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The Current state of expectations is that Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) will ulti­ mately determine the industrial growth of world nations within the next few decades. Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM), Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS), Robotics together with Knowledge and Information Based Systems (KIBS) and Com­ munication Networks are expected to develop to a mature state to respond effectively to the managerial requirements of the factories of the future that are becoming highly integrated and complex. CIM represents a new production approach which will allow the factories to deliver a high variety of products at a low cost and with short production cycles. The new technologies for CIM are needed to develop manufacturing environments that are smarter, faster, close-cou­ pled, integrated, optimized, and flexible. Sophistication and a high degree of specialization in materials science, artificial intelligence, communications technology and knowledge-information science techniques are needed among others for the development of realizable and workable CIM systems that are capable of adjusting to volatile markets. CIM factories are to allow the production of a wide variety of similar products in small batches through standard but multi­ mission oriented designs that accommodate flexibility with specialized software.



Current Status


Computer Integrated Manufacturing

IBM’s corporate goal in the industrial sector is to be the leading CIM product supplier. Therefore, our products will provide a comprehensive and well proven integrated spectrum of offerings for a smooth installation and migration towards a CIM enterprise.
Horst W. Artmann

Automated Process Planning

Automation of process planning is developing via administrative support, the group technology supported variant systems and the generative system possibly supported by the use of artificial intelligence in expert systems. Problems not yet completely solved are CAD—process planning integration, extraction of logic or heuristic process planning rules, composing of plans by inference mechanisms and interfaces with production control systems.
Ir. B. Furth

On Systems Engineering for Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Factory Automation (FA) serves to promote the diversity and flexibility of production through the use of hardware and software, such as NC, MC, industrial robot, automatic warehouse, AGV, CAD-CAM, and production control information system. The recent rend of FA is toward systematic, rather than isolated, equipment and toward more software than hardware.
This is a report on the actual condition of FA. Data from two years of operation in Japanese business are up for analysis. Technical and labor problems are also taken up for discussion, along with solutions for them. Observations are then made on the future development of FA in Japan and other countries. In view of the growing weight of software in FA, some comment is made on ideas and trends of rolesharing among software, hardware and man.
Next, the systems engineering for the computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) descrived above is shown. It will be important for such a large scale system as CIM.
Kiyoji Asai

Factory Automation and Robot Engineerings

Current Technologies on Robotics and Factories in Japan
Practical Robots and Factory Automation (FA) have been remarkable in Japan. This paper presents robot engineerings and applications in Japan mainly, moreover introduces the research and developments (R&D) of robots and robot systems in the industries: (classification, language, intelligence, and standardization) and FA.
Satoru Takashima

New Directions


New Directions in Decision Support for Manufacturing

Accepting the view of a decision support system (DSS) as being composed of three generic components (the language system, the knowledge system, and the problem processing system), we investigate several issues relating to a flexible manufacturing system (FMS). that have an impact on the design of the three DSS components and their interrelationships.
It is observed that an FMS is a distributed decision making structure composed of autonomous cells. Concepts and methods from economics and distributed computation together with a language and formalism supplied by modal and temporal logic can constitute an effective set of representation and problem processing means for building decision support systems for FMS.
Abhijit Chaudhury, Shimon Y. Nof, Andrew B. Whinston

Industrial Applications of Artificial Intelligence

This paper reviews current and future applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Knowledge-Based systems to manufacturing. This is not a review of robotics technology, but focuses, instead, on manufacturing decision problems. Manufacturing, in this case, refers to the entire product life cycle: product design, production planning, production, distribution, and field service and reclamation. The review focuses on where, at each point in the product life cycle, there are problems to be solved, where AI is currently being applied, and where it may be applied in the future. The results of a recent survey note that research and development in this area has increased significantly in the 1980s. Most focus on spot applications of the technology. More recent work is taking a systemic view of manufacturing.
Mark S. Fox

Intelligent Knowledge Bases of CAD Environments: The Hybrid System “KANON”

The CAD-/CAM-area can be seen as an interdisciplinary field between the mechanical engineers and the computer scientists. Regarding this development the software-engineering aspect has been dominant up to now on the part of computer science. The reason why is that in the meantime already good and refined systems exist on the market (CATIA,CADAM, CAEDS, CADIS, ICEM). But the integration capability of such systems has hardly been taken into consideration. Only since CIM‡ and the combining of CAD-/CAM-systems have been discussed one tries to integrate these systems. Two fundamental integration approaches can be differentiated:
Extension of the existing sytems for universal interfaces which enable their integration;
Development of new systems in which the integration aspect is part of the system.
In this connection the integration of AI-methods and existing database system-software-engineering- up to information system approaches offers — in our opinion - suitable ways of solutions which shall be explained afterwards.
Starting out from chapter 1, which describes the problems of conventional CAD-/CAM-systems, the hybrid system KANON with its application possibilities in a CIM-environment is introduced in chapter 2, so that useful application possibilities of a KBS regarding the development and realization of CAD-/CAM-systems can be explained in chapter 3.
Hans-J. Schneider, Dimitris Karagiannis

An Information System Architecture for Robot Cell Programming

Programming a robot cell is a complex problem implying contributions from several scientific disciplines with a major need of integration. More than a functional integration, the problem is mainly one of information integration. The Information System is, therefore, the key element for integration of all components of the programming system.
A conceptual structure for the Information System is proposed and some preliminary implementation results discussed with special emphasis on the interface between cell programming and upper level aspects of the CIM system. Some guidelines for future work are presented.
L. M. Camarinha-Matos, A. Steiger-Garção

Management of Uncertainty


A Computational Theory of Dispositions

A disposition may be interpreted is a proposition which is preponderantly, but not necessarily always, true. In this sense, birds can fly is a disposition, as are the propositions Swedes are blond, snow is white and slimness is attractive.
An idea which underlies the theory described in this paper is that a disposition may be viewed as a proposition with implicit fuzzy quantifiers which are approximations to all and always, e.g., almost all, almost always, most, frequently, usually, etc. For example, birds can fly may be interpreted as the result of suppressing the fuzzy quantifier most in the proposition most birds can fly. Similarly, young men like young women may be read as most young men like mostly young women. The process of transforming a disposition into a proposition with explicit fuzzy quantifiers is referred to as explicitation or restoration.
Explicitation sets the stage for representing the meaning of a disposition through the use of test-score semantics (Zadeh, 1978, 1982). In this approach to semantics, a proposition, p, is viewed as a collection of interrelated elastic constraints, and the meaning of p is represented as a procedure which tests, scores and aggregates the constraints which are induced by p.
The paper closes with a description of an approach to reasoning with dispositions which is based on the concept of a fuzzy syllogism. Syllogistic reasoning with dispositions has an important bearing on commonsense reasoning as well as on the management of uncertainty in expert systems. As a simple application of the techniques described in this paper, we formulate a definition of typicality and establish a connection between the typical and usual values of a variable.
Lotfi A. Zadeh

An Approximate Reasoning Framework for Aggregate Production Planning

An approximate reasoning framework is proposed based on the developments in interval valued fuzzy set representation and inference. A detailed study of the aggregate production planning problem and its comparison with a classical operations management model known as HMMS model show that the approximate reasoning framework produces a favourably robust result.
I. B. Turksen

Fuzzy Robot Vision and Fuzzy Controlled Robot

A robot-arm system which is able to recognize a moving patterns and to manipulate a moving object on a belt-conveyor at a various speed is built. This system consists of two parts.
The first part is related to recognizing patterns. In this part, a method of constructing a discriminant-tree is proposed, where three newly defined measures called effectiveness, importance and applicability are introduced. The robot-arm-system is able to recognize the shape and the size of moving patterns on a belt conveyor based on the discriminant-tree.
The second part is concerned with replacing a moving object ( i.e. grasping a moving object and putting it on an indicated moving mark) based on fuzzy-inference rules with the aid of image processing technique. The main idea is based on the concept of probabilistic sets in extended fuzzy expression. Ambiguous instructions in terms of membership and vagueness are generated by the robot itself using imagery data from a CCD-camera. Each of these instructions consists of three fuzzy items. In replacing part, two of three fuzzy items are input ( ambiguous ) information, and one is output information. One of the input information is the fuzzy speed of the moving object/mark, and another is the fuzzy distance between the robot-hand and the object/mark. Output fuzzy information shows the distance between the present position of the object/mark and the next position of it. This output information is calculated based on Fuzzy inference method.
The whole system is controlled by only one 16-bit-personal-computer, and works in real time. It also allows a human-like, flexible movement. The advantages of the proposed method are the reduction of processing time and the availability of low level devices, which have not been realized by other methods.
K. Hirota, S. Hachisu, Y. Arai

OPAL: A Knowledge-Based System for Industrial Job-Shop Scheduling

A job-shop scheduling software currently under development is described, based on Artificial Intelligence programming techniques. The idea is to be able to make three kinds of knowledge cooperate in the derivation of a feasible schedule : theoretical knowledge (issued form scheduling theory) which achieves the management of time ; empirical knowledge about priority rules and their influence on production objectives; and practical knowledge (provided by shop-floor managers) about technological constraints to be satisfied in a given application. The latter is usually not considered in pure Operations Research algorithms. The system is actually implemented in COMMON LISP and runs on a Texas Explorer LISP Machine and a SUN workstation. Computational results are reported.
E. Bensana, G. Bel, D. Dubois

Models Toward Integration


Designing the Layout and the Control System of FMS

An epistemological concept for the development of technical designing tools was developed in the early seventies and implemented in a simulator. It is based on an object-subject model that originate from sensory and intellectual perception and action cycle. Models depict a picture of the plant. They describe distinctive features and states of an installation. The simulator is a tool for experimental studies in the design of future factories. Simulation experiments could be used as a test bed of integration.
A. Reinhardt

Feedback Control Theory Approach for Scheduling Flexible Manufacturing Systems

The area of feedback control has a rich history of applications in the various fields of engineering, notably electrical and electronic systems. On the other hand, adaptation of formal feedback control techniques to business planning and control systems have been less than successful. Typically, these unsuccessful applications have been in the environment of man-machine production systems.
In this paper, we are going to address various aspects of business planning and control as applicable to highly automated systems. Flexible Manufacturing Systems are an example of such computer integrated manufacturing systems. Our hypothesis is that feedback control methodologies are easier to implement in this environment and can contribute to great increases in productivity in terms of increased throughput rates as well as decreased tardiness.
We present our implementation of Intelligent Feedback Methodology (IFM-1), the structure of its design and the experimental design for testing the efficacy of such an approach to control an FMS. Preliminary results indicate the robustness of this methodology.
K. Ravi Kumar

Optimum Storage Layout in Flexible Manufacturing

Two layout problems in flexible manufacturing have been considered. First, the layout of Work In Process (WIP) storage area has been modelled as a generalized assignment problem. Secondly, the optimum location is investigated for the pick up point of the WIP storage unit on a material handling network. Algorithms haye been provided for efficient solution of these two problems.
A. S. Kiran, B. C. Tansel

Minimal Bottleneck Cell Approach for Generating Part-Machine Families in Cellular Manufacturing

Graph theoretic models are presented for finding part-machine families subject to production and management constraints. The new models allow one to reorganize the existing parts and machines into disaggregated cells. Two efficient heuristic techniques are developed which identify the most inexpensive bottleneck machines to duplicate while achieving capacity balance of the disaggregated cells. This approach has the flexibility of letting the designer control the number of cells and cell size thus generating a variety of cellular manufacturing system designs to choose from.
Anthony Vannelli, K. Ravi Kumar

Present State of Manufacturing Automation

This paper discusses the present state of the Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. Particular attention is given to efficient, automated use of professional CAD/CAM systems, and to unsolved problems of unmanned machining technology. Automated design and manufacture of sculptured aircraft components is presented as an example of efficient use of CAD/ CAM systems. In-process detection of tool failure for untended milling operations is presented in the paper to address the tool condition monitoring problems in unmanned machining systems.
Y. Altintas

Modelling a Belt Conveyor

The mathematical model of a belt conveyor expresses quantitatively the relation of the materials-machine parameters. Also it expresses the mathematical relation among the size variables, the operation and the capacity of the conveyor. Therefore, there is the ability of comparison among conveyors of various sizes and of experimenting on models in laboratory environment corresponding to real structures which may extend even for kilometers.
The purpose of the present work is the creation of a mathematical model to simulate a belt conveyor, paying attention to various variables and parameters such as size, function and conveying capacity. Some simplifications are used for the relations among variables. For the present case, a belt conveyor is chosen with three equal — size idlers.
The creation of the mathematical model is based on the theorem of ni terms or Vaschy-Buckingham theorem and its solution is approached by numerical methods. The coefficients of the equation are determined by a suitable program written in BASIC.
The extent of application of either experimental and real data on mathematical model of simulation is constrained by the relative error which-in order to be acceptable-must not exceed 5%.
P. Drakatos, E. Sotiropoulos, A. Dentsoras

Programmable Parts Manipulation and Assembly

This paper deals with some of the main issues concerning programmable manipulation as used in the assembly of discrete parts. The discussion centers on the planning, specification, programming and execution of the various types of manipulator motions. These motions include free, guarded and compliant motions. The latter two are of particular importance in carrying out tasks in environments with significant uncertainty in object locations. Examples are provided illustrating the use of compliant motion that incorporates sensory feedback to reduce the effect of such uncertainty. The discussion focuses on models that have been proposed in this area, which may serve as the basis for general task planning systems.
E. E. Pickett

Shape Models in Computer-Integrated Manufacture

Existing computer—aided manufacturing systems are based on models of shape tailored to a particular process. Computer—integrated manufacture involves many different processes, and hence requires more complete models of components or assemblies. This can be provided by solid modelling techniques extended to include extra data related to manufacture such as form features and tolerances. These developments are being applied to many manufacturing processes, from casting to assembly, but profound questions remain concerning both the structure and the use of shape models in manufacture.
J. R. Woodwark

Image Acquisition and Processing Techniques for Industrial Inspection

The concepts and design of automated visual inspection systems are described. The multi-disciplinary, systems-orientated nature of the subject is emphasised; an industrial inspection system inevitably incorporates elements of mechanical handling, lighting, optics, sensors, as well as electronic and software-based image processing. Image acquisition, for example, is regarded as being of equal importance to image processing. There is a detailed discussion of illumination & viewing techniques. Different types of image sensor are compared. Image processing systems may incorporate slow, low-cost, flexible software, or fast, fixed-function, and expensive hardware. Their relative advantages are reviewed. A number of practical applications of automated visual inspection techniques are then discussed.
B. G. Batchelor, G. E. Foot


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