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Über dieses Buch

Welcome to the proceedings of APCHI 2008, the 8th Asia-Pacific Conference on Computer–Human Interaction held in Seoul, Korea. Following the success of the preceding APCHI conferences, in Singapore (1996, 2000), Australia (1997), Japan (1998), China (2002), New Zealand (2004) and Taiwan (2006), the 8th APCHI brought together the researchers, developers, practitioners, and educators in the field of human–computer interaction. APCHI has been a major forum for scholars and practitioners in the Asia-Pacific region on the latest challenges and developments in HCI. Theoretical breakthroughs and practical systems and interfaces were presented at this 2008 conference, thanks to the support of KADO, the HCI ITRC of Sungkyu- wan University, and KIST. APCHI 2008 featured a comprehensive program including keynote speeches, regular paper presentations, poster, demos, and special panel sessions. To address the challenge of socially blending ubiquitous computing technologies and a wider sp- trum of people with a variety of skills, knowledge, and capabilities, APCHI 2008 set “Universal and Ubiquitous” as the conference theme. APCHI 2008 attracted a total of 151 paper submissions. Among such a large number of submissions, 45 full papers were accepted as submitted or with minor revisions. All papers were reviewed by at least two reviewers. For the remaining submissions, 41 were recommended to change according to the reviews and were submitted as extended abstracts and posters. One special session with six invited papers was organized to support the conference theme of “Universal and Ubiquitous.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Ubiquitous Computing

Experience of Enhancing the Space Sensing of Networked Robots Using Atlas Service-Oriented Architecture

In this paper, we describe how we enhance the space sensing capabilities of the Ubiquitous Robotic Companion (URC) developed by ETRI Korea, by utilizing the plug-and-play service-oriented architecture provided by University of Florida’s Atlas Platform. Based on our experience in deploying services using the Atlas Platform in smart houses, for the elderly and people with special needs, a requirement emerged for utilizing networked robots to assist elderly people in their activities of daily living. Networked robots consisting of sensors, actuators and smart devices can collaborate as mobile sensing platforms with the other networked robots in a smart space, providing a complex and sophisticated actuator and human interface. This paper describes our experience in designing and implementing system architecture to integrate URC robots into pervasive computing environments using the Atlas Platform. We also show how the integrated system is able to provide better services which enhance the space sensing capabilities of URCs in the smart space.

Sumi Helal, Shinyoung Lim, Raja Bose, Hen-I Yang, Hyun Kim, Young-Jo Cho

A Formal Model of Coordination for Supporting Community Computing in a Ubiquitous Environment

Recent advances in mobile computing technologies and platform-independent information systems have enabled to realize a ubiquitous environment. Community computing is developed to as a useful tool for realizing collaborative services in a ubiquitous environment. In this paper, we present a formal model of a ubiquitous space that takes community concept into consideration and propose two management frameworks that prevent conflicts among communities. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed frameworks, a prototype system for coordinating medical emergency system is provided.

Jingyu Nam, Hyunwoo Kim, Dongmin Shin, Jaeil Park

A User-Centered Approach for Ubiquitous Service Evaluation: An Evaluation Metrics Focused on Human-System Interaction Capability

As the ubiquitous era took off, the interactions between ubiquitous services and users have come to take an important position. So it is necessary to develop new evaluation method that evaluates interactivity with a user-centered perspective. The main objective of this study is the development of user-centered interactivity evaluation metrics of ubiquitous service attributes. For this objective, first, existing ubiquitous service evaluation methodologies are reviewed to define the evaluation attributes for ubiquitous service evaluation. Second, user oriented interactive metrics that can overcome the limitations of those service evaluation methodologies, such as personal service evaluation techniques, usability evaluation techniques and psychometrics based evaluation techniques, are developed. As a validation study, suggested evaluation metrics is utilized to evaluate the u-home service, and priority of each metrics is derived. The suggested evaluation metrics can be used to evaluate the interactivity level of ubiquitous service and identify the potential users and their requirements at the stage of service development.

Joohwan Lee, Joobong Song, Hyungsup Kim, Junyoung Choi, Myung Hwan Yun

On Generating Backbone Trees through Robust Multi-hop Clusters in Wireless Sensor Networks

Routing through a backbone, which is responsible for performing and managing multipoint communication, reduces the communication overhead and overall energy consumption in wireless sensor networks. However, the backbone nodes will need extra functionality and therefore consume more energy compared to the other nodes. The unbalanced power consumption among sensor nodes may cause a network partition and failures. Hence optimal construction of the backbone is one of the pivotal problems in sensor network applications. In this paper a distributed algorithm is proposed to generate backbone trees through robust multi-hop clusters in wireless sensor networks. The main objective is to form a properly designed backbone through multi-hop clusters by considering energy level and degree of each node. Comprehensive computer simulations have indicated that the newly proposed scheme gives approximately 58.6% and 79.42% improvements in the performances related to the residual energy level and the degree of the cluster heads respectively.

Inyoung Shin, Moonseong Kim, Hyunseung Choo

Denial of Sleeping: Performance Analysis and Counteracting Strategy

Denial of Sleeping is a novel type of potential attacks in wireless network. The object of the attack is a sensor node’s power supply. To make sensors inexpensive so that they can be economically deployed in large numbers, they generally have very limited battery capability. Thus, a lifetime of a sensor is degraded under Denial of Sleeping attack. In this paper a mathematical model for performance evaluation of the attack is offered. Counteracting against the intrusion is discussed.

Vladimir Shakhov, Hyunseung Choo

Groupware

Eye, Robot: A Network Control System for Ophthalmologic Examination

This paper reports an iterative design project of a network control system to support ophthalmologic examination, for use in support of telemedicine. The project is a case study of development and deployment of a telemedicine system through human-centered design approaches. At the early stage of design, we carried out field research and paper prototyping on the network control system with ophthalmologists. Then, we developed working prototypes for conducting usability tests and field tests. We examine lessons learned from the design process and the designed product.

Kentaro Go, Kenji Kashiwagi, Yuki Ito, Yu Nakazawa, Jumpei Arata

A Study of a Loosely-Coupled Groupware System for Supporting Collaboration and Coordination

A number of researches have focused on the usability aspect of groupware in supporting collaborative work. Unfortunately, our understandings on their impact on supporting collaborative learning are still limited due to a lack of attention on this issue. Furthermore, the majority of educators and designers in CSCL expect that interactions and collaborations would come naturally, as a result, we are too busy with how versatile the tools in educational groupware systems shall have in order to provide a wide variety of interaction opportunities for both learners and educators, and largely ignore whether or not these features are valuable from learners’ as well as educators’ perspective. To bridge this gap, in this paper, we describe our experiences with loosely-coupled collaborative software called GroupScribbles, in its potential of supporting cooperation and coordination among learners as well as its failures. Our study suggests that it is not the versatility of the tools in these educational groupware systems, but how they can provide a seamless and focused distributed learning environment determines the overall pedagogical appropriateness of the software in CSCL. That is, the learning environment, although distributed, and fragmented, should be capable of sticking learners, their activities and meta-cognitive problem solving skills cohesively so as to continuously construct a relatively compact learning space where coordination and collaborations can be made cheap, lightweight, effective and efficient.

Tiffany Y. Tang, Hareton K. N. Leung

RIKI: A Wiki-Based Knowledge Sharing System for Collaborative Research Projects

During a collaborative research project, each member’s knowledge and progress need to be managed and shared with other members. For effective knowledge sharing, each member needs to be able to express their own knowledge within the given project context and easily find and understand other members’ knowledge. In this paper, we present our RIKI prototype that supports group communication and knowledge sharing in research projects via the Wiki-based platform. The main aim of RIKI implementation is to manage the shared knowledge semantically and to provide users with straightforward access to necessary information.

Sang Keun Rhee, Jihye Lee, Myon-Woong Park

Intelligent System Design

Unconsciously Harmonized Online Communication Based on Uninterruptibility Estimation of Interaction Partners

The current users of real-time online communication tools have a problem in recognizing the status of interaction partners. Therefore, the start of dialogue has a risk of unintended interruption of the partner. To overcome the problem, we focused on application-switching (AS) as a potential intelligent activity discontinuity for uninterruptibility estimation. The preliminary experiments revealed the uninterruptibility reduction effect of AS. Therefore, we developed an online communication system which allows users to naturally recognize the uninterruptibility of interaction partners, by estimating uninterruptibility using AS, keystroke, mouse click and presenting uninterruptibility as avatar posture and motion.

Takahiro Tanaka, Kyouhei Matsumura, Kinya Fujita

A Novel Web Page Analysis Method for Efficient Reasoning of User Preference

The amount of information on the Web is rapidly increasing. Recommender systems can help users selectively filter this information based on their preferences. One way to obtain user preferences is to analyze characteristics of content that is accessed by the user. Unfortunately, web pages may contain elements irrelevant to user interests (e.g., navigation bar, advertisements, and links.). Hence, existing analysis approaches using the TF-IDF method may not be suitable. This paper proposes a novel user preference analysis system that eliminates elements that repeatedly appear in web pages. It extracts user interest keywords in the identified primary content. Also, the system has features that collect the anchor tag, and track the user’s search route, in order to identify keywords that are of core interest to the user. This paper compares the proposed system with pure TF-IDF analysis method. The analysis confirms its effectiveness in terms of the accuracy of the analyzed user profiles.

Seunghwa Lee, Minchul Jung, Eunseok Lee

Mood and Recommendations: On Non-cognitive Mood Inducers for High Quality Recommendation

Watching a comedy can help a user escape from the negative mood, which in turn affect the user’s feedback over the movie. In other words, a non-cognitive mood inducer (the movie) can affect a user’s post-consumption evaluation over the inducer (the rating the user give) which is directly associated with users’ assessment over consumed goods. If these goods are generated from a recommender system, they will then directly affect the performance of the system. As such, our study attempts to enrich our understanding of the inducers and their effects in the recommendation performance. In addition, this paper provides a preliminary exploration of a mood-based filter to enhance the interaction between human and the system.

Tiffany Y. Tang, Pinata Winoto

Intelligent Information System Based on a Speech Web Using Fuzzy Association Rule Mining

In this paper, we propose and implement an intelligent information system that is based on both a wired and a wireless telephone network-based speech Web using fuzzy association rule mining, and we present a session management method in a VXML-based speech Web. The proposed system collects voice content that is requested by the user, and it considers the user’s listening time, which is an important data in speech applications. The system uses a reasoning process to identify the related contents from the collected transaction database by using fuzzy association rule mining, and then the system recommends it to the user. This method considers the user’s listening time and it can explore the database with an accuracy that is made possible by the dynamic generation of the fuzzy membership function. The experimental results confirm that we are obtaining more accurate reasoning result than the speech Web applications that use the existing generic data mining algorithm.

Hyeong-Joon Kwon, Kwang-Seok Hong

Restaurant Recommendation for Group of People in Mobile Environments Using Probabilistic Multi-criteria Decision Making

Since 1990s, with an advancement of network technology and the popularization of the Internet, information that people can access has proliferated, thus information recommendation has been investigated as an important issue. Because preference to information recommendation can be different as context that the users are related to, we should consider this context to provide a good service. This paper proposes the recommendation system that considers the preferences of group users in mobile environment and applied the system to recommendation of restaurants. Since mobile environment has plenty of uncertainty, our system have used Bayesian network which showed reliable performance with uncertain input to model individual user’s preference. Also, restaurant recommendation mostly considers the preference of group users, so we have used AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) of multi-criteria decision making method to get the preference of group users from individual users’ preferences. For experiments, we have assumed 10 different situations and compared the proposed method with random recommendation and simple rule-based recommendation. Finally, we have confirmed that the proposed system provides high usability with SUS (System Usability Scale).

Moon-Hee Park, Han-Saem Park, Sung-Bae Cho

Human-Robot Interaction

Augmented Reality Based Vision System for Network Based Mobile Robot

The human machine interface is an essential part of intelligent robotic system. Through the human machine interface, human user can interact with the robot. Especially, in tele-robotic environment, the human machine interface can be developed with remarkable extended functionality. In this paper, we introduce a tele-presence vision system for monitoring of a network based mobile robot. The vision system is a vision part of human machine interface with augmented reality for the network based mobile robot. We synchronize head motion of human user and the camera motion of the mobile robot using visual information. So user of the mobile robot can monitor environment of the mobile robot as eyesight of mobile robot. Also, the system partially creates a panoramic image to solve a pose latency problem. In this paper, we evaluate and compare panoramic images from two different methods. One is pattern matching method which is simple and fast, the other is Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) which is complex and slow. Finally, proposed vision system provides high resolution and wide Field Of View (FOV) to user who is wearing a Head Mounted Display (HMD).

Ho-Dong Lee, Dongwon Kim, Min-Chul Park, Gwi-Tae Park

Embedded Robot Operating Systems for Human-Robot Interaction

This paper focuses on the framework of the interface program that contains the controls and communication architectures to realize embedded robot operating systems for multi sensor system. The application builds the embedded operating system by using Mid Level Functions Layer for the robot’s peripherals, and deploying a Low Level Functions Layer. The research proposes a hierarchical architecture for the user interface in order to realize an effective control command and status menu using an embedded sensor interface board. The operating system contained by an Ultrasonic and a Position sensing detector (PSD) and the operation of the Embedded Robot Operating System is implementation by Follow-Wall function. The proposed interface architecture gives easy and intuitive control of interaction with the robot and can be easily build to user interface program with multi sensor system.

Taehoun Song, Jihwan Park, Soonmook Jung, Keyho Kwon, Jaewook Jeon

A User Interface Transmission System for Public Robots

This paper discusses the development of a control system for public robots. When a user requests a user interface for a public robot, the public robot sends this robot’s user interface to the user’s PDA, and then the robot can be efficiently controlled from this user interface on the PDA. This control system is highly efficient because one high performance robot can serve many users. This paper’s purpose is not to present another method for one person to control one robot. Instead, when the user needs any service, the user connects to a p2p server and requests the service, and then the robot server will connect the user to the robot that supports the service.

Jihwan Park, Taehoun Song, Soonmook Jung, Keyho Kwon, Jaewook Jeon

Development of a WS-ECA Rule Management System for a Healthcare Robot

Providing healthcare services to patients and elderly people has been an emerging application domain in ubiquitous computing technologies. The current trend toward long-term healthcare is accessing healthcare services in the ubiquitous environment instead of in care centers, hospitals or convalescent homes. The Web Service Event-Condition-Action (WS-ECA) rule management system is designed to enable the heterogeneous communication devices in ubiquitous computing environments to achieve inter-operability via event-driven coordination. This paper presents developing a WS-ECA rule management system for a healthcare robot to provide ubiquitous healthcare services for elderly people.

Jaeil Park, Haining Lee, Peom Park, Dongmin Shin

Virtual/Augmented Environment

Making Reading Experience Rich with Augmented Book Cover and Bookmark

In this paper, we describe the design and the prototype implementation of a virtual illustration system. An ordinal book is augmented to provide a reader with value added experiences while keeping the original sense of utilization intact, e.g. a texture of paper. Multimedia information is automatically presented based on the page s/he is reading. The electronic version of a book is not needed. Anyone can create and share contents like posting a book review on a blog. Two types of add-on devices for page-flipping detection have been investigated, where a book cover and a bookmark with two 3-axes accelerometers have been augmented. A preliminary usability test shows the concept mostly preferred. The accuracy of flipping detection for a book cover and a bookmark version is 88.1% and 92.5%, respectively.

Nobuhiro Inagawa, Kaori Fujinami

SPATIAL POEM: A New Type of Experimental Visual Interaction in 3D Virtual Environment

SPATIAL POEM is a new type of ’real-time visual interaction’ expressing our own creative narrative as real-time visual by playing a musical instrument which is an emotional human behavior. There are sensors on each hole on the surface of the musical instrument. When you play it, sensors recognize that you have covered the holes. All sensors are connected to a keyboard, which means your playing behavior becomes a typing action on the keyboard. And it is programmed to spread out the visual of your words in a virtual 3D space when you play the musical instrument. The behavior when you blow the instrument, to make sounds, changes into the energy that makes you walk ahead continuously in a virtual space. It used a microphone sensor for this. After all by playing musical instrument, we get back the emotion we forgot so far, and your voice is expressed with your own visual language in virtual space.

Jinyoung Choi, Sang Hyuk Hong

Human Genome Data Visualization Using a Wall Type Display

Information visualization is an effective method to grasp a complete view of huge data. In the field of genome science, researchers are faced with a large biological data set analysis. Large biological data set are accumulated in public web sites. They want to grasp whole view of the data and extract biological meanings from the data. We have taken an information visualization approach for supporting genome data analysis. In addition, we have chosen a wide viewing angle display, a wall type display which enables us to experiment virtual environment, as a display of visualized data. A wall type display has an ability to present large amount of data in the broad view. It will help users to see the data summary and to detect abnormal regions. In this paper, we discuss human genome data visualization using a wall type display. We could present a human chromosome data on the wall. This could help genome researchers to browse the data.

Kunihiro Nishimura, Tomohiro Tanikawa, Michitaka Hirose

An Experience with Augmenting a Mirror as a Personal Ambient Display

In this paper, we describe a case study on augmenting a daily object,

mirror

, for a personalized ambient display. The mirror displays information relevant to a person in front of it on the periphery of his/her sights. The interaction methods with the mirror were evaluated by a Wizard-of-Oz method and an in-situ experiment. The subjects preferred more controllability over the proactive functionalities and the understandability of information than the passive and the reflective nature of a mirror.

Kaori Fujinami, Fahim Kawsar

Vision-Based System

Universal Video Adaptation Model for Contents Delivery in Ubiquitous Computing

A video personalization system is designed and implemented an incorporating usage environment to dynamically generate a personalized video summary. The personalization systems adopt and deliver media contents to each user. The video content delivery chain poses today many challenges. There are an increasing terminal diversity, a network heterogeneity and a pressure to satisfy the user preferences. The situation encourages the need for the customized contents in order to provide the user in the best possible experience. In this paper, we address the problem of video customization. For the customized content, we suggest the UVA(Universal Video Adaptation) model that uses the video content description in MPEG-7 standard and MPEG-21 multimedia framework.

Yongik Yoon, Svetlana Kim, Jongwoo Lee

Selective Visual Attention System Based on Spatiotemporal Features

In this paper, a selective visual attention system for motion pictures is proposed. The proposed attention system is new in that it utilizes motion information for the purpose of detecting Region Of Interest (ROI) or Focus Of Attention (FOA) in motion pictures. Typical feature integration model is expanded to incorporate motion stimulus in our suggested model. Suggested model is able to respond to motion stimulus by employing motion fields as one of temporal features to the feature integration model. Analysis of motion field maps and incorporation of the result are distinct from some of the previous studies on spatial feature integration. Comparative experiments with a human subjective evaluation show that correct detection rate of visual attention regions improves by utilizing temporal features compared to the case of using only spatial features.

Min-Chul Park, Kyungjoo Cheoi

A Technique for Displaying Presence Information on a Live Camera Image Using 3-D Mask Objects

Installing a live camera in an office or laboratory can provide reliable high-quality communication among collaborators who are physically separated, but may also lead to privacy concerns. We propose a technique for displaying presence information using a three-dimensional object as a mask that covers the image of people in the live camera system. Our technique enables information to be shared partially, enabling sufficient communication while alleviating the discomfort of feeling monitored by the camera. The system also clarifies less-visible activities such as typing text using a keyboard or moving a mouse of people in the camera image. We implemented the

Koka-ComeCam

system using our proposed technique.

Jun Higuchi, Shin Takahashi, Jiro Tanaka

Background Subtraction Based on Local Orientation Histogram

Background Subtraction is an important preprocessing step for extracting the features of tracking objects in the vision-based HCI system. In this paper, the orientation histogram between the foreground image and the background image is compared to extract the foreground probability in the local area. The orientation histogram-based method is partially robust against illumination change and small moving objects in background. There are two major drawbacks of using histograms which are quantization errors in histogram binning and slow computation speed. With Gaussian binning and integral histogram, we present the recursive partitioning method that gives false detection suppression and fast computation speed.

DongHeon Jang, XiangHua Jin, YongJun Choi, TaeYong Kim

Relationship between Viewing Distance and Visual Fatigue in Relation to Feeling of Involvement

In this study, we carried out experiments to measure the effect of viewing distance on visual fatigue using two kinds of visual content. Both experiments showed that visual fatigue reached a minimum at a distance of 3 to 4 times the height of the display (3–4H) and that sympathetic nerve activity peaked at around 3H. These results indicate that the viewing distance for less visual fatigue and a closer feeling of involvement might be in between the two distances. These indices, which we adopt in this study, have the potential to be effective evaluation indices for measuring visual fatigue taking feeling of involvement into consideration.

Kiyomi Sakamoto, Shoichi Aoyama, Shigeo Asahara, Kuniko Yamashita, Akira Okada

Mobile Interaction Design

Tactile Icon Design Using a Vibration Actuator in Mobile Devices

This study presents three attributes for composing vibration patterns:

Rhythm

,

intensity difference

, and

continuous variation in intensity

. The intervals and the duration of the vibrations offer the elements of rhythm; intensity difference, and continuous variation in intensity, which add a second dimension to encoding the vibration pattern. Based on the attributes, fourteen vibration patterns were encoded according to four rhythm and four different intensity types. Rhythms are composed of two vibration durations and one interval. Intensity types are

High intensity

,

Low intensity

,

Strengthening

, and

Weakening

. The results achieve 78.57% accuracy for the overall vibration patterns.

Intensity differences

have a correct rate of 80.89%. The results for recognition of

rhythm types

are 90.97%. The result shows that people can really differentiate rhythms and intensity by using their tactile senses, but this has limitations. This research provides guidelines for vibration pattern design, and a third scenario for non-visual interaction.

Meng-Dar Shieh, Zheng-Bin Wu

Design of 3D Mobile Phones and Application for Visual Communication

This paper discusses realization of 3D mobile phones in respect of acquiring stereo images and displaying them. The parallel and radial types as 3D imaging layouts and autostereoscopic 3D displays are realized and their experimental results are compared. This paper proposes that when a mobile is equipped with a single camera the radial type has an advantage for taking stereo images satisfying fusible 3D images in a short distance because it has a permissible disparity in a arm length specially only. However, when a mobile phone is equipped with a pair of cameras the parallel-type has more advantage in that it offers a large fusible area in providing 3D depth cue to viewers relatively. A slanted parallax barrier generates viewing zone to the viewer without Moiré effect, but the complexity of the structure causes computational burden for image display. To testify 3D mobile visual communication stereo images are transmitted over CDMA mobile networks and the experiment is successfully accomplished keeping an acceptable image quality and 3D effects.

Min-Chul Park, Jung-Young Son

A Comparative Evaluation of User Preferences for Mobile Chat Usable Interface

This paper aims to investigate user preferences for mobile chat usable interfaces. We have designed graphical-based usable interfaces for mobile chat to ease the navigation control for efficient tracking of specific messages in a long chat archive We have conducted a comparative evaluation between text-based and graphical-based usable interfaces for mobile chat systems. The statistical research outcomes exemplified that there were significant differences on user preferences between text-based and graphical-based systems with regards to gender, education level, and usage frequency of one-to-one mobile chat systems. Additionally, the experimental evaluation results have highlighted the potential use of graphical-based usable interfaces for mobile chat systems that have significantly gained user preferences and were well perceived as usable interfaces among the test subjects.

Daniel Kuen Seong Su, Victoria Siew Yen Yee

The Impact of Multimedia Extensions for Multimedia Applications on Mobile Computing Systems

Multimedia is a key element in human-computer interaction systems. Multimedia applications, however, are among the most dominant computing workloads driving innovations in high performance and low power imaging systems. Parallel implementations of multimedia applications mostly focus on the use of parallel computers. Modern general-purpose processors, however, have employed multimedia extensions (e.g., MMX, VIS, MAX, AltiVec) or subword parallel instructions to their instruction set architectures to improve the performance of multimedia. This paper quantitatively evaluates the impact of multimedia extensions on multiprocessor systems to exploit subword level parallelism (SLP) in addition to data level parallelism (DLP). Experimental results for a set of multimedia applications on a representative multiprocessor array shows that MMX (a representative Intel’s multimedia extension) achieve an average speedup ranging from 3x to 5x over the same baseline multiprocessor array. MMX also outperforms baseline in both area efficiency (a 13% increase) and energy consumption (a 73% decrease), resulting in better component utilization and sustainable battery life. These results demonstrate that MMX is a suitable candidate for mobile multimedia computing systems.

Jong-Myon Kim

Novel Interaction Technique

The Use of Photo Retrieval for EEG-Based Personal Identification

A research on biometry based on human brain activities has lately become attracted and emerging. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of personal identification based on photo retrieval using three-channel electroencephalogram. Nine photo images were randomly presented one after another to five subjects without training. The Principal Component Analysis and the Linear Discriminant Analysis were applied to perform the simulation of the personal identification. The algorithm correctly identified 82.5, 93.0, and 100.0 % of the subject using EEG activities with 5, 10, and 20-times averaging, respectively. This study reveals a future possibility of photo retrieval tasks to realize the personal identification system using human brain activities, which will yield rich controls of machine for the users of brain-computer interface.

Hideaki Touyama, Michitaka Hirose

Music Wall: A Tangible User Interface Using Tapping as an Interactive Technique

This paper describes a tangible user interface that uses taps on a hard surface as the mode of interaction between the user and the information device. The surface is constructed by a matrix of small acoustic sensing modules that work together to track both the location of taps on the surface and the rhythm of tap sequences. Each module is also embedded with LEDs to provide visual feedback and novel lighting effects. The system is a generic input/output system and could be used to interface with digital devices. The present prototype of a music wall is one embodiment of the system, implemented as a digital music player. A function set using position-based tap sequence recognition has also been designed to work with music enjoyment on the system.

Catherine Hu, Kinsun Tung, Lawrence Lau

Double-Crossing: A New Interaction Technique for Hand Gesture Interfaces

We propose double-crossing, a technique for interacting with large displays using hand gestures. This technique extends crossing, which was developed for a pen-based interface, and enables the ease of use by incorporating easy hand gestures such as finger movements.

Takashi Nakamura, Shin Takahashi, Jiro Tanaka

Acquisition of Off-Screen Object by Predictive Jumping

We propose predictive jumping (PJ), a fast and efficient algorithm that enables user navigation to off-screen targets. The algorithm is inspired by Delphian Desktop [1] and the off-screen visualization technique–Halo [2]. The Halos represented at the edge of the viewport help users estimate off-screen target distance and encourage them to make a single fluid mouse movement toward the target. Halfway through the user’s motion, the system predicts the user’s intended target and quickly moves the cursor towards that predicted off-screen location. In a pilot study we examine the user’s ability to select off-screen targets with predictive models based on user’s pointing kinematics for off-screen pointing with Halo. We establish a linear relationship between peak velocity and target distance for PJ. We then conducted a controlled experiment to evaluate PJ against other Halo-based techniques, Hop [8] and Pan with Halo. The results of the study highlight the effectiveness of PJ.

Kazuki Takashima, Sriram Subramanian, Takayuki Tsukitani, Yoshifumi Kitamura, Fumio Kishino

Hands-Free Input Interface Using Mimetic Muscle Movements for Wearable Computer

In recent years, we have many chances to operate cellular phone to browse e-mails or web sites. However, operating cellular phone in transit may cause dangerous conditions. This paper describes the ergonomic evaluation of hands-free input interface for wearable computing. The Interface is designed to operate the computer by mimetic muscle movements, which are detected by piezo films attached to the surface of the skin. In order to evaluate the input interface using facial actions, we measured user’s behavior and mental state by wearable measuring device. The user’s behavior is observed by the CCD camera and pedometer, and user’s mental workload is measured by the RRV (variance of R-R intervals of ECG). We evaluated the efficiency of the developed interface by comparing with cellular phone, which can connect to the Internet. We proved that the input interface using mimetic muscle movements has high compatibility between computer operation and daily activities.

Atsushi Hiyama, Tomohiro Tanikawa, Michitaka Hirose

Muscle Loadings While Using Finger as Input Device

Finger-operated input device (FOID) might provide effective pointing and dragging control. However, it was suspected that the repetitive nature of the pointing and dragging tasks while operating the FOID would induce finger muscle fatigue. This study examined the finger strain by collecting electromyographic (EMG) data from 10 subjects while playing “computer solitaire” using the FOID or a trackball mouse for 40 minutes each. Pair-wise comparisons of electrical activity and median frequency showed no significant differences in these fatigue measurements between the new FOID and the trackball mouse. On the other hand, results of JASA indicted less finger muscle loading for the new FOID than that of the trackball. These results are of heuristic value and provide a promising basis for future development of the concept of FOIDs.

Yung-Hui Lee, Wei-Yow Chen, Yi-Cherng Su

Design and Analysis of Conceptual Sketches Based on Context Awareness

This paper presents a framework of sketch editing environment for conceptual design process based on context. It analyzes the characteristics of design process and presents sketch description model for sketch based interface. Furthermore, it discusses the context fusion methodologies and algorithms to infer design context to understand designers’ intent and communicate with designers intuitively. The context mainly is related to user, environment, and machine. A sample application is given to conduct the process planning drawings by sketching, exploring and modifying their ideas interactively, with immediate and continuous visual feedback. In the paper, we aims to study designing a sketch based interface enabling both computer and designer aware of underlying design contexts and providing intelligent operations.

Cuixia Ma, Hongan Wang, Dongxing Teng, Guozhong Dai

Accuracy of Velocity Perception Generated by Tactile Apparent Motion

The objective of this study is to empirically compare the accuracy of velocity perception generated by visual apparent motion with that generated by tactile apparent motion. From the results, the subjects were able to perceive velocity information through tactile stimulus presentation more accurately than through visual stimulus presentation. When tactile stimuli were presented, the effect of apparent motion enhanced the accuracy of velocity perception; however, this was not the case when the stimulus sets were visually presented.

Kentaro Kotani, Yuki Imae, Takafumi Asao, Ken Horii

Usability

A New Framework on Measuring Customer Perceived Value in Service Interface Design

This paper explored the possible ways to apply various principles of NPD, NSP and UCD, and combined them appropriately in context of mobile internet service development in order to provide a high customer value via useful and usable service design. We investigated the characteristics of mobile internet and usability problems, and identified the benefits and limitations of previous UCD principles applied to mobile internet service development. Then applicability of CPV in mobile service design has been investigated in phases of divergent and convergent thinking. During the scenario-based ideation, potential customer values can be used as ideation stimuli in the process of structured brainstorming. In divergent thinking, CPV can be applied as evaluation criteria in comparing new ideas with alternative services. For the efficient implementation, work templates for accelerated front-end UCD are developed in co-operation with mobile service staffs in Korean mobile operator. This paper could be helpful for mobile industry and practitioners to develop and evaluate new mobile internet service which reflects users’ implicit needs and CPV concept in the efficient and effective way.

Chang K. Cho, Minjoo Jung, Chai-Woo Lee, Sangwoo Bahn, Myung Hwan Yun

Novice Word Processor User Performance with Pictorial and Text Icons

The word processor has evolved since its inception to become a valuable and integral part of modern life. Novice users, as potential users possessing little to no knowledge of either the interface or domain, justifiably encounter a learning curve when commencing to use a word processor. The question arises as to whether this learning curve can be lessened through adaptation of the interface which has been accepted as the industry standard. Usability was measured when users completed tasks using pictorial icons and when completing the same tasks using text buttons. Analysis detected no difference in either effectiveness or efficiency, leading to the conclusion that all novice users require is extensive training and practice.

Tanya René Beelders, Pieter Blignaut, Theo McDonald, Engela Dednam

Exploring Factors That Make Online Interactive Games Successful: A Heuristic Approach

Game design is challenging and expensive. It is challenging in that it is difficult to create games that are easy to learn as well as enjoyable to play. It is also expensive as only a small number of games, having spent millions in creating the games, eventually becomes successfully in the market yearly. While technologies have been improving swiftly, game design guidelines have evolved slowly, and developers have to rely on limited theoretical findings, experiences and foreknowledge to create innovative and successful games. Using a theoretical model underlying game heuristics, this paper describes a study to investigate factors that might make online interactive games successful. The findings identified that usability and aesthetic appeal of the game interface are the two most important factors governing gamers’ decisions to purchase a particular game. The paper concludes with implications for the design of online interactive games.

Yin-Leng Theng, Agnes Kit-Ying Ho, Esther Shir-Wei Wee

Users’ Perception and Usability Study of a Parser for Headings

Headings as used in many research articles play a significant role in helping readers to easily understand the organization of documents as well as the relative importance of sections. These headings are usually words or word-sequences which do not constitute full sentences. Despite the available text and speech parsing applications, none is designed towards parsing of such fragmentary word-sequences. We tackle this challenge by designing an application which implements active chart parser (ACP) using java technology. The system is designed to parse headings using context free phrase structure grammar. We present in this paper the study of the evaluators’ perception and usability of the system. The result shows that most of the users rated the system very efficient, easy to use, and satisfactory. Apart from the system’s heading parsing ability, the available text and speech processing systems can benefit immensely from integration with the application.

Safiriyu A. Elegbede, Mukaila A. Rahman, Imran A. Adeleke

Development of Interactive Map-Based Tour Information System for Busan

The Internet is the most efficient modern media providing the tourists with the information for organizing many traveling activities. It is time consuming and difficult work to organize transportation, accommodation, restaurants, adventures etc. for effective and memorable trip. Although there are many tourist sites containing a great amount of information, it is not easy to find proper and tailored information satisfying various tourists. In this study, a development process to build the web-based tour information system for Busan, Korea, and the final prototype was introduced. Current tour information websites and online maps were inspected first for the information, contents, services, and functions provided on the web sites. The user study was conducted by employing six participants to investigate the users’ preferences and needs. Design principles and final contents were determined based on the user requirements analysis. A design prototype for the map-based interactive tourist information system was finally developed and suggested.

Y. Batu Salman, Kyong-Hee Lee, Yoonjung Kim, Hong-In Cheng, Hyunjeong Kim

Web Accessibility

Development of Image and Color Evaluation Algorithm for the Web Accessibility Evaluation Tools

In the web accessibility evaluation, many studies have been carried out on the evaluation methods related to the content types and features, and in particular, some problems have been raised in relation to the automatic evaluation tools from the aspect of image and color. Thus, this study has attempted to analyze the problems of typical automatic evaluation tools based on WCAG and KWCAG, to suggest improvements for the images and colors, and to prove validity of new algorithms suggested in this study.

Seong Je Park, Young Moo Kang, Hyung Rim Choi, Soon Goo Hong, Yang Suk Kang

Longitudinal Study on Web Accessibility Compliance of Government Websites in Korea

The purpose of this paper investigates the status of web accessibility compliance of government websites in Korea. In order to look into the status of these, we used the “Annual web accessibility research” which was conducted by Korea Agency for Digital Opportunity and promotion (KADO) since 2005. Also, this paper introduces Korea web accessibility activities, such as relational laws, policies and guidelines. The result shows that compliance of web accessibility standards have increased by an annual, especially central government and provincial-level government.

Joonho Hyun, Junki Moon, Kyungsoon Hong

Korean Web Site Usability for Disabled People

In this paper, we evaluated 10 Korean web sites whether these sites have enough usability for the disabled people. Theoretically, there must be no difference using web content to an ordinary user and to a user with disabilities. However, under practical manners, the difference cannot be overcome due to lack of sensory issues. We chose 10 most frequently accessing web sites in 5 categories. We also define the Disability Web Usability (DWU) that is the ratio between the web usability of the handicapped and the web usability of the ordinary. The experimental results show that DWUs of the web sites are between 0.49 and 0.76. This implies that the handicapped people are far more difficult to perform tasks navigating the given web sites.

Seongeun Choi, Sejun Kim, Sukil Kim

A Proxy-Based System for Translation of Internet Content into Specific Form

The paper deals with the system based on proxy techniques for translation of Internet content into specific form. The first part of the paper presents the motivation for translation of internet content. The second part deals with the system concept. The system can be built-up either as a standard internet proxy-server or URL web-proxy. The right choice depends on the application (content security, web accessibility). The final part of the paper concludes with the features that will be developed in the system in future.

Pavel Ocenasek

The Elderly

Extracting the Components of Elderly People’s Capacity in Electrical Appliances and Grasping Relationship with the Components

The purpose of this study is to extract the components of capacity which elderly people have in electrical appliances and grasp the relationship with the components. In this research, we interviewed elderly people for the impression and experience of electrical appliances and conducted the tests, for example, card sorting, tasks using digital video camera and so on. We used Boolean algebra with tests data to simplify items. As a result, we found the relationship with the components in electrical appliances.

Kanji Tanaka, Toshiki Yamaoka

The Choice of Communication Media and the Use of Mobile Phone among Senior Users and Young Users

The use of communication media including the land line, the cell phone, the letter, the telegram, the cell phone mail, the PC mail, asking somebody to convey the message, and the face-to-face meeting was analyzed in accordance with the situation comparing senior users and young users. Senior users showed the tendency to stick to the old media such as the land line.

Ayako Hashizume, Masaaki Kurosu, Takao Kaneko

Prototyping and Evaluation for Smart Home Controller Based on Chinese Families Behavior Analysis

The fast development of Chinese architecture market and the smart home business have caused works on user research in smart home environment to be growing rapidly. Nonetheless, there are some problems related to product in use; and in this paper, we examine two problems that are present in smart home controllers from a user survey: one is the difficult in use for the Elderly; and the other is the complex operations for Nannies. Based on this we have examined and devised two prototypes designed for those two types of users; as well as the task sheet evaluation.

Fang You, HuiMin Luo, YingLei Liang, JianMin Wang

Mapping User Accessibility Needs Systematically to Universal Design Principles

In a rapidly growing information-oriented society, people with disabilities and older people are faced with serious inconveniences in accessing IT products due to complicated use of technologies and poorly designed interfaces. To solve the problems, it is required for designers and engineers to find out and understand user needs, and then to figure out the functionalities and design characteristics to meet the needs. Figuring out the Engineering Characteristics (EC) of products from user needs for people with disabilities and older people who have problems using main stream products due to limited accessibility would take great efforts and time. We merged two important concepts of product design for people with disabilities and older people, accessibility and universal design, using an engineering design framework of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) to provide engineers and designers with a systematic methodology for universal product design. We adapted a technical report from the ISO/IEC JTC1 Special Working Group on Accessibility (SWG-A), the Information Technology – Accessibility Considerations for People with Disabilities – Part 1: User Needs Summary (ISO/IEC PDTR 99999-1), and mapped the detailed user accessibility needs to the guidelines of 7 universal design principles which are widely accepted. We explained how a process model was built for mapping relationship between the guidelines and user accessibility needs, and extracting the critical engineering characteristics for IT product design based on these two models. A model House of Quality(HOQ) was built for such procedures.

Kyohyun Song, Seongil Lee

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