved transductive SVM, introduce simulated annealing to degenerate the optimization problem, and apply such a Support Vector Classifier to generate a new method of network intrusion detection.

Manfu Yan, Zhifang Liu

### Design and Simulation of Jujube Sapling Transplanter

This paper is aiming at designing a novel jujube transplanter with mechanic arms, which can support the sapling for a while when other operations is going on. It improves uniformity and stability. Pro-E software has been used for the design process, by which transplanting process has been analyzed and simulated.

Wangyuan Zong, Wei Wang, Yonghua Sun, Hong Zhang

### A Precision Subsidy Management System for Strawberry Planting in ChangPing District of BeiJing

The misuse of pesticide and fertilizer take a great pollution to the agricultural environment, which seriously affects the quality and safety of agricultural products. The government put forward a series of policies of subsidy to lead the farmers to proper pesticide application and scientific farming. But the effect doesn’t turn out as it wished to be because of the backward implementation methods and Stat methods. This research provides a Precision Management method for effectively managing subsidies for agriculture. Based on Non-contact IC card, the authors developed a Precision Management System for agricultural related subsidies management. This system was applied in one center and eleven experiment stores in ChangPing district in Beijing and solved problems like poor instruction for planting, tardy in subsidies providing and inaccurate information of stat during the strawberry growing season. Through this system, farmers can get the subsidies and instruction at the moment they buy agricultural materials, government can obtain the accurate data, and then adjustment the policies in time to get the desired effect.

Zhang Chi, Chen Tian’en, Chen Liping

### A Semantic Search Engine Based on SKOS Model Ontology in Agriculture

A simple agriculture ontology system was constructed under extended SKOS model in this paper. A theme relevance algorithm based on terms’ distances in ontology system was tested and applied in improving the Pagerank evaluating. And also an online agricultural semantic search engine named as Sonong was implemented and deployed for service on internet. This online engine provides semantic hierarchy inference with the ontology system and a satisfying ranking list of retrieved information.

Yong Yang, Jinhui Xiong, Shuyan Wang

### A System for Detection and Recognition of Pests in Stored-Grain Based on Video Analysis

This paper presents a system for detection and recognition of pests in stored-grain based on video analysis. Unlike current systems which conduct analysis of static images, the proposed system uses video data captured by camera and performs video analysis to detect and recognize pests in grain. By using video data instead of static images, techniques such as motion estimation and multiple-frame verification are used to locate, count and recognize pests. Compared to systems based on image processing, the proposed system is more robust to moving pests and avoids missing and re-counting of moving pests. Furthermore, by analyzing motion of pests in video, the system can only count living pests and ignore dead ones, which are recommended by national standard of grain quality and cannot be achieved by current systems based on static image processing.

Ying Yang, Bo Peng, Jianqin Wang

### A Tabu Search Approach to Fuzzy Optimization of Camellia Oleifera Fertilization

Traditional optimization methods have been applied for years to high-yield fertilization models, which are usually well formulated by crisp coefficients and variables. Unfortunately, real-world crop growing environment and process are often not deterministic. In this paper we establish a fuzzy mathematical model between

Camellia oleifera

yield and fertilization application rates, in which variation coefficients of N, P, K are described with fuzzy numbers. In particular, we present a tabu search algorithm for finding a set of fertilization solutions in order to maximize

Camellia oleifera

yield based on fuzzy measures including expected value, optimistic value and pessimistic value. Our approach is more realistic and practical for real-world problems by taking vague and imprecise data into consideration, provides more comprehensive decision support by generating a set of high-quality alternatives, and can be applied to fertilizer decision for a variety of other crops.

Qin Song, Fukuan Zhao, Yujun Zheng

### AgOnt: Ontology for Agriculture Internet of Things

Recent advances in networking and sensor technologies allow various physical world objects connected to form the Internet of Things (IOT). As more sensor networks are being deployed in agriculture today, there is a vision of integrating different agriculture IT system into the agriculture IOT. The key challenge of such integration is how to deal with semantic heterogeneity of multiple information resources. The paper proposes an ontology-based approach to describe and extract the semantics of agriculture objects and provides a mechanism for sharing and reusing agriculture knowledge to solve the semantic interoperation problem. AgOnt, ontology for the agriculture IOT, is built from agriculture terminologies and the lifecycles including seeds, grains, transportation, storage and consumption. According to this unified meta-model, heterogeneous agriculture data sources can be integrated and accessed seamlessly.

Siquan Hu, Haiou Wang, Chundong She, Junfeng Wang

### Auto Recognition of Navigation Path for Harvest Robot Based on Machine Vision

An algorithm of generating navigation path in orchard for harvesting robot based on machine vision was presented. According to the features of orchard images, a horizontal projection method was adopted to dynamically recognize the main trunks area. Border crossing points between the tree and the earth were detected by scanning the trunks areas, and these points were divided into two clusters on both sides. Resorting to least-square fitting, two border lines were extracted. The central clusters were gained by the two lines and this straight line was regarded as the navigation path.Matlab simulation result shows that the algorithm could effectively extract navigation path in complex orchard environment, and correct recognition rate was 91.7%. The method is proved to be stable and reliable, and with the deviation rate of simulation navigation angle compared with the artificial recognition angle is around 2%.

Bei He, Gang Liu, Ying Ji, Yongsheng Si, Rui Gao

### An Agricultural Tri-dimensional Pollution Data Management Platform Based on DNDC Model

DNDC is a computer simulation model of carbon and nitrogen biogeochemistry in agro-ecosystems. It is used in agricultural tri-dimensional pollution control widely. Learning from abroad advanced technologies and research methods, we have developed an agricultural tri-dimensional pollution data submission and management platform based on DNDC model. The platform is very important for sharing and building our agricultural carbon and nitrogen chain database.

Lihua Jiang, Wensheng Wang, Xiaorong Yang, Nengfu Xie, Youping Cheng

### An Analysis on the Inter-annual Spatial and Temporal Variation of the Water Table Depth and Salinity in Hetao Irrigation District, Inner Mongolia, China

Long-term Yellow River irrigation and the unique natural conditions in the Heitao Irrigation District (HID) Inner Mongolia, China, has led to serious environmental problems such as the shallower groundwater table and soil secondary salinization, etc. The conflicts among socio-economic development, water shortage and environmental degradation have become increasingly critical. By using the statistical methods, geo-statistical methods and ArcGIS9.0, we analyze the temporal and spatial variation of depth to water table (DWT) and groundwater salinity in the three different irrigation seasons in 2001, 2002 and 2003 respectively. The results show that DWT and groundwater salinity has formed a ribbon distribution after the long-term Yellow River irrigation. DWT is medium spatial correlative and the average spatial autocorrelation distance is 18.5km; the groundwater salinity is strong spatial correlative and the average spatial autocorrelation distance is 12.5km. The inter-annual distribution of DWT and groundwater salinity in 2001 is quite similar with it in 2002 and 2003. The DWT in western area, eastern area and a small part of middle area are shallower than other area in HID. The average DWT in March reached maximum and its minimum is in November each year. There are two high salinity degree zones (M>5000mg/l and even some other M>30000mg/l). The shallower groundwater salinity in the southeast and northwest are higher than that of in the middle part of HID. The shallower water table depth is, the higher the salinity of groundwater will be; the deeper water table depth is, the lower the salinity of groundwater will be.

Jun Du, Peiling Yang, Yunkai Li, Shumei Ren, Xianyue Li, Yandong Xue, Lingyan Wang, Wei Zhao

### An Efficient and Fast Algorithm for Mining Frequent Patterns on Multiple Biosequences

Mining frequent patterns on biosequences is one of the important research fields in biological data mining. Traditional frequent pattern mining algorithms may generate large amount of short candidate patterns in the process of mining which cost more computational time and reduce the efficiency. In order to overcome such shortcoming of the traditional algorithms, we present an algorithm named MSPM for fast mining frequent patterns on biosequences. Based on the concept of primary patterns, the algorithm focuses on longer patterns for mining in order to avoid producing lots of short patterns. Meanwhile by using prefix tree of primary frequent patterns, the algorithm can extend the primary patterns and avoid plenty of irrelevant patterns. Experimental results show that MSPM can achieve mining results efficiently and improves the performance.

Wei Liu, Ling Chen

### An Inspection Method of Rice Milling Degree Based on Machine Vision and Gray-Gradient Co-occurrence Matrix

A detection method of the rice milling degree was proposed based on machine vision with gray-gradient co-occurrence matrix. Using an experimental mill machine, different milling degree samples of rice were prepared. The rice kernel image of the different milling degree was get by a machine vision detecting system, then the texture features of the rice image were obtained by using gray-gradient co-occurrence matrix, at last the Fisher discriminate functions constructed using stepwise discriminate analysis were used to detect the milling degree of the rice samples. The testing results show that the average accuracy rate of the different milling degree detected using the method of 4 rice samples is 94.00%.

Peng Wan, Changjiang Long

### An Intelligent Retrieval Platform for Distributional Agriculture Science and Technology Data

In the agricultural domain, the variety of data used by organizations is increasing rapidly. Also, there is an increasing demand for accessing these data. Now, the problem of the digital divide causes serious problems in manipulating the distributed information. Based on this condition, this paper presents the intelligent retrieval architecture of distributional agriculture science and technology data which focuses on research of the integration support technology, the concept extending retrial technology based on agricultural ontology and the personalization retrieval technique based on the user model. In the experiment, the intelligent data application platform provided by the paper proves that the architecture is effective.

Xiaorong Yang, Wensheng Wang, Qingtian Zeng, Nengfu Xie

### Analysis of Factors Influencing the Off-Farm Employment Based on the Method of PLS

With the widening income gap between the urban and rural areas, off-farm employment has undergone rapid development. The essay aims at analyzing the factors influencing the off-farm employment according to the statistics collected from Changle City in Fujian Province using the method of Partial Least-squares (PLS). Since current statistical methods such as the least squares, Logistics and the principle component analysis can not avoid the existence of the problems such as multiple correlation, single dependent variable and poorly explanatory information. However, these problems can be smoothed away by implementing the method of PLS. The results show that training experience of the rural labor force, education level, vocational skills, and health status are main factors influencing the off-farm employment while working area only has a slight impact. Some correspondent solutions and advice are available according to the analysis.

Ying Huang, Yizong Xu

### Analysis of Income Difference among Rural Residents in China

This paper studies and analyzes the income difference among Chinese rural residents from 1997 to 2008 through absolute difference indices and relative difference indices. It comes to the conclusion that the absolute income difference among rural residents in China has been increasing year by year, while the relative difference remains around the average level and tends to increase in fluctuations in recent years. The paper also discusses the results and proposes corresponding countermeasures.

Yan Xue, Yeping Zhu, Shijuan Li

### Analysis of Secretary Proteins in the Genome of the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Botrytis Cinerea

The signal peptides prediction algorithm SignalP v3.0, subcellular protein location prediction algorithm TargetP.v1.1, potential GPI-anchor sites prediction algorithm big-PI predictor, trans-membrane domains prediction algorithm TMHMM v2.0 and bioinformatics algorithm MEME were used to analyze 16446 protein sequences of

Botrytis cinerea

. The results showed that there were 579 deduced secretary proteins. Among these proteins, the minimum and maximum of open read frame were 102 bp and 4848 bps respectively and mean score was 1271 bps. The signal peptides’ length was concentrated to 16~39 amino acids and the average length was 21. 122 of these proteins contain the highly conserved host-targeting-motif RxLx within 100 residues adjacent to the signal peptide cleavage site. According to PEDNAT and COG of GenBank database, this motif’s functions include metabolism modification and cell secretion etc. We blast those putative secretary proteins with RxLx motif in GenBenk and found 47.54% of them have highly conserved homologues in other species, among them 74.1% have putative protein domains. This means these proteins may be more stable or earlier origin. We suppose these proteins are candidate participating in the pathogenesis of

Botrytis cinerea

but we still need more experimental evidence to confirm their definite functions.

Zhang Yue, Yang Jing, Liu Lin, Su Yuan, Xu Ling, Zhu Youyong, Li Chengyun

### Analysis of the Heat Transfer Performance of Vapor-Condenser during Vacuum Cooling

The heat transfer performance of vapor-condenser has been studied under different temperature of cold trap and different thickness of the frost layer in this paper. The relationship between dimensionless number

Nu

and

Kn

is obtained. The results show that the capturing efficiency of cold trap increases with the decrease of the surface temperature of vapor-condenser. The frost accumulated on the surface of vapor-condenser can cause the overall heat transfer coefficient decrease, which has a negative effect on heat transfer of vapor-condenser.

Kn

has an effect on the heat transfer of vapor-condenser during vacuum cooling.

Gailian Li, Tingxiang Jin, Chunxia Hu

### Analysis on Dynamic Characteristics of Landscape Patterns in Hailer and around Areas

This paper analyzed the spatial-temporal dynamic changes of landscape patterns in Hailer and around areas. Firstly, landscape patterns types of research area were divided into water, sand, farmland, city and grassland based on remote sensing images of 1986, 1991, 1996 and 2001 and field investigation. Then the grassland was classified into higher coverage grassland, high coverage grassland, medium coverage grassland and low coverage grassland by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Finally, the spatial-temporal dynamic changes of above-mentioned eight kinds of landscape patterns were analyzed using landscape ecology principle. The results indicated that human activities intensified significant from 1986 to 2001in research area. The area of grassland landscape decreased quickly, and the fragmentation extent intensified. The dominant landscape in research area changed from higher-high coverage grassland to medium-low coverage grassland. The expansion of sand landscape is obvious in periphery of road, city and farmland. The grassland vegetation degenerated seriously. Fragmentation of city landscape lightened, and city landscape patches tended to decrease and centralized. Economy development pattern of research area is in a stage that is transforming from extensive pattern to intensive urbanization pattern.

Hongbin Zhang, Guixia Yang, Qing Huang, Gang Li, Baorui Chen, Xiaoping Xin

### Application and Demonstration of Digital Maize Planting and Management System

Cooperating with Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Administrative Bureau of Dingxing County, Hebei province, we applied the agricultural information software of Digital Maize Planting and Management System to guide local maize production. This system can direct the maize production during the whole course including digital simulation and design of maize production, planting plan before sowing, optimal water and nitrogen operation, nitrogen pollution warning, economic benefits analysis and so on. This study tries to establish the foundation for information and digitalization of maize production and management.

Shijuan Li, Yeping Zhu

### Implement of Fuzzy Control for Greenhouse Irrigation

By adopting the fuzzy control theory, a greenhouse irrigation automatic control system has been designed with the characteristic of accurate of the nonlinear, time-variability, long time delay and the characteristic of accurate mathematic model being hard to establish. Through some basic experiments, the basic domain of input and output of the fuzzy controller were ascertained. Time variables that were used to control the each connect duration of electromagnetic relay. Fuzzy control can be realized by MSP430F133 MCU control system with usage of the time variable. By the action of fuzzy control, prototype field experimental results showed that first-order inertial character performed by the system with the constant —3540s, which was no overshoot. With simple structure, low price and high reliability, the accuracy of the system meets irrigation technical requirements of crops in greenhouse.

Wenttao Ren, Quanli Xiang, Yi Yang, Hongguang Cui, Lili Dai

### Application of Background Information Database in Drought Monitoring of Guangxi in 2010

In this paper, use Nanning city as an example to show application of Background information database in drought monitoring. A near-real time drought monitoring approach is developed using Terra-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectoradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) products. The approach is called Vegetation Temperature Condition Index (VTCI), which integrates land surface reflectance and thermal properties. VTCI is defined as the ratio of LST differences among pixels with a specific NDVI value in a sufficiently large study area; The ground-measured precipitation data from a study area covering Nanning in Guangxi , CHINA, are used to validate the drought monitoring approach. Taking the result of drought monitoring in background information of Nanning city ,the area of farmland drought of Mild drought Moderate droughts Severe drought were 223607.2 Ha ,310596.9 Ha and 513.2 Ha.

Xin Yang, Weiping Lu, Chaohui Wu, Yuhong Li, Shiquan Zhong

### Application of Fuzzy Clustering Analysis in Classification of Soil in Qinghai and Heilongjiang of China

Soil classification systems organize soil variability into useful groupings that can be identified by field investigation and documented in soil survey, and form the basis for the exchange and extension of soil science research and soil resources management. Fuzzy clustering analysis may be used whenever a composite classification of soil incorporates multiple parameters. In this paper, seventy-seven topsoil samples were collected from Qinghai and Heilongjiang of China, and the element contents of topsoil were detected by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. In fuzzy clustering analysis, all data were standardized, and then a fuzzy similarity matrix was established and the fuzzy relation was stabilized. The results showed that topsoil samples of Qinghai and Heilongjiang were completely grouped into two clusters according to their districts, when given a suitable threshold

λ

= 0.7580. This work supplied the quantification classification method of alpine soil (Qinghai) and unsaturation siallitic soil (Heilongjiang).

Ping Han, Jihua Wang, Zhihong Ma, Anxiang Lu, Miao Gao, Ligang Pan

### Application of Molecular Imprinting Technique in Organophosphorus Pesticides Detection

Molecular imprinting technique offers a means of producing practical materials that are able to recognize a certain molecule in terms of shape, size and chemical functionality. In order to obtain a highly selective recognition of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), we synthesized molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) using pirimiphos-methyl as the template, methacrylic acid as the monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker. After polymerization, molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) was used for the selective preconcentration of OPPs. The preparation methods and synthesis conditions of MIPs were discussed, and the specificity of MIPs and nonimprinted polymers were investigated. The results showed that MIPs enable the selective extraction of pirimiphos-methyl successfully from water sample, and demonstrated the potential of MISPE for selective and cost-effective sample pretreatment.

Liu Zhao, Hua Ping, Ling Xiang, Ping Han, Jihua Wang, Ligang Pan

### Assessing Rice Chlorophyll Content with Vegetation Indices from Hyperspectral Data

Leaf chlorophyll content is not only an important biochemical parameter for determinating the capacity of rice photosynthesis, but also a good indicator of crop stress, nutritional state. Due to the reliable, operational and non-destructive advantages, hyperspectral remote sensing plays a significant role for assessing and monitoring chlorophyll content. In the study, a few of typical vegetation indices (VI) with the combination of 670nm and 800nm band reflectance, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Modified Simple Ratio index (MSR), Modified Chlorophyll Absorption Ratio Index (MCARI), Transformed Chlorophyll Absorption Ratio Index (TCARI), and Optimized Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (OSAVI) are modified by using 705nm and 750nm band reflectance so as to reduce the effect of spectral saturation in 660-680nm absorptive band region, and then used to assess the rice chlorophyll content. The result shows that the five mentioned VIs have better correlation with rice chlorophyll content while using 705nm and 750nm. In addition, in the study the Weight optimization combination (WOC) principle is utilized to further assess the capacity of the five modified VIs for estimating rice chlorophyll content, it is proved that OSAVI and MSR display the better performance.

Xingang Xu, Xiaohe Gu, Xiaoyu Song, Cunjun Li, Wenjiang Huang

### Automated Extracting Tree Crown from Quickbird Stand Image

Artificial intelligence technologies with spatial information technologies play more and more roles in precision agriculture and precision forestry. This paper puts up a new artificial intelligence algorithm which based on seeded based region growth method to extract tree crown on Quickbird forest stand image. It is a kind of object based canopy and gap information extracting method specially suited for high-resolution imagery to get meaningful tree crown object .The main processes to carry out the experiment and validation on the Quickbird satellite images in Populus×xiaohei plantation even stand at Xue JiaZhuang wood farm in Shanxi Province of China is described in detail in the paper. The average tree numbers identification error is 18.9%. The result shows that this algorithm is an effective way to get segmented crown in real stand image. This algorithm can be powerful tools for precision forestry. We suggest users to choose suitable features and parameter values try by try in forehand applying.

Guang Deng, Zengyuan Li, Honggan Wu, Xu Zhang

### Bayesian Networks Modeling for Crop Diseases

Severe large-scale diseases in agricultural regions have caused significant economic damage. In order to improve crop yields, we develop a framework to predict the occurrence of crop diseases. In the presence of risk and uncertainty, this paper focuses on finding out the best pest control decision-making program which is based on the Bayesian network. The paper describes the flowchart of a Bayesian network and the principles used to calculate the conditional probabilities required in it. The practice proves that BN is an effective tool for crop disease.

Chunguang Bi, Guifen Chen

### Characteristics of Soil Environment Variation in Oasis–Desert Ecotone in the Process of Oasis Growth

Cele Oasis on the southern edge of Tarim Basin was used to investigate the impact of human activity on the soil environment of the oasis– desert ecotone during the oasis expansion process. Since farmland is extending into the oasis–desert ecotone during oasis expansion, reclaimed farmland and control plots within the ecotone were investigated. The variations in soil moisture, soil nutrients and soil particle-size distribution of the two plots to a depth range of 0–100 cm were discussed. The soil moisture of each layer in the farmland to a depth of 0–100 cm differed significantly from that in the control plot; the former was generally higher than the latter in the same layer, particularly during the farming period (i.e. April–September). Agricultural soil moisture showed a time-variation rule from multimodal to unimodal with increased depth. Soil moisture of the control plot showed a generally monotonic increasing trend with increased depth; however, for the farmland plot, there was a unimodal increasing trend of initial increase and then a decrease with increased depth. Each layer of the farmland plot had a higher soil nutrient composite index than that of the control plot; however, this improving effect of farmland reclamation on soil nutrient conditions in the oasis–desert ecotone decreased with increased depth. The variation of soil particle-size showed a particular regularity under the influence of cultivation, i.e. silt and clay contents in farmland increased obviously and sand contents decreased.

Haifeng Li, Fanjiang Zeng, Dongwei Gui, Jiaqiang Lei

### Chlorimuronethyl Resistance Selectable Marker Unsuited for the Transformation of Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe Grisea)

Chlorimuronethyl resistance geneis increasingly used as a selectable marker for transformation, especially fungal transformation.

Magnaporthe grisea

is an important model organism for investigating fungal pathogenicity, and

Agrobacterium tumefaciens

-mediated transformation (ATMT) is used for functional mutagenesis of the fungus. However, our results showed that rice blast strains collected from infectious rice fields have highly conserved resistance to chlorimuronethyl, even comparable to transformants which carrying chlorimuronethyl resistance genes as selectable marker in laboratory conditions. PCR results showed that all tested field strains presented the amplified products of the same size as the selectable marker amplified from plasmid carrying chlorimuronethyl gene. Sequence analysis of PCR products amplified from field strains confirmed that field strains harbored the highly identity homolog of chlorimuronethyl resistance gene. Blast search in GenBank suggested that the fragment is presenting in reference genome sequence of 70-15, but it is not a wide-spread gene in other organisms, excepted for

Herpetosiphon aurantiacus

. Although the origin and reason of the conserved chlorimuronethyl resistance gene in field isolates of blast fungus is unclear, the ecological function of the gene is noteworthy.

Chang Qing, Yang Jing, Liu Lin, Su Yuan, Li Jinbin, Zhu Youyong, Li Chengyun

### Support Vector Machine to Monitor Greenhouse Plant with Gaussian Loss Function

In this paper, it applys Gaussian loss function instead of

ε

-insensitive loss function in a standard SVRM to devise a new model and a new type of support vector classification machine whose optimization problem is easier to solve and has conducted effective test on open data set in order to apply the new algorithm to environment monitoring in greenhouse plants and the monitoring result is better than any other method available.

Manfu Yan, Qing Zhang, Jianhang Zhang

### Classification Methods of Remote Sensing Image Based on Decision Tree Technologies

Decision tree classification algorithms have significant potential for remote sensing data classification. This paper advances to adopt decision tree technologies to classify remote sensing images. First, this paper discussed the algorithms structure and the algorithms theory of decision tree. Second, C4.5 basic theory and boosting technology are explained. The decision tree technologies have several advantages for remote sensing application by virtue of their relatively simple, explicit and intuitive classification structure.

Lihua Jiang, Wensheng Wang, Xiaorong Yang, Nengfu Xie, Youping Cheng

### Computer-Aided Design System Development of Fixed Water Distribution of Pipe Irrigation System

It is necessary to research a cheap and simple fixed water distribution device according to the current situation of the technology of low-pressure pipe irrigation. This article proposed a fixed water distribution device with round table based on the analysis of the hydraulic characteristics of low-pressure pipe irrigation systems. The simulation of FLUENT and GAMBIT software conducted that the flow of this structure was steady with a low head loss comparing to other types of devices. In order to improve the design efficiency, a program was made using Visual Basic. The system was user-friendly, flexible operation, convenient and able to meet the needs of different users.

Mingyao Zhou, Susheng Wang, Zhen Zhang, Lidong Chen

### Construction and Practice of Information Demonstration Area in Mentougou District of Beijing

The rural informatization is one of the important foundation for the construction of the metropolis-modern agriculture, which Beijing government makes great effort to develop now. Based on current situation of rural informatization construction in Mentougou district of Beijing, this study established an information demonstration area in order to integrate the information from the local natural ecology, agricultural production, special products trading and government. We made use of the technology of 3S, database and network to achieve the digitalization and visualization of the rural information. The study helps to guide the agricultural production and agricultural products circulation and offers the effective decision support for the sustainable development of the demonstration area.

Juan Pan, Na Zhang, Shan Yao, Jian Xu

### Data Acquisition Method for Measuring Mycelium Growth of Microorganism with GIS

Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus or most microorganisms, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. It is through the hyphae that a fungus absorbs nutrients from its environment. For most fungi, the ability of nutrition translation from mycelium to fruit body is determined by growth status of hyphae. It is very necessary to study the effect of environmental factors on mycelium growth, and know the befitting environment condition. However, finding a good data acquisition method for measuring the mycelium is the key point.

A new method was introduced in the paper. The method is using image identification and space data analysis function of the GIS to acquire development rate of mycelium i.e. hyphae. Pleurotus eryngii under commercial production is taken as example. The effect of different temperature and humidity on mycelium growth was analyzed. It is hoped to explore a new method for scientific and precise measurement the growth status and development rate of mycelium.

Juan Yang, Jingyin Zhao, Qian Guo, Yunsheng Wang, Ruijuan Wang

### Decision Support System for Quantitative Calculation of Crop Climatic Suitability in Hebei Province

The growth and development of crops would not be separated by comprehensive climatic factors, such as temperature, precipitation, sunshine and others. To some extent, the behaviors of the climate factors have great affection on the climatic suitability of crops. In order to achieve the quantitative assessment of climate factors, the decision support system for quantitative calculation on climate suitability of major crops in Hebei province such as winter wheat, corn and cotton, has been established. Developed by Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 language, and program design built in modular structure, the system was included by three modules following as the database of climatic suitability over the stages of crops growth and development, calculation of climate suitability degerees and decision-making services. Using the differene periods such as ten days, month, season, crop growth period as the unit, the quantity changes of temperature, precipitation and sunshine would be translated into crop-climatic suitability degrees on different growth perod by membership function of fuzzy mathematics so as to achieve a quantitative assessment of climatic fators. The calculated results output adopts grid and graphic formats, and according to the results, different management decision-making information.would be chosen then .It’s shown that the analysis results of crop-climatic suitability by the system for different crops and time perods are consistent with the actual situation.

Jing Zhang, Youfei Zheng, Xin Wang

### Delineation of Suitable Areas for Maize in China and Evaluation of Application for the Technique of Whole Plastic-Film Mulching on Double Ridges

Climate, topography, soil and land use data which closely associated with the distribution of maize (

Zea mays L

.) has been collected and collated to identify the suitable areas for maize on condition of nature and using the technique of whole plastic-film Mulching on Double Ridges in China, the database of these factors have been created in the current article. The weights of these factors, criteria and suitability levels have been defined using Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) approach based on Geographic Information System (GIS), each factor was classed into five suitability levels: Most suitability, Moderate suitability, and medium, Moderate unsuitability and Unsuitability. Pair-wise comparison matrixes were made to get the weights of each factor, the suitability maps of the factors have been obtained by overlaying these layers according to their weights, got the suitability map for maize. The suitable areas map was created by the suitability map and the land use map which has been masked the non-cultivated land. The result indicated that the higher yield of maize can be gained from 4.535×10

5

km

2

which distributed in 741 counties in16 provinces. In accordance with the method of above, analysis the suitable area after the techniques of whole plastic-film mulching on double ridges was used. The results showed the higher yield could be got in 6.145×10

5

km

2

, some areas of Gansu, Inner Mongolia and other places in arid and semiarid areas that can’t distribute or only have low yield maize could get higher yield after using the technique of whole plastic-film mulching on double ridges. With the increased requirement of food, the new techniques and the more perfect regional planning of grain could be take into account for socio-political and environment issues.

Chaojie Jia, Wenlong Zhao, Yaxiong Chen, Guojun Sun

### DEM Simulation and Analysis of Seeds Supply by the Vibrating Seed Box of Magnetic Cylinder Seeder

Regarding the vibrating seeds box of magnetic cylinder seeder as the research subject and making simulation and analysis for the motion law of seeds which supplied by seed box base on DEM (Discrete Element Method). Researching the mechanism of the seed supply and analyzing the condition of seed supply by the vibration of seed box, when the frequency change from 10Hz to 50Hz and horizontal and vertical amplitude of the seed box are 0.5mm. The results shows that the vibrating frequency has greater influence on the seed supply; seeds can’t be supplied when the vibrating frequency less than10Hz; seed can be supplied best and seeds thickness nearly the cylinder wall is highest when the vibrating frequency equal to 40Hz.

Xiuping Shao, Jianping Hu, Yingsa Huang, Fa Liu

### Design and Experiment of Onboard Field 3D Topography Surveying System

Laser-controlled land leveling system can obviously improve the planeness of the field and enhance the efficiency of irrigation. The 3D topographic information was needed for project design and evaluation of laser land leveling. In order to obtain the topographic information efficiently, an onboard field 3D topography surveying system was developed. The surveying system consisted of a measuring laser receiver, a GPS receiver, a controller and a hydraulic system. Besides topographic measurement, the system could also achieve laser land leveling. The measuring laser receiver was used to obtain the elevation and the GPS receiver was employed to obtain the longitude and latitude data. The data was fused in the controller to get the 3D topographic information. Field experiments were carried out in different speed and compared with the data from the fixed-point surveying method. The result showed the surveying system had a good consistency with the fixed-point surveying method in slower speed.

Mingming Guo, Gang Liu, Xinlei Li

### Implementation of Agro-environmental Information Service System Based on WebGIS

Faced to the present agro-environmental information features, there exist several difficulties to acquire and control the agricultural environment information, such as the scattered information with spatio-tempel traits, the methods of quantification and the huge data amount. This paper constructed an agro-environmental information service system based on the spatial database, computer network and geographic information system (GIS) technology. This system was applied in Jianshui County, Yunnan to implement the system functions including the collection, storage, analysis, visual output and intelligent evaluation. The system with these functions applied technical support for Jianshui county to improve the abilities both in local agricultural products and environmental protection. And it provided a precedent for other Counties in Yunnan to construct agricultural environmental information system.

Lin Peng, Linnan Yang, Limin Zhang

### Design and Implementation of Automatic Control System for Rice Seed Tape Winding Units

In order to adapt to the requirements of the development for precision agriculture technology, making the rice seed tape planting technology has been widely used. The paper-making improved the design on the rice seed tape twisting machine especially the seed tape winding units. It proposed seed tape winding automatic control system based on STC90C514AD to realize the rotating speed adjustment of the seed tape disk, used an angular displacement sensor real-time detecting on the disk diameters during the winding process. The system can make the rotating speed reduce when the diameters increase. The experimental results show that the machine performs well. Coefficient of variation of the seed rope linear velocity was 4.64%, the tension uniformed during the seed tape winding process. The working efficiency of the machine is 360m/h. It shows that the machine and the control system meet the overall design requirements well.

Hongguang Cui, Wentao Ren, Benhua Zhang, Yi Yang, Lili Dai, Quanli Xiang

### Design and Implementation of Crop Potential Model System Based on GIS and Componentware Technology

Based on SuperMap IS.NET and the empirical models about crop potential output, the paper firstly designed the model system of crop potential output by using componentware method based on distributed computing architecture under network environment. Secondly, the paper implemented crop potential model components by using componentware technology. Finally, with the abstract mechanism of interface, the paper integrated crop potential output models and loosely coupled model components with SuperMap GIS. The results show that the model system as a component container about crop potential output model integrated empirical and mechanism models and provided a dynamic management for crop potential output models and dynamic methods call, which solved the issues of integration and expansion, and the system has the characteristics of wide applicability and good independence, which provides ADM and technical support for the construction of major grain-producing areas, crop production management and potential mining.

Hao Zhang, Li Ding, Guang Zheng, Xin Xu, Lei Xi, Xinming Ma

### Design and Realization of a VRGIS-Based Digital Agricultural Region Management System

In order to realize the digitalization and visualization of information management in agricultural-region, a VRGIS-based digital agricultural region management system (VDARMS) was developed with SuperMap 2008 as the platform of spatial information management, VRMap 3.0 as the driver of scene, and integrating with the existing knowledge model for crop management. This system realized the functions as file management, spatial handling, information query, data analysis, cultural management plan design, virtual simulation, and system maintenance, etc. Case studies of the system were carried out in Heheng village of Jiangyan city and Qinglong village of Nanjing city, Jiangsu province, China, the application results indicated that VDARMS accorded with the development of modern agricultural spatial information management, realized standard, digital management and visual display of agricultural information, and greatly promoted the development of digital agriculture technology.

Xiaojun Liu, Yuou Zhang, Weixing Cao, Yan Zhu

### Design and Simulation Analysis of Transplanter’s Planting Mechanism

A new-style transplanter’s planting mechanism was designed, which was composed of Planetary Gear, Planetary Carrier, Connecting rod, Groove cam and Planting arm. Built the kinematics model and determined the main parameters which influenced the Plant-arm’s locus by analyzing of the Kinematic model. Created the 3D Model in PRO/E and imported it into the Kinematics simulation software ADAMS, analyzing Groove-cam’s offset angle, Connecting-rod’s length and its impact on the Plant-arm’s kinematics locus. The effect laws of the structural parameters on the Plant-arm’s locus were obtained through analyzing the Plant-arm’s locus, which got by changing the groove cam’s horizontal offset angle ranging from 0° to 20°, the sum of Connecting-rod’s length ranging from 130mm to 150mm, and the subtract of Connecting-rod’s length ranging from 15mm to 25mm. The analysis results are of theoretical significance to the dimension synthesis and optimization design.

Fa Liu, Jianping Hu, Yingsa Huang, Xiuping Shao, Wenqin Ding

### Design and Simulation for Bionic Mechanical Arm in Jujube Transplanter

In this paper an automatic bionic mechanical arm of jujube transplanter has been designed and simulated with Pro/E and ADAMS software. The device can achieve the work of clamping—sending—setting the sapling and support the sapling to guarantee it perpendicularity in setting process. Design the structure of manipulator utilizing the simulation of hand working. There is 5-DOF at the manipulator to achieve simulating. Constitute dynamics mathematical model and estimated inseminate error of bionic manipulator. The three dimensional model of the manipulator was build up and simulated by using Pro/E software. Then up build the virtual prototype and kinetics simulation in ADAMS software and chalk up the dynamics parameter curve of clamping force etc. This manipulator will establish theory and practice foundation to the cyber-identify and cyber-supervise of sapling translating.

Yonghua Sun, Wei Wang, Wangyuan Zong, Hong Zhang

### Design for Real-Time Monitoring System of High Oxygen Modified Atmosphere Box of Vegetable and Fruit for Preservation

According to the disadvantages of traditional box for preservation, including low oxygen and high carbon, a new control system of high oxygen is designed. This paper presents the design and implementation method in this system. The system combines traditional PID control with fuzzy control which can adjust parameters of the whole system automatically. The box can control the dynamic content of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and monitor nitrogen flow, temperature and humidity real-timely so that preservation time can be prolonged. It also can collect and keep the data of the dynamic content of oxygen and carbon dioxide which suits for fruit and vegetable for preservation. The former environment can be reappeared when need. The system works steadily and has strong functions.

Zhanli Liu, Congcong Yan, Xiangyou Wang, Xiangbo Han

### Design of Agent-Based Agricultural Product Quality Control System

Aiming at the problems existed in agricultural product quality control, management and traceability such as the considerable influence of human factors, weak ability of handling emergencies and lacking of support of intelligent key technologies, this study explores the application of agent theory, method and technique to solve the problems of process control, traceability, intelligent information watching and information technology application to emergency reaction conditioned on the general characteristics from production to circulation. In this study agent application and development method will be put forward. By means of investigating its communication and cooperative mechanism, we design the agent-based universal system framework for quality control of agricultural product. According to production and processing characteristics of different agricultural products, corresponding controlling unit and condition are increased to adapt to the special aim.

Yeping Zhu, Shijuan Li, Shengping Liu, E. Yue

### Design of ETL Process on Spatio-temporal Data and Study of Quality Control

In order to use the space-time data mining technology to conduct operation research in WuLiangSuHai Eutrophication, the water quality sensor parameters of heterogeneous data which reflect the characteristics should set up a spatial data warehouse through ETL process, and water quality sensors for quality control of spatial and temporal data plays a vital role in building an effective analytical environment. The paper designs the ETL process from the data and water quality sensors artificial duty and other heterogeneous data sources spatial data, and proposes data quality control strategy based on the incremental frequency rule engine and the space the inverse distance weighting on the Combination. Experiments show that the incremental frequency rule engine could more effectively find the missing sensor data and abnormal, Space inverse distance weighting method can find the missing data and outliers in the errors within the allowed interpolation processing, ETL procedure is effective and feasible.

Buyu Wang, Changyou Li, Xueliang Fu, Meian Li, Dongqing Wang, Huibin Du, Yajuan Xing

### Design of Fuzzy Drip Irrigation Control System Based on ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network

To improve agricultural water resources’ utilization, crop’s automatic, locate, time and appropriate drip irrigation is a good choice. In this paper, an automatic control drip irrigation system based on ZigBee wireless sensor network and fuzzy control would be introduced. System uses CC2430 for wireless sensor network node design, collecting soil moisture, temperature and light intensity information and sending the drip irrigation instructions by the wireless network. System put this three soil factors input fuzzy controller, created fuzzy control rule base and finished crop irrigation time fuzzy control. This paper mainly describes system’s hardware structure, software design and working process. The system with the characteristics of economical, reliable communications and high accuracy control, could improve agricultural drip irrigation water using efficiency and the automation level.

Xinjian Xiang

### Design of Greenhouse Environmental Parameters Prediction System

This paper designs an environmental parameters prediction system based on web for greenhouse. The system is designed using the MVC framework, and includes monitoring module and prediction module. The system can obtain the main environmental parameters from sensors, such as light, temperature, humidity, CO

2

and so on. Based on mass and energy balance principle, the prediction module of the system can predict the parameters of the greenhouse environment each day. The system displays the measured real-time data and the predicted data for the users to manage greenhouse easily. This paper provides a specific method to realize an intelligent management system for greenhouse.

Haokun Zhang, Heru Xue

### Design of Limb for Parallel Mechanism Based on Screw Theory

Based on the reciprocal relationship of twist and wrench in screw theory, the mathematical model for limb of parallel manipulator is established in this paper. According to the motion modes of mobile platform (translation or rotation), we concluded the geometric conditions which the prismatic joint or revolute joint must meet with by analyzing the constraint screw on the platform, which provides the background for development of parallel mechanism.

Zhigang Lai, Lixin Li, Ping’ an Liu

### Design of Non-Full Irrigation Management Information System of Hebei Province Based on GIS

Combined the data of irrigation experiments in Hebei Province, The paper built an integrated system which integrates data input and output, management, analysis and decision. The system is based on GIS (Geographic Information System), DSS (Decision Support System) and crop water production formula. With the establishment of the system, the modern management level of non-full irrigation will be advanced, and the allocation of soil and water resources will be optimized. By analyzing the system demand, the framework of non-full irrigation management information system was proposed, and the main function of the system was designed in the article.

Junliang He, Yanxia Zheng, Shuyuan Zhang

### The Monitoring System of Water Environment Based on Overlay Network Technology

At present, although methods of automatic, periodical manual data collection have been adopted in some areas, there are many problems existing in these methods. This paper proposes a new framework for online monitoring of water environment based on overlay network technology. Especially, we build the multi-level overlay network, which consists of the GPRS networks, mobile networks and internet networks. Following this, a multi-dimensional data cube for water environment is established using the ETL process with the input of complex heterogeneous data collected. Thereby, the framework of data center is established for on-line early warning of water environment and data analysis and processing. This framework has been put into use in Wuliangsuhai for the on-line real-time water monitoring tests. The results show that the overlapping network architecture is effective and on-line analysis and early warning of heterogeneous data is efficient.

Xueliang Fu, Changyou Li, Buyu Wang, Honghui Li, Hailei Ma, Dongnan Zhu

### Design of Rotary Root Stubble Digging Machine Based on Solidworks

In the paper, the necessity of root stubble harvesting and recycling was put forward from the perspective of biomass energy utilization. To accomplish mechanized harvesting on root stubble, a rotary digging machine was designed based on parametric modeling software Solidworks. Firstly, parts were built under entity modeling module, and then assembled to 4 main mechanisms in assembling environment. Secondly, mechanisms including frame, transmission mechanism, suspension mechanism and digging mechanism were assembled together to establish the whole prototype on which interference checking was done. Through manual change of the transmission chain’s installation position, the digging mechanism was able to shift between reverse and forward rotation according to different soil conditions. Finally, relevant 2-D engineering drawings were generated for manufacture. The paper provides methodological reference for the design of similar machines and preparation for further simulation and analysis of the designed models.

Xinglong Liao, Xu Ma, Yanjun Zuo

### Design of the Network Platform Scheme Based on Comprehensive Information Sharing of Zigong City’s Characteristic Agriculture

A network platform scheme targets the Zigong City’s characteristic agriculture is designed, which is according to the actuality of characteristic agriculture, the requirements of Comprehensive Information sharing, and the status of city’s network topology. In the scheme, many solutions are given out, such as the network architecture, distributed data storage, remote diagnosing, expert decision-making, comprehensive information sharing, distance learning & training, information managing, and the single sign-on logging, etc. Finally, the capability and security of the network scheme is analysed and summarized.

Wen Lei, Hong Zhang, Lecai Cai

### Detection of Surface Defects of Fruits Based on Fractal Dimension

As the identification of surface defects is very important in fruit automatic detection, a new method for the detection of fruit surface defects based on fractal dimension is suggested. In this method, fruit image was collected using computer vision system. The fractal dimension of fruit image was calculated by an improved ‘box dimension’. The fruit fractal dimension reflects the three dimensional characteristics of the fruit as well as information of the fruit surface. The detection of surface defects of fruits was performed according to a given threshold of fruit image fractal dimension. The results on Fuji apple fruits showed that the improved ‘box dimension’ method was effective and reliable in the detection of fruit defects for its improvement in the accuracy in the calculation of the fractal dimension.

Yongxiang Sun, Yong Liang, Qiulan Wu

### Detection Technology for Precision Metering Performance of Magnetic-Type Seeder Based on Machine Vision

Magnetic-type seeder is a precision metering device, particularly suitable for small seeds. A visual inspection system for precision performance of magnetic-type seeder was established based on machine vision and image processing technology. By using pre-treatment techniques including image binarization and image filtering, image quality was enhanced effectively. As the gray-scale value of the seeds coated with magnetic powder is very close to the electromagnet, the method of seed feature extraction based on morphological image processing is proposed and performance testing model of precision metering seed is put forward. The results of comparison between machine vision and manual detection showed that the relative error of preciseness was less than 3% and coefficient of variation and standard deviation were less than 5%, which indicated the system is of high accuracy when used in real-time detection.

Deyong Yang, Jianping Hu, Zuqing Xie

### Determination of Cr, Zn, As and Pb in Soil by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry Based on a Partial Least Square Regression Model

Soil samples were collected from five provinces over China, including Beijing, Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, Yunnan, and Jiangsu. Heavy metal Cr, Zn, Pb and As in soils were analyzed by a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). For predicating metal concentration in soils, a partial least square regression model (PLSR) was established. After cross-calibration, the correlation coefficients for validation (R) of value predicted by PLSR model against that measured by AAS and AFS for Cr, Zn, Pb and As was 0.984, 0.929, 0.979, and 0.958, square error of validation (SEP)was 108 mg kg

− 1

, 117 mg kg

− 1

, 116 mg kg

− 1

, and 167 mg kg

− 1

for metals concentration from about 100 to 1500 mg kg

− 1

, and the relative square error of validation(RSEP) was about 14.5 %, 15.6 %, 14.9 %, and 21.0 %. These results indicated XRF based on PLSR model could be applied for determination of Cr, Zn, Pb and As in soil, and would be an effective tool for rapid, quantitative monitoring of metal contamination.

Anxiang Lu, Xiangyang Qin, Jihua Wang, Jiang Sun, Dazhou Zhu, Ligang Pan

### Determination of Thermal Conductivity of Aloe in the Cooling and Thawing Process

In this study, thermal conductivity of aloe was determined in the cooling process from 20°C to -11°C, and in the thawing process from -11°C to 20°C using the tiny thermal probe method. The tiny thermal probe measurement system had the advantages of high accuracy, short test time, low temperature rise and little water removal and was found to give accurate and consistent experimental results. The results showed that the thermal conductivities increased with temperature over the freezing point. The thermal conductivities rapidly increased below the freezing point and it increased with the temperature decreasing. The thermal conductivities decreased with temperature below the thaw point. The thermal conductivities rapidly decreased over the thaw point and it decreased with temperature. The thermal conductivity of aloe in the cooling process was greater than that in the thawing process at the same temperature.

Min Zhang, Huizhong Zhao, Zhiyou Zhong, Jianhua Chen, Zhenhua Che, Jiahua Lu, Le Yang

### Development and Application of Computer Assisted Breeding System in Rabbit Breeding Farm

In order to meet the requirement of national modern rabbit husbandry and breeding management, based on animal breeding theory and the computer application technology, the Modern Rabbit Management Software that can run on Windows9X/Me/NT/2000 /XP was programmed with Visual FoxPro9.0, which could enhance veracity and efficiency of selection & breeding of rabbit. The software could perform the selection of rabbit, the request of breeding and the tasks of production management for different scale rabbit farms. The software show it’s convenience to operation and efficiency to breeding management from the using in six rabbit farms, which had great auto-action to implement production management automatization of rabbit farms and improve the efficiency of breeding.

Xibo Qiao, Hongchao Wu, Suping Sun, Mingyong Li, Zhaopeng Wang, Jingui Dong, Xinzhong Fan

### Development of a Web-Based Information Service Platform for Protected Crop Pests

With the rapid development of internet technology and protected cultivation in China, it is impending to implement a web-based information service system to spread professional agricultural knowledge. In this study, a 3-layer architecture web-based information service platform (ISP) for protected crop pests was developed using HTML, JavaScript and active server page (ASP). The platform included the information management module, the aided diagnosis module, the module of instructions for pest control, the technology BBS module, the system management module and the relative references module. Two logical algorithms, namely, identification key method and fuzzy diagnostic method, were designed for aided diagnosis of protected crop pests. The ISP could provide a technological platform for decision makers, agricultural technique extension workers and farmers. It is favorable to the effective management of protected crop pests.

Chong Huang, Haiguang Wang

### Development of Dairy Cattle Registration and Herd Management System

In order to meet the requirement of dairy cattle breeding and modern cattle farm management, the dairy cattle registration and herd management system was programmed with Visual FoxPro9.0, which can run on Windows9X/Me/NT/2000/XP, to fit the current implemented Canadian dairy cattle DHI recorders and 9-point linear comprehensive evaluation. Based on data collection and analysis of basic herd information and individual information on milk production, reproductive performance, body type score, health status, feeding and progeny performance, the system can be used for herd management, cow evaluation and breed registration, intelligent mating selection and suggestion for improving farm management. The application in several different scale farms shows it can improve the efficiency of farms management and cattle breeding significantly.

Hongchao Wu, Xibo Qiao, Xin Luan, Biao Li, Zhongle Chang, Jinghe Tan, Xinzhong Fan

### Development of the Information Management System for Monitoring Alien Invasive Species

One of the effective methods to prevent the excessive extending of alien invasive species is to really master their epidemic trends and to take appropriate measures to control them. So, the information management system for monitoring alien invasive species based on the integrated technology was developed to provide the information services for the governments, experts and farmers. The main modules of the system are the sub-system of investigation data management and the sub-system of real-time epidemic reporting in new extending area. In the investigation data management sub-system, the dynamic data of the invasive species in invaded areas can be input into the system. And in the sub-system of real-time epidemic reporting in new extending area, the epidemic information can be reported in E-mail, telephone-voice, short message, voice mail, videoconference or other format with users’ telephone, cell phone, personal computer, and personal digital assistant(PDA) based on the integrated technology. The system built the information exchanging bridges among the governments, experts and farmers, letting them to make more effective decisions.

Hui Li, Ningning Ge, Lingwang Gao, Zuorui Shen, Guoliang Zhang, Zhiyuan Zang, Yi Li

### Discriminate of Moldy Chestnut Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Feature Extraction by Fourier Transform

As near infrared spectra has the characters of multi-variables and strong correlations, to solve the problem, Fourier transform (FT) was used to extract feature variables of shelled chestnuts spectra. FT coefficients and the status of 178 chestnuts were selected as inputs and outputs of the back-propagation neural network (BPNN) classifier to build a recognition model. For comparison, principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to compress the variables, which then was introduced as input of the neural network model. The results demonstrate that FT is a powerful feature extraction method and is better than PCA as a feature extraction method when employed together with BPNN. When the preprocessing method of standard normal variate transformation(SNV) was carried out and the first 15-point FT coefficients were used as the input, an optimal network structure of 15-6-1 was obtained, where discriminating rates of qualified chestnut, surface moldy chestnut and internal moldy chestnut in prediction set are 100%, 100% and 92.31%, respectively.

Zhu Zhou, Xiaoyu Li, Peiwu Li, Yun Gao, Jie Liu, Wei Wang

### Discrimination of Ca, Cu, Fe, and Na in Gannan Navel Orange by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has become a powerful tool for the direct analysis of a large variety of materials in order to provide qualitative and/or quantitative information. However, there is a lack of information for LIBS analysis of agricultural products. In this work a LIBS system has been designed for the discrimination of Ca, Cu, Fe, and Na elements in Gannan Navel orange. An experimental setup was established by using a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm and a grating spectrometer with CCD detector. The LIBS spectra of pericarps and fleshes of Gannan Navel orange were collected. The typical spectrum lines of mineral elements Ca,Cu,Fe,and Na were chosen and identified, and the relative content of four elements in pericarps and fleshes were compared and analyzed respectively. The results showed that the relative content of elements Ca, Cu, Fe, and Na in pericarps was more than in fleshes. The LIBS relative intensity of Na, Fe, Ca, Cu elements in pericarps decreased in turn, while the LIBS relative intensity of Na, Cu, Ca, Fe elements in fleshes increased in turn. The experimental results also showed that the relative content of mineral elements in farm product may be analyzed fast by LIBS, and the LIBS technique is a novel means for rapid detection the quality of farm product.

Yao Mingyin, Lin Jinlong, Liu Muhua, Li Qiulian, Lei Zejian

### Dynamic Modeling on Nitrogen Assignment in Tobacco

Many external and internal studies in based on the relevant literature and consult to tobacco experts, based on the experimental research of the years between 2004 and 2005, the basic model of soil-N of distribution was developed after analysising the content of nitrogen in the whole plant of tobacco. The model is designed to simulate dynamically absorption and distribution of nitrogen for tobacco.The diversification of nitrogen in tobacco is exhibited dynamically in the form of curve which originates from the software of Visual Basic 6.0. The result showed that the simulated value of nitrogen content is not remarkably different from the measured value in root, stem and leaf of tobacco in the level of 0.05,and the simulation value of nitrogen content fit the measured value very well in the model. It proveds a concerning modulus of 0.9934 that the 1:1 graphical comparison between simulation value and measured data of nitrogen content in tobacco leaf. The simulated and the measured agreed perfectfull. The model helps to forecast and conduct the management of nitrogen fertilizer in tobacco field.

Peng Zhao, Yuanyuan Shi, Xinming Ma, Shuping Xiong

### Dynamic Study of Farmers’ Information Adoption in China

Agriculture information has played an important part in recently years. The adoption of agriculture information is a dynamic process and many factors have influences on farmers’ information usage motivation and willingness. The main objective of this paper is to analyze and predict the variations of farmers’ decisions in order to make the information more reachable to farmers. In this study, farmers are divided into three categories based on the style of risk preference, which are the risk evaders, risk likers and risk neutrals. To compare the difference of the information adoption rates across varied sections of farmers, we extend our research and the factor of time is added into the model. A sample of 34 farmers takes part in the continuous surveys with the duration of one year. By the simulation and analysis in the light of the information usage intention equation, it is found that farmers’ information demand presents a characteristic of seasonality and keeps stable after a period.

Jingjing Zhang, Lu Liu, Jian Zhang, Jinyou Hu

### Estimation of the Number of Apples in Color Images Recorded in Orchards

This work presents an algorithm for estimating the number of apples on trees using images acquired with a standard color CCD camera. The proposed system is capable of correctly identifying and localizing more than 85% of the apples in the images. To achieve this high detection rate, color and texture analyses are combined together with shape analysis. In the first step, pixels with a high probability of belonging to an "apple object" are detected according to their color and texture. In the second step, "seed areas" consisting of connected sets of pixels with a high probability of belonging to an apple object are detected. Each seed area is then extended to cover the entire visible area of the apple to which it belongs. Finally, each blob is segmented into simple components that can either be combined into circles or are discarded, so that each of the resulting circles corresponds to an apple.

Oded Cohen, Raphael Linker, Amos Naor

### Impact of Hydraulic Conductivity on Solute Transport in Highly Heterogeneous Aquifer

The impact of hydraulic conductivity on solute transport process in a highly heterogeneous aquifer was analyzed using the Monte-Carlo method. The logarithm of the hydraulic conductivity (ln

K

) of aquifer was considered as a non-stationary field with increments being a truncated fractional Lévy motion (fLm) generated using the SRA3DC code. MODFLOW and MT3DMS code were used to solve the flow and solute equations, respectively. Results indicate that larger

C

lead to a more heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity field. As

C

increases, solute plumes show more significant anomaly with sharper leading edge and wider tailing edge. The solute plume extends and its second spatial moments increase as C increases, while the first spatial moments of the solute plume are independent of C values. The longitudinal macrodispersivity is scale-dependent and increases as a power law function of time. Increasing C results in an increase in longitudinal macrodispersivity. It was concluded that the nature of transport process is highly dependent on the heterogeneity of the hydraulic conductivity field.

Kaili Wang, Guanhua Huang

### Effects of Different Physical Characteristics on the Compression Molding Quality of Dried Fish Floss

The compression molding of dried fish floss is of great significance to the development of fish product and the storage and transport of fish. In this issue, the compression ratio, relaxation ratio and shatter resistance are selected as the evaluation indicators, effects of particle size, moisture content, amount, and processing methods (whether cooked or not) on the compression molding quality of dried fish floss are analyzed. The results showed that: 1) the moisture content and amount of dried fish floss have a significant impact on the thickness of molding block, and the lower the moisture content is, the larger the thickness of molding block is, the thickness of molding block decreases with the amount of dried fish floss; 2) processing methods have great effect on the relaxation ratio of molding block, the relaxation ratio of molding block will increase if the dried fish floss is cooked;3) the amount and moisture content affect the shatter resistance of molding block observably, the greater the amount and moisture content of dried fish floss ,the better the shatter resistance of molding block is when the amount and moisture content respectively varies in the range of 3g-5g and 5.13% -23.57%.

Hongmei Xu, Li Zong, Shengfa Yuan

### Electronic Agriculture Resources and Agriculture Industrialization Support Information Service Platform Structure and Implementation

Agriculture resources and agriculture industrialization support information service platform is an important part of Agriculture affair support platform of west part national area of P. R. China, a key projects in the National Science & Technology Pillar Program in the Eleventh Five-year Plan Period. The system is designed as a 3 layers structure. Database support subsystem is the base layer. The middle layer contains GIS model and general reuse models; the upper layer is affair process interface and the entire manager interface. Consider of the country situation of China west, nature village is setup as a information manage unit. Famers in the village act as the registered user. Other government layer monitor the system running and distribute their index independently, system managed in the province layer. Software implement under Microsoft Windows server 2003, running as a Server/Browser style.

Zhao Xiaoming

### Evaluation on the Agricultural Website’s Efficiency Based on DEA Method

An information-driven agriculture is firstly agriculture digitalization, the foundation of which is the construction of agricultural information networks. Based on the methods of website evaluation, an indicator system of efficiency evaluation for agricultural information websites is constructed in this thesis. Then the efficiency of 17 municipal websites in Shandong province are analyzed by the C2R Model in DEA. The result declares that 3 of these websites are related effective and the other 14 are non-effective. By an analysis of projection, this thesis also gives suggestions to improve the performance of the non-effective.

Shangmin Deng, Weili Men

### Examination Method and Implementation for Field Survey Data of Crop Types Based on Multi-resolution Satellite Images

In order to examine the accuracy of large amount of the field survey data with less accurate, an examination method based on multi-resolution satellite images was proposed in this paper. As there were so large amount of data, stratified random sampling was used to obtain effective samples. Firstly, vegetation index derived from low-resolution satellite images at different times has been adopted as analysis factor. And wave curve charts were drawn with the vegetation index. From those charts, the statistics law of wave curves for different crop types was recognized using for crop types’ classification. Secondly, high-resolution satellite images were used to correct the area of crop types to get the final classification results. Finally, the accuracy of the field survey data can be calculated by comparing the original survey data with the final classification results. Moreover, for convenience using, a software has been developed according to the above examination method.

Yang Liu, Mingyi Du, Wenquan Zhu

### Experimental Study of the Parameters of High Pulsed Electrical Field Pretreatment to Fruits and Vegetables in Vacuum Freeze-Drying

High pulsed electrical field as pre-processing step for fruits and vegetables in the vacuum freeze drying could increase drying rate efficiency and preserve nutritional ingredients in maximum. Moreover, high pulsed electrical field pretreatment has been successfully used to solve practical problems in the vacuum freeze drying, such as energy consumption, high production costs and long drying time etc. The drying experiments were conducted with apples which were pretreated by high pulsed electrical field, and the results showed that high pulsed electrical field pretreatment could increase the drying rate obviously. According to the range analysis, the optimal parameters of high pulsed electrical field for drying were obtained as follows: pulse strength was 1000 V∙cm

− 1

, pulse time was 120

μ

s, and pulse number was 30. By using the above optimal conditions, energy consumption per unit of water was reduced by 17.74%, freeze drying time was shortened by 22.50%, and productivity per unit area was increased by 28.50% than results of the untreated group. In addition, it was found that the most important physical factors of high pulsed electrical field which affected the vacuum freeze drying were the pulse duration, pulse strength and pulse number.

Yali Wu, Yuming Guo

### Experimental Study on the Effects of Compression Parameters on Molding Quality of Dried Fish Floss

Taking the molding block thickness, relaxation ratio and shatter resistance as evaluation indicators, the effects of compression parameters, which include mold form, compressive force, pressure-holding time and loading rate, on molding block quality of fish floss were investigated by means of single factor and orthogonal test. The results showed that: 1) the mold form, compressive force, pressure-holding time and loading rate have great impact on the molding block thickness, and the block thickness decreases with the increase of compressive force and pressure-holding time; 2) the loading rate and pressure-holding time affect the relaxation ratio of molding block significantly; 3) the pressure-holding time highly affects the shatter resistance of molding block, and the shatter resistance will be greatly improved after a period of pressure holding;4) the interactions between different parameters have no significant effect on the molding block quality. The results can provide references for the development of compression molding equipment and selection of the technique parameters.

Hongmei Xu, Li Zong, Ling Li, Jing Zhang

### Extraction of Remote Sensing Information of LONGAN Under Support of “3S” Technology in Guangxi Province

This paper presents an automatic approach to planting areas extraction for mixed vegetation and hilly region, more cloud using moderate spatial resolution and high temporal resolution MODIS data around Guangxi province, south of China. The Maximum likelihood was used to extract the information of longan planting and their spatial distribution through the calculation of multiple-phase MODIS-NDVI in Guangxi and ten stylebook training regions of longan of being selected by GPS. Compared with the large and little regions of longan planting in monitoring image and the investigation of on the spot with GPS, the resolute shows that the longan planting information in remote sensing image are true. In this research, multiple-phase MODIS data were received during longan main growing season and preprocessed; NDVI temporal profiles of longan were generated; models for planting areas extraction were developed based on the analysis of temporal NDVI curves; and spatial distribution map of planting areas of longan in Guangxi in 2009 were created. The study suggests that it is possible to extract planting areas automatically from MODIS data for large areas.

Xin Yang, Chaohui Wu, Weiping Lu, Yuhong Li, Shiquan Zhong

### Farmland Irrigation Remote Monitoring System Based on Configuration Software and Multiple Serial Port Communication

The design and implemental plan of the farmland irrigation remote monitoring system with variable frequency and constant pressure based Configuration Software and multiple serial port communication were introduced. The implementation of the communication between inverter, PLC, ADAM and KingView was studied. The data acquisition and monitoring scheme were analyzed. The hardware and software design of system were discussed in detail. It had been successfully applied to farmland irrigation, and the effects of automation and energy conservation had been as good as expected.

Xiangbo Han, Zhanli Liu

### Fast Discrimination of Mature Vinegar Varieties with Visible_NIR Spectroscopy

In order to achieve non-destructive of mature vinegar varieties, a fast discrimination method was put forward based on Visible_near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy. The FieldSpec3 spectrometer was used for collecting 20 sample spectra data of the three kinds of mature vinegar separately. Then principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process the spectral data after pretreatment using average smoothing method and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) method, and principal components(PCs) were selected based on accumulative reliabilities. A total of 60 mature vinegar samples were divided into calibration sets and validation sets randomly, the calibration sets had 45 samples and the validation sets had 15 samples. The stepwise discriminant analysis was trained with five PCs in calibration sets as the inputs,and mature vinegar varieties as the outputs. The stepwise discriminant analysis model was built for discrimination of mature vinegar variety ,and the model contains 15 samples in the validation sets. The result showed that a 100% recognition ration was achieved.The BP-ANN model for discrimination of mature vinegar varieties were built based on PCA and the stepwise discriminant analysis, then the model was tested with the 15 sample in the validation sets. The result showed that a 100% recognition ration was achieved with the threshold predictive error ±0.027. It based on five principal components had a higher prediction accuracy and efficiency more than the BP neural network model. It could be concluded that PCA combined with stepwise discriminant analysis and BP-ANN was an available method for varieties recognition of mature vinegar based on NIR spectroscopy.

Yanru Zhao, Shujuan Zhang, Huamin Zhao, Haihong Zhang, Zhipeng Liu

### Discrimination between Mature Vinegars of Different Geographical Origins by NIRS

The feasibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for discrimination between mature vinegar of different geographical origins (Taiyuan and Qingxu, China) is presented in this research. NIR spectra were collected in transmission mode in the wavelength range of 800–2500 nm. Qualitative analysis models were developed based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Analysis (DA). The prediction performance of calibration models in different wavelength range was also investigated. The best models gave a 96.3% classification of mature vinegars of the two geographical origins in the range of 800–2500 nm. The results demonstrated that NIRS technique could be used as a rapid method for classification of geographical origin of mature vinegars.

Huishan Lu, Zhengguang An, Huanyu Jiang, Yibin Ying

### Prediction of Marked Age of Mature Vinegar Based on Fourier Transform Near Infrared Spectroscopy

To evaluate the applicability of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for discrimination between mature vinegar with different marked age (1 year, 3 years, and 5 years), transmission spectra were collected in the spectral range from 800 nm to 2500 nm in 1, 2, and 5 mm optical path-length rectangular quartz cuvettes with air as reference at room temperature. Discriminant models were developed based on discriminant analysis (DA) together with raw, first and second derivative spectra. The calibration result for raw spectra was better than that for first and second derivative spectra. The percentage of samples correctly classified for raw were 100% for 1 year old, 100% for 3 years old and 97.5% for 5 years old, respectively. In validation analysis, for 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years old sample groups, the percentage of samples correctly classified was 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The results demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy could be used as a rapid and reliable method for classification of mature vinegar with different marked age.

Zhengguang An, Huishan Lu, Huanyu Jiang, Yibin Ying

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