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Über dieses Buch

The two volumes IFIP AICT 478 and 479 constitute the refereed post-conference proceedings of the 9th IFIP WG 5.14 International Conference on Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture, CCTA 2015, held in Beijing, China, in September 2015. The 122 revised papers included in this volume were carefully selected from 237 submissions. They cover a wide range of interesting theories and applications of information technology in agriculture, including intelligent sensing, monitoring and automatic control technology; key technology and models of the Internet of things; intelligent technology for agricultural equipment; computer vision; computer graphics and virtual reality; computer simulation, optimization and modeling; cloud computing and agricultural applications; agricultural big data; decision support systems and expert systems; 3s technology and precision agriculture; quality and safety of agricultural products; detection and tracing technology; and agricultural electronic commerce technology.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Effects of Waterlogging and Shading at Jointing and Grain-Filling Stages on Yield Components of Winter Wheat

Waterlogging and shading result from continuous rain are the main meteorological disasters for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. In order to evaluate the effects of waterlogging and shading on yield components of winter wheat (both independent and combined), pot experiments were conducted using two representative cultivars in local, Ningmai 13 and Yangmai 13. In total, 4 treatments, including CK (control), WA (waterlogging alone), SA (shading alone) and WS (both waterlogging and shading) were established with three duration (5, 10 and 15 d, respectively) at jointing and grain-filling stages. Results showed that, in the case of non-stressed environment, Yangmai 13 got a better production compared with Ningmai 13 (grain yield per plant was 14.25 g and 15.97 g for Ningmai 13 and Yangmai 13, respectively). However, compared with Yangmai 13, Ningmai 13 got a better yield under stresses at jointing stage, while a similar yield was observed when stresses are at grain-filling stage. By comparing wheat yield and its components, the negative effects of the stresses showed a tendency that WA > WS > SA at jointing stage, whereas WS > WA > SA at grain-filling stage. The result demonstrated that shading had a compensative effect on waterlogging at jointing stage while an addictive effect at grain-filling stage. Reduction of wheat production caused by continuous rain depended on the growth stages. Effect of growth stage on grain yield should be considered when waterlogging and shading packages of wheat growth model were established.

Yang Liu, Chunlin Shi, Shouli Xuan, Xiufang Wei, Yongle Shi, Zongqiang Luo

The Measurement of Fish Size by Machine Vision - A Review

Aquatic products are becoming increasingly popular because of their high nutritional value. Size information is an important parameter that can be used to measure the growth, weight, gender, grading and even species identification of fish. However, size information is a highly tedious and inefficient measure when conducted manually through traditional methods. Machine vision is a non-destructive, economic, rapid and efficient tool; hence, it is suitable to measure fish size. This review introduced methods and results for fish size measurement through machine vision. The paper is organised according to the measurement of body dimensionality: length measurement and area measurement. Simultaneously, the advantages, disadvantages and future trends of the system are discussed. With development in those areas, the size measurement by machine vision technology will become more effective. Machine vision system brings high accuracy and high efficiency and is easier than manual work. The methods reported can help researchers and farmers bring benefits for aquaculture.

Mingming Hao, Helong Yu, Daoliang Li

Study on Growth Regularity of Bacillus Cereus Based on FTIR

Combing the one-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technology with two order derivative spectrum technology, the growth change rule of bacillus cereus, the common food borne pathogenic bacteria, are analyzed without destruction, It is found that capsule, spore and other structures of bacillus cereus can be identified, based on the two order derivative spectra characteristic absorption peak. Observing shows the symmetric & anti symmetric carboxyl group stretching vibration absorption peaks near 1604.48 cm−1 and 1396.21 cm−1 gradually weaken from lag phase to the stable phase. With protein amide absorption peak near 1654.63 cm−1 tending to be stable in the three stages, the structural changes of cell capsule can be acknowledged. The DPA absorption peak near 1617.98 cm−1, 1384.64 cm−1, and 1560.13 cm−1 indicates the presence of bacillus, changing in three stages from lag phase to stable phase. Experiments show that FTIR can distinguish cells’ material structure, which lays a theoretical foundation for the related devices of fast detection for bacillus cereus.

Yang Liu, Ruokui Chang, Yong Wei, Yuanhong Wang, Zizhu Zhao

Soybean Extraction of Brazil Typical Regions Based on Landsat8 Images

Considering the spatial distribution and harvest times of Brazil soybean, using Landsat8 data, this paper chose 3 study area, determine the optimum classification images by visually comparison of multi-period images, extract soybean by ISODATA unsupervised classification method and visual correction. The conclusion is that Landsat8 path/row of 225/75 (between Study area3 and Study area2) are soybean transition area of harvest 1 time in a year and harvest 2 times in a year; Classification result can be used for sampling survey of national scale and the full coverage survey of county scale. Soybean classification method can be used to improve the method of low resolution image and to guide other medium resolution image.

Kejian Shen, Xue Han, Haijun Wang, Weijie Jiao

Study on Landscape Sensitivity and Diversity Analysis in Yucheng City

Landsat ETM image located in Yucheng city in 2002 was interpreted by RS image extraction technology and classification method. Moreover, landscape ecology theories were applied as well as ArcGIS and Fragstats4 to choose the reasonable landscape indices including Contagion Index (CONTAG), Patch Density (PD), Landscape Shape Index (LSI), Perimeter Area Fractal Dimension (PAFRAC), Shannon’s Diversity Index (SHDI), Shannon’s Evenness Index (SHEI). The study results showed that correlation between the landscape index was significant at the 0.01 confidence level, the relationship rule was revealed between ecological index based on statistics model. The typical scale effect was selected, including 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, 20 m, 25 m, 30 m, 40 m, 50 m, 60 m, 70 m, 80 m, 90 m, 100 m, 110 m, 120 m, 150 m, 180 m and 210 m. The series results were clarified by PD, LSI, PAFRAC, CONTAG, SHDI and SHEI in response to the different scales, or 18 different scales. The detailed results showed that the decreasing trend was presented from 5 m scale to 210 m scale for each index. Furthermore, we also analyzed the scale effects for different landscape index. Finally, based on image by the change of LSI, PAFRAC, SHAPE-MN and AI on 30 m pixel scale, we emphatically analyzed the LSI, PAFRAC, SHAPE-MN, AI of 12 landscapes. Further, according to the new classification, for the 12 landscapes in Yucheng city, they are Arable-land, Grassland, Traffic and Transmission Land Use, Residential land, Public management and service land, Commercial service land, Garden plot land, Mine and storage land, Woodland, Water and water facility land, Special land and other land we explored and explained the ecological significance of different landscapes in the case city, Especially, landscape sensitivity, fragmentation and complexity of landscape spatial pattern and diversity.

Xuexia Yuan, Yujian Yang, Yong Zhang

Application and Implementation of Private Cloud in Agriculture Sensory Data Platform

With the explosive development of the Internet of things technology in recent years, the Internet of things technology is also used more and more widely in modern agricultural production. For mass sensor data was produced by the Internet of things in agricultural production, While big data bring many benefits and unprecedented challenges to users. The Internet of things in agriculture production produces some complexity problem which are mass sensor data’s Scale, sensor data’s heterogeneity and mass sensor data’s operation, distribution of sensor, high concurrency of data is written etc. In the presence of these problems, this paper put forward a kind solution of agricultural private cloud sensor data Platform, which is named “Sensor PrivateClouds Platform” (SPCP). The Private cloud platform including following modules, All of these are distributed sensor data caching module based on cluster of memercached and Nginx load (SensorCache); heterogeneous data adapter of sensor module (SensorAdpter), distributed computing storage module based on hadoop’ HDFS (SensorStorage), efficient query module of sensor data warehouse based on the Hive (SensorStore), management module of sensor metadata (SensorManager), parallel sensor data analysis module (SensorNum) based on the map-reduce of the hadoop, cloud service of sensor data module (SensorPublish) based on webservice. The experimental results show that SPCP have had the abilities which are mass sensor data storage, cleaning of heterogeneous sensor data, real-time query and processing of mass sensor data. These abilities provides a feasible solution for the heterogeneous data storage and mass sensor data’s query in the Internet of things of agriculture production.

Shuwen Jiang, Tian’en Chen, Jing Dong

Analysis of Differences in Wheat Infected with Powdery Mildew Based on Fluorescence Imaging System

This study aimed to investigate the variation characteristics of rapid light-response curves of wheat leaves infected with powdery mildew. According to the heterogeneity between two selection patterns of area of interest (AOI), determination of fluorescence induction parameters and fitting of rapid light-response curves were conducted based on fluorescence imaging system in wheat powdery mildew experimental plots. The results showed that relative electron transport rate rETR was reduced with the increase of disease severity level; rETR of the rectangle selection pattern was relatively low. Specifically, the reduction in rETR is mainly influenced by the decrease of absorption coefficient Abs. Among fitting parameters of rapid light-response curves, the potential and the maximum relative electron transport rate, initial slope, light suppression parameter and semi-saturation intensity were reduced with the increase of disease severity level; the heterogeneity of fitting parameters between two selection patterns reflected the “critical state” of leaf fluorescence characteristics. Infected leaves at severe level (80 %) had relatively low light-harvesting capacity and tolerance to strong light, which easily caused light inhibition. According to the lateral heterogeneity analysis of photosynthesis of wheat leaves infected with powdery mildew, there was relatively high heterogeneity between fluorescence parameters of wheat infected leaves, especially in leaves with lesions on the surface.

Shizhou Du, Qinhong Liao, Chengfu Cao, Yuqiang Qiao, Wei Li, Xiangqian Zhang, Huan Chen, Zhu Zhao

Research on Video Image Recognition Technology of Maize Disease Based on the Fusion of Genetic Algorithm and Simulink Platform

In order to improve the segmentation accuracy of maize disease leaves with genetic algorithms and reduce segmentation time, this paper proposed a video image recognition technology of maize disease based on the fusion of genetic algorithm and Simulink simulation platform. The technology firstly uses Simulink simulation platform to process the real-time video data captured, including sharpening, segmenting and smoothing, to improve image clarity and quality; Secondly, it uses genetic algorithm to generate optimization model to determine the optimal image of maize diseases; Finally, it fuses genetic algorithms and Simulink platform to analyze and recognize these optimal images. The study results of maize big-spot disease images show that image grey scale values changes after the process of the fused optimal algorithm so that the characteristics of maize diseases are high lightened and the recognition rate of maize disease video image is improved remarkable. The algorithm provides a valid basis for the identification and the diagnosis and treatment of maize disease.

Liying Cao, Ying Meng, Jian Lu, Guifen Chen

The Design and Implementation of Online Identification of CAPTCHA Based on the Knowledge Base

The Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) identification is designed to distinguish between computers and humans and it prevents the web application programs from malicious attacks, so it has been applied widely. However, great challenges must be faced with the development of CAPTCHA identification. In order to improve the safety of the professional system, the CAPTCHA online identification based on the knowledge base, which has high security and bases on semantic questions and the professionalization of professional system, is put forward combining with the recessive CAPTCHA. The specific implementation course of the new online identification method is worked out according to the example of animal identification. The application of the verification code is suitable for people who have the corresponding professional knowledge. Because the computer has great difficulty to answer semantic information questions, which are also professional issues, so the new online identification method based on the verification of knowledge has very high security.

Yu’e Song, Chengguo Wang, Ling Zhu, Xiaofeng Chen, Qiyu Zhang

Research and Application of Monitoring and Simulating System of Soil Moisture Based on Three-Dimensional GIS

Taking maize precise assignments section as the research object, using arcgis10.2 as the visual drive tool, comprehensive application of 3D modeling, database and GIS technology, this paper proposed a method of rapid establishment of agricultural areas of 3D virtual scene, developed soil moisture monitoring 3D simulation system based on GIS. The system had the 3D model search module, the dynamic scene simulation module, the dynamic monitoring and spatial information management function module and so on. Using Jilin Province Nong’an County town of Helong corn precision operation as an example, the system were preliminary application, the application results showed that the system can realize the effective management of agriculture areas, soil moisture spatial information and virtual display. According to the 3D model of soil moisture dynamic monitoring module, for the analysis and application of the regional soil moisture laid a solid foundation, and provided effective digital management platform for precision agriculture technique.

Guifen Chen, Jian Lu, Ying Meng, Liying Cao, Li Ma

Colorimetric Detection of Mercury in Aqueous Media Based on Reaction with Dithizone

This study investigates the colorimetric reaction between dithizone and mercury in aqueous media which generate the orange Hg-dithizone complexes extracted by chloroform. Then combining with spectral analysis, the UV-vis spectral data of the complexes are obtained to build a forecast model. By means of the multiple linear regression model with SG smoothing method, RPD (Residual Predictive Deviation) of 3.2461 is reached with the detection limit of 0.1129 ug/L. This colorimetric method was found to be rapid, simple and sensitive for the detection of mercury in aqueous medium.

Zihan Wu, Ming Sun, Ling Zou

Study on the Prediction Model Based on a Portable Soil TN Detector

As the development of precision agriculture, it is necessary to obtain soil total nitrogen (TN) content and other element parameters. With the NIRS technology, a soil detector for soil total nitrogen content was developed. It included two part: optical part and control part. The detector took each lamp-house connected with the incidence of Y type optical fiber in turn by a manual rotation, The different wavelength lamp-house signal was transferred to the surface of soil by the input fibre. The reflected signal would be converted by photoelectric sensor, the optical signal was converted to electrical signal. After the power circuit, amplier circuit, and AD convert circuit, the electrical signal was processed by MCU. Finally, the result of soil total nitrogen content could be displayed on LCD. With the forty-eight apple orchard soil samples of Beijing surburb, the predicted models were established by seven different methods (MLR, PLSR, SVM, BPNN, GA + BPNN, GA + SVM and PSO + SVM). The model established by genetic algorithm (GA) optimizing BP neural network was optimal, with RC of 0.94, RV of 0.78, RMSEC and RMSEP of 0.037 and 0.067. The results showed that the soil total nitrogen content detector had a stable performance. The established model had perfect accuracy and strong robustness.

Xiaofei An, Guangwei Wu, Jianjun Dong, Jianhua Guo, Zhijun Meng

A Research on the Task Expression in Pomology Information Retrieval

By analyzing the progresses of pomology information retrieval which are driven by tasks, the author put forward an idea of expressing the tasks in pomology information retrieval. An interview test was used to validate the idea and based on analyzing the data of the test, a method of expressing the tasks in pomology information retrieval, in which the difference of searchers’ acknowledgement is considered, was put forward.

Dingfeng Wu, Jian Wang, Guomin Zhou, Hua Zhao

Prediction of the Natural Environmental High Temperature Influences on Mid-Season Rice Seed Setting Rate in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley

The impact of high temperature on rice yield has been evaluated by using simulation models or conducting experiments with controlled high temperature and sowing times. In this paper, observed daily maximum temperature data at 6 representative stations in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley (MLYRV) from 1984 to 2013 was analyzed to examine the daily relationship between rice seed setting rate (RSSR) and the maximum temperature by using data from the mid-season late-maturing indica rice variety regional experiments conducted in field conditions at the same representative stations from 2004 to 2011 (totally using 615 samples and 69 rice varieties). The results indicated that RSSR appears to be sensitive to high temperature from 36 days before full heading to 4 days before full heading (with the significance of the negative correlation between RSSR and maximum temperature in this period above 99 % confidence level) and the most sensitive at about 14 days before full heading (near the meiosis phase), indicating that for the mid-season late-maturing indica rice variety in the MLYRV, more attention should be paid to the high temperature damage at the meiosis stage. According to the extracted high temperature sensitive period, statistical forecast models were established to predict the regional rice high temperature damage in the MLYRV by using atmospheric circulation indices in preceding 12 months with a correlation coefficient between the predicted and observed heat stress index of 0.95 and a normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of 28.4 %. In addition, a high temperature-induced rice sterility simulation model was also used to quantitatively forecast the meiosis phase high temperature influence on rice at the site scale. The NRMSE of the simulated and forecasted relative seed setting rate was 4.74 % and 2.84 %, respectively. In conclusion, the presented prediction models were useful to improve the rice high temperature damage forecast and were expected to be helpful to rice high temperature disaster prevention and reduction in the MLYRV.

Shouli Xuan, Chunlin Shi, Yang Liu, Yanhua Zhao, Wenyu Zhang, Hongxin Cao, Changying Xue

Study on the Mutton Freshness Using Multivariate Analysis Based on Texture Characteristics

Aiming at discrimination and prediction of mutton freshness by texture profile, the texture parameters of mutton stored at 1°C, 4°C and Room temperature were analyzed. The analysis methods of Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) and Principal component analysis (PCA) were used to analyze texture parameters of mutton. The results of PCA showed that mutton sample stored at three temperatures clustered into groups according to their freshness, changing along the direction of PC1. Better classification results were found by CDA. The changing trends of mutton freshness were described by Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Partial Least Square analysis (PLS), and effective predictive models were found for indices of days stored, TVB-N and pH using texture parameters. With optimum analysis methods, texture parameters could classify and predict freshness of mutton stored at three temperatures. Texture profiles were proved to be a fast and objective tool for the prediction of mutton freshness.

Xiaojing Tian, Jun Wang, Jutian Yang, Shien Chen, Zhongren Ma

Research and Application on Protected Vegetables Early Warning and Control of Mobile Client System

Experimental vegetable production is greatly influenced by many environmental factors. There is urgent need to supervise its air temperature and humidity, soil temperature and humidity in the facilities information such as real-time monitoring, and timely early warning and control, in case of irreparable damage. This paper adopts the IOT technology to design and develop mobile client system which is used to make warnings and protect vegetables in order to realize real-time monitoring in the process of vegetable production in the aspects of timely warning of environmental information and control.

Guogang Zhao, Haiye Yu, Lianjun Yu, Guowei Wang, Yuanyuan Sui, Lei Zhang, Linlin Wang, Jiao Yang

The Study of Winter Wheat Biomass Estimation Model Based on Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

Biomass plays an important role in crop growth and yield formation. The study of biomass has been expanded to remote sensing sphere, which provides more ways to the obtainment of crop biomass. To carry out the study of winter wheat biomass estimation model, the field experiments were conducted at Rougu test area and Wugong test area, Shanxi Province in the cropping season 2013–2014. The biomass estimation model was based on the Time-Integrated Value of NDVI (TINDVI) and Leaf Water Content Index (LWCI), which was used to predict the winter wheat biomass. And the model was validated with the ground measured biomass. The results showed that the determination coefficient (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) between the measured and the estimated biomass were 0.7949 and 2.689 t/ha, respectively. The estimated biomass was exactly similar to the field measured biomass, therefore this model had a good application prospect.

Xiaowei Teng, Yansheng Dong, Lumin Meng

Design and Implementation of TD-LTE-Based Real-Time Monitoring System for Greenhouse Environment Temperature

With the characteristics of fast transferring speed and wide coverage of TD-LTE network, the research designs and implements the TD-LTE-based Real-time Monitoring System for Greenhouse Environment Temperature. The TD-LTE network, which is connected with the data server of the Internet, can transmit the real-time temperature data that sensor collects to the data server. The B/S mode-based data server can realize data query, analysis and other functions. This monitoring system solves the problems that previous monitoring systems are slow and can not be transmitted at a distance, and it can also meet the need of the real-time data acquisition that precision agriculture needs.

Xin Zhao, Yang Jiao, Lianjun Yu, Chuanhong Zhang

Research and Design of LVS Cluster Technology in Agricultural Environment Information Acquisition System

With the development of agricultural informatization, agricultural environment information acquisition platform needs to collect more and more data. And with the increase of the number of data acquisition terminal, a large number of concurrent data traffic is generated on the server. This will lead to the phenomenon of excessive load which directly affects the validity of the data. Therefore, based on LVS technology, this paper designed a solution for the agricultural environment information acquisition platform. Through the experiment we know that the LVS technology can guarantee the validity of the data acquisition, which lays the foundation for the development of precision agriculture.

Guogang Zhao, Haiye Yu, Lianjun Yu, Guowei Wang, Yuanyuan Sui, Lei Zhang

Information Acquisition for Farmland Soil Carbon Sink Impact Factors Based on ZigBee Wireless Network

As the main part of terrestrial ecosystem, farmland ecological system’s estimation of carbon sink not only can help to understand the soil organic carbon content in farmland and increase the crop yield, but also can have great significance to the research on farmland ecosystem’s influence to global climate warming. Through analyzing soil organic carbon estimation model of carbon sink factors, this article provides a method using multi sensors technology to acquire impact factors of soil carbon sink estimation and upload the results to the host computers by ZigBee+GPRS technology to realize the estimation of regional soil organic carbon in farmland. This research sets its research area in wheat experimental field in Yanzhou, Shandong Province, and by laying sensor nodes in the experimental field to acquire impact factors, the research aims to build reliable transmission of acquired factors by the ZigBee wireless sensor network, combined with GPRS technology. The result shows that this method can realize the reliable transmission of impact factors of the soil carbon sink in farmland and is of great significance to improve the accuracy of the estimation of soil carbon sink.

Bingbing Wang, Dekun Zhai, Lijuan Sun, Dandan Yang, Zhihong Liu, Qiulan Wu

Penetration Depth of Near-Infrared Light in Small, Thin-Skin Watermelon

Non-destructive detection of internal quality in watermelon has very important significance for improving watermelon’s production efficiency. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is one of the most popular non-destructive detection methods. However, it is challenging to collect spectra exactly due to the multiple scattering and absorbing by the skin and internal tissues. In order to obtain the interactions between light and watermelon tissues, the transportation feature of NIR light in small, thin-skin watermelon was studied in the range of 750–900 nm. For this purpose, the diffused transmission spectra were collected with removing the sample slices along the perpendicular bisector of the source-detector line. Based on the spectra in effective wavelength band, the penetration depth curves were fitted by least square method, and the results of different detecting positions (equator and top) were compared. It was shown that, light penetration depth on the equator was 8.3–9.5 mm, 8.7–17.8 mm and 18.9–38.5 mm with source-detector distance of 10 mm, 20 mm and 30 mm, respectively. The penetration depth on the top was less than the equator. And the penetration depth increased with source-detector distance increasing. With deeper penetration depth, more information about internal quality was carried by the diffused transmission spectra. However, the intensity of spectra was weaker. According to these results, a reasonable source-detector distance could be designed for collecting effective information about internal quality. This study is of potential significance for optimizing the handheld probe geometry for large fruit, and offers theoretical bases for non-destructive detection.

Man Qian, Qingyan Wang, Liping Chen, Wenqian Huang, Shuxiang Fan, Baohua Zhang

Design and Implementation of an Automatic Grading System of Diced Potatoes Based on Machine Vision

Potato is one of the most important crops in the world. In recent years, potato and its processed products have gradually become important trade goods. As an important semi-manufactured product, diced potatoes need to be graded according to their three-dimensional (3D) size and shape before trading. 3D information inspection manually is a time-consuming and labor intensive work. A novel automatic grading system based on computer vision and near-infrared linear-array structured lighting was proposed in this paper. Two-dimensional size and shape information were extracted from RGB images, and height information was measured in NIR images combined with structured lighting. Then, a pair of pseudo-color and gray level height map images fusing with 3D size and shape information was constructed. Finally, diced potatoes were classified into either regular or irregular class according to their 3D information and criteria required by the industry. The grading system and proposed algorithm were testified by a total of 400 diced potatoes with different size and shapes. The test results showed that the detection error was in the range of about 1 mm, and the classification accuracy was 98 %. The results indicated that the system and algorithm was efficient and suitable for the 3D characteristic inspection of diced potatoes.

Chaopeng Wang, Wenqian Huang, Baohua Zhang, Jingjing Yang, Man Qian, Shuxiang Fan, Liping Chen

A Soil Water Simulation Model for Wheat Field with Temporary Ditches

Accurate soil water content simulation is the basis of disaster early-warning and evaluation about waterlogging and drought. In order to more accurately simulation the water movement in wheat field with temporary field ditches, a two-dimension soil water simulation model was developed in this study. The model included the water movement vertically(up and down) and horizontally(ribbing and ditch), and traditional runoff estimation was replaced by calculating the drainage water from ditches. The model could simulate the comprehensive effect of depth of plow layer, initial soil water content, precipitation intensity and infiltration rate of plow pan layer on runoff. The application of the model in Xinhua city, China showed good agreement between observation with simulation values.

Chunlin Shi, Yang Liu, Shouli Xuan, Zhiqing Jin

The Synchronized Updating Technology Research of Spatio-temporal Supervision Data Model About Organizing of Construction Landuse Data in Distributed Environment

As China advances toward urbanization, the relation between supply and demand of land use is growing acutely. Effective supervision of various land use has become necessary to achieve reasonable and lawful use of land. The change of land use from farmland or unused land to construction land use in the process of urbanization usually undergoes the following stages: approval, expropriation, provision, application, and supplement. The change to construction land use similarly undergoes this process, and then the outcome before and after the change is compared to determine potential land use problems. The present process-oriented spatio-temporal data model for organization and supervision data management records the supervised spatio-temporal variation process and state by using new-added auxiliary tables. This model can efficiently organize and demonstrate multiple relationships among landuse stages and the evolution process in the life cycle of spatial entities. To achieve effective supervision from the upper to the lower in the three-level “province-city-county” distributed environment and to detect potential land use problems early, data from different places are collected and synthesized for analysis. To ensure that the database is up-to-date, real-time synchronization of spatio-temporal supervision data should be studied and the integrity of the spatio-temporal data model should be maintained. Therefore, this study introduces an updating mechanism based on the trigger technology for data synchronization. When importing basic data from distributed databases into the supervision database, simultaneous updating in related auxiliary tables is performed along with changes in the basic tables. That is, records are added automatically into auxiliary tables that reflect the spatio-temporal change of the process and state when basic data are imported. This method not only achieves and maintains consistency in the database, but also ensures integrity and currency in the auxiliary tables. Change information can be expressed duly in all supervision stages, and highly efficient supervision of construction landuse is guaranteed.

Xiaolan Li, Bingbo Gao, Yuchun Pan, Yanbing Zhou, Xingyao Hao

Comparison of Four Types of Raman Spectroscopy for Noninvasive Determination of Carotenoids in Agricultural Products

Carotenoids are one class of naturally-occurring pigments with antioxidant properties. They can absorb light energy for use in photosynthesis for plants, and act as antioxidants to reduce risk of cancer for human. Carotenoids are confirmed to exist in agricultural products as the main source for human. Raman spectroscopy is a new technique for determination of carotenoids in agricultural products as it is both noninvasive and rapid. Four types of Raman spectroscopy could be used for contact measurement of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables: (1) Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy; (2) Resonance Raman spectroscopy; (3) Raman microspectroscopy; (4) Spatially Offset Raman spectroscopy. The experimental setups, advantages and applications of the above-mentioned Raman spectroscopies are discussed.

Chen Liu, Qingyan Wang, Wenqian Huang, Liping Chen, Baohua Zhang, Shuxiang Fan

The Molecular Detection of Corynespora Cassiicola on Cucumber by PCR Assay Using DNAman Software and NCBI

Objective: to establish a quick molecular detection method in Beijing, which can prevent the occurrence of cucumber target spot disease from the source. Methods and results: The DNA band of Corynespora cassiicola had been obtained by PCR and sequenced. Using DNAman software and NCBI database to analyze the sequence, the results showed that the obtained DNA was that of Corynespora cassiicola on Cucumber. A specific primers CCC1/CCC2 were obtained by DNAman software and NCBI database. It was also proved to can be used to distinguish Corynespora cassiicola from other pathogenic fungi using DNAman software and NCBI database.

Weiqing Wang

Simulation of Winter Wheat Phenology in Beijing Area with DSSAT-CERES Model

The Decision Support for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) model was a worldwide crop model, and crop accurate simulation of phenology was the premise to realize other functional simulations. The objective of this study was to attempt to calibrate the parameters of wheat phenology coefficients, including cultivar and ecotype coefficients, and develop the winter wheat phenology coefficients of Beijing area. To achieve this goal, field surveys of 7 years in wheat growing seasons in Beijing were carried out during 2005–2012. The trail-and-error method and GLUE method were used to calibrate the phenology parameters with 4 growing seasons of 05/06, 06/07, 07/08 and 08/09. Three growing seasons, 09/10, 10/11, and 11/12 were used for validation, and the results showed good agreements between observed date and predicted date. The RMSE of validation data for TS, BT, HD, AN, and MA were 1.63 d, 2.45 d, 3.16 d, 1.83 d, 3.56 d, respectively. Therefore, the calibrated parameters could be used to monitor winter wheat phenology, and could be used for other research as the basis phenology parameters of Beijing area.

Haikuan Feng, Zhenhai Li, Peng He, Xiuliang Jin, Guijun Yang, Haiyang Yu, Fuqin Yang

Design of Monitoring System for Aquaculture Environment

In order to strengthen aquaculture monitoring and management, real-time to improve the breeding environment, improve farm income reduce labor intensity, proposed aquaculture environmental monitoring system for wireless networks. The system consists of sensor nodes, base stations, the main controller, routing, consisting of PC and mobile phone users. Through field testing, the system can complete the environment and the waste discharge, and display and comparison of real time data. At the same time, through the replacement of different sensors applied to different environments.

Hua Liu, Liangbing Sa, Yong Wei, Wuji Huang, Binjie Shi

Research on the Agricultural Skills Training Based on the Motion-Sensing Technology of the Leap Motion

With the increasing development of virtual reality technology, the motion-sensing technology used in agricultural skills training more widely, it plays a great role in promoting the agricultural production, scientific research and teaching. To break the space-time constraints, in order to train the farmers to know well the high precision agricultural skills, and increase the user’s immersive and interactive, we propose a training method based on motion-sensing technology. This article in view of the grape vines binding technology, puts forward a kind of agricultural skills training methods based on the leap motion technology. Through maya bone modeling technology to realize 3-D simulation of grape vines, the system completes the interactive simulation of grape vines binding based on leap motion technology. The experimental results show that the system can be a very good simulation of the grape vines binding process. System is stable, reliable and strong commonality, it can be used for simulating different plants vine binding, and the system innovative interactive, it can increases the user experience.

Peng-fei Zhao, Tian-en Chen, Wei Wang, Fang-yi Chen

Study of Spatio-temporal Variation of Soil Nutrients in Paddy Rice Planting Farm

It is significant to analyze the spatial and temporal variation of soil nutrients for precision agriculture especially in large-scale farms. For the data size of testing results is growing every time after sampling mostly by the frequency of once a year or several months, in order to discover the variation trends of specific nutrient which would be instructive for the fertilization in the future. In this study, theories of GIS and geostatistics were used to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of soil nutrients in paddy rice fields in the Erdaohe farm of Heilongjiang Province, China, which located in the north of Daxing’an Mountains, has an area of nearly 36.1 million hectares for paddy rice planting. The soil samples, collected from 2009 to 2013 once a year, were sampled based on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields, counting as 651 in 2009, 1488 in 2010, 954 in 2011, 483 in 2012, and 471 in 2013. These samples were analyzed for pH, soil organic matter (SOM), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK). In this study, we calculated and compared the spatial and temporal variation in whole farm area, using methods of exploratory statistical and geostatistical analysis. Conclusion acquired is that from 2009 to 2013, the spatio-temporal variations decreased in soil pH, AN, AP, AK, and increased in SOM. Moreover, according to the comparison of interpolation results, these five soil properties in Erdaohe farm remained not very stable in the past five years, which could implicate important significance in future research for consideration of correlation amongst fertilization, rice yield and other factors especially in large-scale farms.

Cong Wang, Tianen Chen, Jing Dong, Shuwen Jiang, Chao Li

Path Planning Methods for Auto-Guided Rice-Transplanters

Paddy field operation asks for robotization due to labor shortage. In this paper, a set of path planning methods were developed and tested on a guidance for transplanters. Path planning of fieldbody and headland were generated and experimented for 3 years. The path outside field consist of farm lanes connecting garage to paddy field, and a ARC-NODE structure method was proposed. Method of optimal coverage path planning should be researched in near future.

Fangming Zhang, Changhuai Lv, Jie Yang, Caiyu Zhang, Guisen Li, Licheng Fu

Research of the Early Warning Model of Grape Disease and Insect Based on Rough Neural Network

The grape is one of the four fruits in the world and its cultivation area and production has been ranked first in the world. The area is growing in our country after the reform and opening up which is significant for the rural economic development and farmers’ income. However, the growing of grape diseases and insect pests has become one of the important problems in the development of grape planting industry. In the paper, intensive and overall surveys and studies of the research progress of the early warning model of the disease and insect are made firstly and then the comparison and analysis of rough set and artificial neural network are presented. Finally, we collected a large amount of data from grape planting base of the grape and wine engineering technology research and development center in Beijing. Based on the real-time sensing data technologies of Internet of things and the intelligent grape early warning model based on rough neural network established in the paper, we did a number of experiments and its validity was verified. The model can provide beneficial references for the research of other crops diseases and insect pests.

Dengwei Wang, Tian’en Chen, Chi Zhang, Li Gao, Li Jiang

Evaluation Model of Tea Industry Information Service Quality

According to characteristics of tea industry information service, this paper have built service quality evaluation index system for tea industry information service quality, R-cluster analysis and multiple regression have been comprehensively used to contribute evaluation model with a high practice and credibility. Proved by the experiment, the evaluation model of information service quality has a good precision, which has guidance significance to a certain extent to enhance the information service quality of tea industry information website.

Xiaohui Shi, Tian’en Chen

Recognition and Localization Method of Overlapping Apples for Apple Harvesting Robot

In order to meet the speed requirements of harvesting robot, a method of tracking and recognition of overlapping apples is proposed in this paper. First of all, the first image should be segmented and denoised, the center and the radius is determined, the template which is used for matching is extracted according to the center and radius. Then, determine the center of ten images which are taken continuously, fit motion path of the robot according to the center of each image and predict subsequent motion path. The next processing area is determined according to the radius and predicted path. Finally, overlapping apples are identified by fast normalized cross correlation match method. Experiments prove that the new method can locate the center and radius of overlapping apples correctly. Besides, matching time is reduced by 48.1 % compared with the original one.

Tian Shen, Dean Zhao, Weikuan Jia, Yu Chen

Retrieval Methods of Natural Language Based on Automatic Indexing

Since natural language enter the computer retrieval system, due to the natural language retrieval is not restricted by professional experience, knowledge background, retrieval experience by users, and above reasons favored by the users. As the title of the Chinese literature is the concentrated reflection of Chinese literature content, it reflects the central idea of the literature. Retrieval methods of natural language described in this article is limited to literature title in subject indexing. The basic idea of this method is, with automatic indexing methods respectively the literature title in the database of retrieval system used in natural language retrieval for automatic word indexing. To control the concept of a given keyword, namely meaning transformation, form the final indexing words. Then, using the vector space model for the index data in the database will be “or” operation to retrieve, forming a document set B. For each document title in set B for automatic indexing, the title of each article for automatic indexing, indexing terms for the formation and retrieval of natural language indexing terms similarity calculation, sorted according to similarity of each document in set B. The first best match the requirements presented to the user documentation. This method is a simple and practical method of natural language retrieval.

Dan Wang, Xiaorong Yang, Jian Ma, Liping Zhang

Improving Agricultural Information and Knowledge Transfer in Cambodia - Adopting Chinese Experience in Using Mobile Internet Technologies

Agriculture is a knowledge intensive sector. Information and knowledge plays an essential role in helping farmers to improve productivity and sustainability through promoting and adopting the most effective and relevant innovations and technologies. With rapid development and advances in agricultural science and technology, traditional agriculture practices have been transformed to knowledge based and digital agriculture production. This paper reports a project that aims to improve the agricultural information and knowledge flow in Cambodia by adopting China’s success in using Mobile Internet Technologies. The paper provides a brief review of China’s current achievements in using ICTs to accelerate information and knowledge flow in Agriculture and Cambodia’s current status in using ICT for agriculture information disseminations. An empirical investigation was carried out in Cambodia to gain more insights into the farmers information needs and their intention to adopt Mobile Internet based information dissemination services. Based on the empirical study, Chinese experience in using Mobile App was introduced and a mobile App called AgriApp was designed and tailored to meet the Cambodia’s needs and conditions. This AgriApp was initially tested and valuable feedback was collected for improvement and better deployment in Cambodia.

Yanan Hu, Yun Zhang, Yanqing Duan

Principal Component Analysis Method-Based Research on Agricultural Science and Technology Website Evaluation

Agricultural science and technology website is a very important supporter of driving agricultural information and servicing agriculture. An evaluation method is proposed on agricultural science and technology website based on objective data and artificial ratings, using principal component analysis method. Finally the author used the model to evaluate 18 agricultural science and technology websites, and proposed some suggestions on development of agricultural science and technology websites based on the evaluation result which would act as reference to agricultural science and technology website construction.

Jian Ma

The Countermeasures of Carrying on Web of the Research Institutions in the Era of Big Data — Consider the Web of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

In recent years, large data caused great concern in industry, academia and government. As an important department for scientific research and innovation, the academy portal show the level of science research innovation ability and it is a main platform of transformation of scientific research achievement. In this paper, the construction portal of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Situation as the background, points out the shortcomings of the current construction site, and make a few suggestions for website development in the big data environment.

Liping Zhang

The Knowledge Structure and Core Journals Analysis of Crop Science Based on Mapping Knowledge Domains

This paper aims at revealing the potential structure of crop science and core journals distribution to provide reference and help for crop research and journal work. On the basis of journal co-citation analysis this paper draws the co-citation map of Crop Science Journal by means of mapping knowledge domains and information visualization technology. 86 crop science journals can be roughly divided into two groups and each group of journals can be subdivided into two regions. Plant science (including plant physiology, plant ecology, plant cell etc.) and biology and chemistry (including biochemistry and molecular biology, gene and genetics etc.) are the mainstream research field of crop science. Crop production and soil science is another important branch of crop science. In addition, there is the phenomenon of cross integration between crop science and environment, horticultural science, plant protection, food processing, animal husbandry etc.

Minjuan Liu, Lu Chen, Xue Yuan, Ting Wang, Yun Yan, Yuefei Wang

Application of Spatial Reasoning in Predicting Rainfall Situation for Two Disjoint Areas

In this article, we extend the 9 - intersection matrix to 27 - intersection matrix on the basis of RCC8 relations, propose 27 - intersection model between two disjoint regions and a simple region. Giving the algorithm, 31 kinds of topological relations between two disjoint regions and a simple region by specific procedure, and give schematic diagrams of the 31 kinds of topological relations, verifying 31 kinds of topological relations are achievable. In order to further research the topological relations between two disjoint regions and a simple region, in this article we have completed the reasoning for topological relations between two disjoint regions and a simple region, and given the conceptual neighborhood graph. By comparison of related work, we can draw a conclusion that the 27 - intersection model is superior to the expressive power of the 8-intersection model. Through the representation model of topological relations established in this article, we can predict the rainfall situation on two areas, and give the probability of rainfall in different regions.

Jian Li, Yanbo Huang, Rujing Yao, Yuanyuan Zhang

Simplifying Calculation of Graph Similarity Through Matrices

A method to simplify the calculation in the process of measuring graph similarity is proposed, where lots of redundant operations are avoided in order to quickly obtain the initial tickets matrix. In this proposal, the element value of the initial tickets matrix is assigned to 1 when it is positive in corresponding position of the paths matrix at the first time. The proposed method calculates the initial tickets matrix value based on the positive value in the paths matrix in a forward and backward way. An example is provided to illustrate that the method is feasible and effective.

Xu Wang, Jihong Ouyang, Guifen Chen

A Systematic Method for Quantitative Diameter Analysis of Sprayed Pesticide Droplets

In this study, a new systematic method for quantitative diameter analysis of sprayed pesticide droplets was developed. This method adopts the screw motion with precision motor and uses the vibration frequency of the precision control technology. With this method, the bubbles contained in the pesticide droplets were eliminated and the generated droplets are no longer adhere to the tip. The accuracy of this method is significantly improved compared with the previously manually operated device. The results indicated that with the calibration coefficient, the error between of the actual droplet size and the preset droplet size value was 97.2 %. This newly developed method is very valuable for future studies of droplet distribution over crop leaves for reducing the amount of pesticides sprayed on the crops.

Wei Ma, Xiu Wang, Lijun Qi, Yanbo Huang

Development of Variable Rate System for Disinfection Based on Injection Technique

A variable soil pesticide injection system was developed for control of soil pesticide amount by PWM. The paper analyzed a algorithmic model of control system, and designed hardware, algorithm and control of soil pesticide, mainly software flow and a feedback control way. In the paper, the variable-rate control system was consisted of infrared sensor, speed sensor, PWM valve, and pump motor. According to the amount of soil pesticide information, controller can automatically control flow amount by adjusting solid solenoid valve and PWM valve based on working speed, which changes the pulse duty cycle to achieve the variable work. Injection experiments of soil pesticide was pre-set different dosage, the results shown that pesticide amount was precise in fact, and the errors was less than 3.2 %. The system could achieve variable rate injection of liquid pesticide into deep soil based on infrared sensor. Fitting equation of flow amount by adjusting PWM valve based on working speed could draw the R2 value of 0.935. The chip can calculate the output PWM duty cycle according to the pre-set injection of soil pesticide amount after collected the speed of tractor. The feedback control is to regulate the PWM signal duty cycle according the real liquid flow obtained by the microcontroller chip which collected the output signal of liquid sensor which fixed on pesticide pipeline.

Wei Ma, Xiu Wang, Lijun Qi, Wei Zou

Establishment and Optimization of Model for Detecting Epidermal Thickness in Newhall Navel Orange

Diffuse transmittance spectra in the near-infrared scope as a prevalent sensitivity method carried out to test epidermal thickness of ‘Gannan’ navel oranges. In order to lay a good foundation for accurate and rapid online classification, variable selection methods was intervened for navel orange model optimization. In spectral range of 900–1650 nm, navel orange in thick skin depth chosen arbitrarily were set up the qualitative models for both calibration and prognostication sets in this experiment. Firstly, different pretreatment methods such as the Savitzky-Golay, the first derivative and so on were compared by PLS modeling results. Then GA and SPA were brought in to improve predictive models. Compared with results, light scattering can be effectively eliminated by the standard normal variate transformation (SNV). Moreover, fewer variables and model optimization were carried out by GA. The supreme calibration model procured with GA-PLS approach had the Rp of 0.864, RMSEP of 0.290, R C of 0.882 and RMSEC of 0.264. The experiment showed the detection of epidermal thickness of navel orange is completely feasible.

Yande Liu, Yifan Li, Zhiyuan Gong

Design and Implementation of Greenhouse Remote Monitoring System Based on 4G and Virtual Network

In modern agriculture, the temperature of the greenhouse is one of the main factors that affect the growth of crops, which plays an important role in the growth of crops. Based on 4G and virtual network technology, this paper designed greenhouse remote monitoring system, which can automatically collect, remotely transfer, automatically store, analyze and process temperature data of greenhouse.

Guogang Zhao, Yu Lianjun, Haiye Yu, Guowei Wang, Yuanyuan Sui, Lei Zhang

The Study of Farmers’ Information Perceived Risk in China

The study provides insights into the perceived risk in the course of farmers’ agriculture information adoption in China. The information perceived risk model is gotten with the approach of the factor analysis and six aspects constitute the model. The regression equation of farmers’ information perceived risk is obtained with the multiple regression analysis in this research. The results show that there are many aspects that farmers consider about when they are applied with new agricultural information and technologies, and information service departments may pay more attention to those especially.

Jingjing Zhang

Dynamic Changes of Transverse Diameter of Cucumber Fruit in Solar Greenhouse Based on No Damage Monitoring

In order to master the dynamic changes of cucumber fruit growth in solar greenhouse and its relationship with meteorological elements of greenhouse, continuous no damage dynamic monitoring for transverse diameter of Cucumber fruit collected by every 10 min were carried out by the crop growth monitoring instrument, air temperature, air relative humidity, solar radiation and other factors in the greenhouse were also continuous observed by micro climate observing system. Studies have shown that cucumber fruit diameter hourly increment is most at 17:00 or 18:00 in the fair-weather, but least at about 11:00, with a sensible diurnal variation; in the cloudy weather, the growth law of cucumber fruit diameter is similar to which in the fair-weather; the hour increment has a no apparent diurnal variation in the overcast weather; in the overcast to clear weather, there was a noticeable transformation in the diurnal variation of cucumber fruit diameter hourly increment, the diurnal peak value usually appears at 17:00 or 18:00, but before and after noon rebound phenomenon could occurs obviously. The good correlation with the Cucumber fruit diameter hourly increment should be in the sequence below: the average temperature four hours before, the average relative humidity four hours before and the average solar radiation five hours before; The significantly correlation with the Cucumber fruit diameter daily increment should be in the sequence below: the daily minimum temperature that day, the daily average temperature the day before, the daily average relative humidity the day before, the daily average radiation the day before, and daily temperature range the day before.

Ruijiang Wei, Xin Wang, Huiqin Zhu

Study on Laos-China Cross-Border Regional Economic Cooperation Based on Symbiosis Theory: A Case of Construction of Laos Savan Water Economic Zone

The strategy of “one belt one road” has provided an opportunity of accelerate economic growth for China’s surrounding countries. Laos is actively joining the initiative, but how to cooperate with China is a difficulty. Biological symbiosis shares similar characters with cooperation and mutual benefits among cross-border countries. So taking the construction of Savan-Seno Special Economic Zone of Laos as example, we introduced the symbiosis theory and analyzing symbiosis units, models and interfaces between Laos-China regional economic cooperation, it led to the generation, optimization and mechanism under which the symbiotic system was determined. Then we should improve the Laos-China regional economic cooperation symbiosis system by training and harvesting favorable environments, expanding symbiotic interface so as to accelerate the cooperative relationship.

Sisavath Thiravong, Jingrong Xu, Qin Jing

Study on Mode of Laos-China Cross-Border Collaboration Strategy Facing Symbiosis Relation

Laos is a country with abundant natural resources, low labor costs and land rents, which has natural geo-economic relationship with China, and gradually became one of the important destinations of Chinese enterprises’ foreign direct investment. Meanwhile, China has become the largest overseas investment country in Laos. Based on the symbiotic relationship between Laos and China, this paper studies the dynamics of Laos-China cross-border cooperation from three aspects, including Laos’s reform, China’s “One Belt One Road” and “going abroad” strategy, and the multi-agent coordination of external demand respectively. This paper presents the “overseas Jiangsu” mode of Laos-China cross-border collaboration strategy and offers some elicitation to the cross-border cooperation in Laos-China. Finally, this paper proposed to establish the “overseas Jiangsu” mode of Laos-China cross-border collaboration strategy .

Sisavath Thiravong, Jingrong Xu, Qin Jing

Research of Fractal Compression Algorithm Taking Details in Consideration in Agriculture Plant Disease and Insect Pests Image

Agriculture plant disease and insect pests is varied and tremendously harmful, so experts are needed to diagnose. But experts can’t have the energy and time to the field for the majority of farmers to guide, they can only get the image through remote. However, agriculture plant disease and insect pests image is rich in detail, while transmission bandwidth and storage is limited, it is necessary to compress image to make sure of image quality. This paper proposes an improved method based on Jacquin theory to reduce coding time. Encoded sub block is classified into detailed block and non-detailed block, so we can reduce the encoding time. Experimental results show that, for the agriculture plant disease and insect pests image which is rich in detail, the number of encoded blocks reduces to 31.45 % and the encoding time reduces to 32.9 % of the original one.

Qiao Deng, Chunhong Liu, Liting Fu

Commentary on Application of Data Mining in Fruit Quality Evaluation

In order to provide reference for the fruit quality research and fruit selective breeding, in this paper, data mining methods of fruit quality in recent years, including fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, analytic hierarchy process method, gray correlation degree analysis method and so on, which were compared for the characteristics of advantages and disadvantages. Furtherly, the main evaluation factors of the common fruits were summarized. Finally, the research on data mining methods of the fruit quality was summarized and prospected. This review indicated that data mining methods could evaluate multi-index of fruit quality comprehensively, which will provide reference for rapid detection of fruit quality and cultivation of the excellent species. Meanwhile, it will be a new direction in the field of fruit quality research by studying more main factors of fruit quality and simplifying the evaluation procedures in the near future.

Jinjian Hou, Dong Wang, Wenshen Jia, Ligang Pan

Study on Identification of Bacillus cereus in Milk Based on Two-Dimensional Correlation Infrared Spectroscopy

Bacillus cereus is a kind of common food-borne pathogen that can cause vomiting and diarrhea shortly after ingestion. The spectroscopy properties of Bacillus cereus were measured using the infrared reflectance spectroscopy, which was a nondestructive technology. The influence of Bacillus cereus concentration on the spectroscopy was explored based on the two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy method. The results showed that some functional groups of capsule in pure Bacillus cereus culture, such as carboxyl, protein amide I and amide II, C-H methyl and methylene could induced some self-correlation peaks near 1592 cm−1, 1652 cm−1, 1512 cm−1 and 1412 cm−1 respectively. Some functional groups of spore, such as COO- group and C-H bond could induced some self-correlation peaks near 1348 cm−1, 1616 cm−1 and 1592 cm−1 respectively. In milk sample, the functional groups of capsule and spore could induced some self-correlation peaks too. The infrared spectroscopy combined with 2D correlation spectroscopy analysis method could be a effective method for the Bacillus cereus detection.

Zizhu Zhao, Ruokui Chang, Yong Wei, Yuanhong Wang, Haiyun Wu

Stimulating Effect of Low-Temperature Plasma (LTP) on the Germination Rate and Vigor of Alfalfa Seed (Medicago Sativa L.)

Low-temperature plasma (LTP) treatment was applied to stimulate the seed of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) for better germination rates and vigor with the use of an inert gas, namely neon, at various discharge power levels. The seed passed through a neon-plasma glowing zone between two horizontally parallel electrode plates within the glow discharge chamber of a seed processing machine with an internal 2~8 mm atmospheric pressure. The seed were treated for 20 s. The LTP-treated seeds were germinated at 20 oC in a germination chamber, and seedling emergence was evaluated at 24-h intervals for up to 10 days. LTP stimulation significantly increased the germination rate and vigor versus an untreated sample. Among ten discharge power levels, the 20 W treatment had the most significant effect on the rate and vigor. The use of 20 W treatment increased the germination rate and vigor by 11 % and 22 %, respectively, relative to the control. LTP treated seeds that were stored for 20 days also had higher germination vigor than those stored for 4 days. These results suggest that the use of the LTP technique with a seed processing machine is effective and practical for the purpose of stimulating crop seeds for improved germination.

Xin Tang, Fengchen Liang, Lijing Zhao, Lili Zhang, Jing Shu, Huamei Zheng, Xu Qin, Changyong Shao, Jinkui Feng, Keshuang Du

Evaluation of Timber and Carbon Sequestration Income of Cunninghamia Lanceolata Timber Forest and Management Decision Support

Carbon sequestration exchange has just started in China. This study was based on the general plantation regions in Fujian China where Cunninghamia lanceolata is quite popular and has great economic and ecological significance for farmers and the society at large. This study used Hartman model to forecast the income of timber sales and carbon sequestration so as to integrate the model in the decision support system to find a practical tool for farmers to project their future monetary income to make sound operating decisions in terms of plantation density and rotation age, which is of practical significance and innovation.

Yan Qi, Baoguo Wu, Shanghong Li

Researches on the Variations of Greenhouse Gas Exchange Flux at Water Surface Nearby the Small Hydropower Station of Qingshui River, Guizhou

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from water surface nearby the small hydropower station is a rising problem of concern. This paper studied the daytime changes of GHG flux of Fujiang hydropower station (FJHPS) and Xiasi hydropower station (XSHPS) located on Qingshui river in Guizhou by the static float chamber sampling and the gas chromatography analysis method in Autumn. Data showed, the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O ranged from −43 to 72, −23 to 15 and −0.016 to 0.13 mmol·(m2·d)−1, respectively. Overall, the GHG fluxes in the downstream of the station were slightly higher than the upstream, which manifested the downstream released more GHGs. The CO2 exchange fluxes in FJHPS were higher than XSHPS, while CH4 and N2O fluxes showed a reverse situation. The fluxes of GHG had a positive correlation with DO and pH. Compared with other lakes and reservoirs, smaller releasing rates of GHG were existed in the small hydropower station.

Lei Han, Xuyin Yuan, Jizhou Li, Yun Zhao, Zhijie Ma, Jing Qin

The Application of Internet of Things in Pig Breeding

A pig breeding IoT system is designed, in view of the human resources, natural resources consumption, the quality and safety problems occurred frequently, the management mode is backward and so on. In this paper, the system architecture, information awareness, system application of the three aspects of pig farming system is introduced. The system can use all aspects of pig farming to sales, has some reference to the intensive farming of pigs.

Minghua Shang, Gang Dong, Yuanjie Mu, Fujun Wang, Huaijun Ruan

Research and Exploration of Rural and Agricultural Information Service – Taking Shandong Province as a Case

Rural and agricultural information service is the fundamental condition for agricultural information development. Moreover, it is a effective way to narrow the effectiveness of the “digital divide” and integrate the urban and rural development. In this study, taking Shandong Province as an example, the service platform, service tools, service support and service teams etc. are described. And, the rural agricultural information service model based on “Service platform as the core, service means as basic, service carrier as link, service team as support and public and market integration” is put forward in this study. This rural agricultural information service model is benefit for the agricultural information; accelerate the pace of rural agricultural information construction.

Jia Zhao, Jianfei Wang, Wenjie Feng

Research on Agricultural Development Based on “Internet +”

Agricultural modernization is an important way to construct modern agriculture. The development of intelligent terminal, mobile internet, communication technology, internet of things is being applied to agricultural production. It will greatly improve the level and degree of agricultural informatization, promote agricultural informatization development, improve agricultural production efficiency and improve agricultural production efficiency and promote the development of agricultural information technology and new technology.

Wenjie Feng, Lei Wang, Jia Zhao, Huaijun Ruan

Research and Design of Shandong Province Animal Epidemic Prevention System Based on GIS

Animal husbandry has become one of the important pillars of agricultural economy. In the meantime, along with the rapid development of animal husbandry, all kinds of animal disease hazardous to health of livestock and poultry appear, such as High Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). Therefore, establishment of animal epidemic prevention system is very necessary. Geographic Information System (GIS) has been widely used both in the field of disease control and prevention and livestock and poultry epidemic prevention for its strong ability of spatial analysis and visualization analysis. Despite all this, provincial livestock and poultry epidemic prevention system based on GIS is rare. To obtain animal epidemic information accurately and timely, and improve the mechanism of animal outbreaks, combing with the reality of Shandong province, an animal epidemic prevention and early warning forecast system is developed. The purpose of the system, the system structure, function module, and development platform are analyzed. Combined with GIS, handheld mobile GIS/GPS, and GPRS/CDMA, the system has proved its flexibility, stability, convenience, and easy extensibility, assuring effective implementation of animal epidemic monitoring.

Jiabo Sun, Wenjie Feng, Xiaoyan Zhang, Luyan Niu, Yanzhong Liu

Research and Design of Wireless Sensor Middleware Based on STM32

In order to make agricultural production become more convenient, also meet the requirement of the modern intelligent agriculture to make control equipment integrated and miniaturization, the paper designed a wireless sensor middleware based on STM32. This wireless gateway receives control command from the control software of agricultural IOT application which installed in the tablet computer through the WiFi/USART module, after the data processing and protocol conversion, then send the control signal to the wireless sensor network through the USART port. At the same time, if a particular model of agricultural sensor changes state, it also can timely feedback to the tablet computer to display through the gateway. This plan solved the problem of real-time monitoring of agricultural information and realized remote control. The experimental results show that, the wireless sensor middleware has the characteristics of light and handy, high control precision, data large quantity and high speed. It’s very appropriate for intelligent agricultural system application.

Jiye Zheng, Fengyun Wang, Lei Wang

Technical Efficiency and Traceability Information Transfer: Evidence from Grape Producers of Four Provinces in China

This paper attempts to estimate the technical efficiency of grape producers using stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) approach as well as survey data of 1388 farmers in Hebei, Liaoning, Shandong and Xinjiang Province in China, and clarify the relationship between technical efficiency and traceability information transfer. The results show that technical efficiency of grape producers ranges from 0.8 to 0.9 with a stable but low distribution; input of land and physical makes a great contribution to the increase of rural income which is followed by input of labor and agricultural machine; the level of technical efficiency has a significant impact on the traceability information transfer in the way that the higher the technical efficiency is, the higher the willingness for participants to transfer the traceability information will be. Therefore, the technical efficiency of grape producers should be increased to establish the grape traceable system, ensure the safety of grape products and improve the development of grape industry.

Lei Deng, Ruimei Wang, Weisong Mu, Jingjie Zhao

Erratum to: The Molecular Detection of Corynespora Cassiicola on Cucumber by PCR Assay Using DNAman Software and NCBI

Weiqing Wang

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