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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computer Networks, CN 2016, held in Brunów, Poland, in June 2016. The 32 full papers and the 4 short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 72 submissions. They are organized in topical sections on computer networks architectures and protocols, teleinformatics and telecommunications, new technologies, queueing theory, and innovative applications.



Computer Networks Architectures and Protocols


Real-Time Traffic over the Cognitive Packet Network

Real-Time services over IP (RTIP) have been increasingly significant due to the convergence of data networks worldwide around the IP standard, and the popularisation of the Internet. Real-Time applications have strict Quality of Service (QoS) constraint, which poses a major challenge to IP networks. The Cognitive Packet Network (CPN) has been designed as a QoS-driven protocol that addresses user-oriented QoS demands by adaptively routing packets based on online sensing and measurement, and in this paper we design and experimentally evaluate the“Real-Time (RT) over CPN” protocol which uses QoS goals that match the needs of real-time packet delivery in the presence of other background traffic under varied traffic conditions. The resulting design is evaluated via measurements of packet delay, delay variation (jitter) and packet loss ratio.

Lan Wang, Erol Gelenbe

Expanding the Ns-2 Emulation Environment with the Use of Flexible Mapping

The Berkeley’s ns-2 simulator was, for a long time, one of the most popular open-source simulation tools. Although the new tool in the ns family, the ns-3, replaced it in the above ranking, the simplicity of the ns-2, with its flexibility and ability to operate at higher levels of abstraction caused the simulator to remain in use. This paper presents our enhancements to the mapping of incoming and outgoing traffic in the ns-2 simulator when it works in emulation mode. Our enhancements expand the build-in 1-to-1 MAC address mapping to 1-to-many address/port mapping, which allows the emulator to connect to more end-systems or subnetworks than the number of interfaces of the emulation server.

Robert R. Chodorek, Agnieszka Chodorek

Monitoring and Analysis of Measured and Modeled Traffic of TCP/IP Networks

The software system for simulation of traffic flow for TCP/IP networks based on differential equations of oscillating motion with one degree of freedom was described. The interface of the software system, and the algorithm of its work were presented. Topology of TCP/IP network in ACS department was shown. Developed software that outputs the results in graphical and tabular forms was represented. The relationship between real and simulated traffic was considered. To verificate the results of the experiment the maximum correlation and coefficient that shows the ratio of standard deviation to the maximum were chosen. They show that the proposed equations allow predicting the behavior of traffic flow in TCP/IP networks.

Olga Fedevych, Ivanna Droniuk, Maria Nazarkevych

Investigating Long-Range Dependence in E-Commerce Web Traffic

This paper addresses the problem of investigating long-range dependence (LRD) and self-similarity in Web traffic. Popular techniques for estimating the intensity of LRD via the Hurst parameter are presented. Using a set of traces of a popular e-commerce site, the presence and the nature of LRD in Web traffic is examined. Our results confirm the self-similar nature of traffic at a Web server input, however the resulting estimates of the Hurst parameter vary depending on the trace and the technique used.

Grażyna Suchacka, Adam Domański

More Just Measure of Fairness for Sharing Network Resources

A more just measure of resource distribution in computer networks is proposed. Classic functions evaluate fairness only “on average”. The proposed new fairness score function ensures that no node is left without resources while on average everything looks good. It is compared with well-known and widely adopted function proposed by Jain, Chiu and Hawe and another one recently proposed fairness function by Chen and Zhang. The function proposed in this paper meets most of the properties both earlier proposed functions and at the same time is more restricted and has additional nonzero assignment property.

Krzysztof Nowicki, Aleksander Malinowski, Marcin Sikorski

Classification of Solutions to the Minimum Energy Problem in One Dimensional Sensor Networks

We classify of the minimum energy problem in one dimensional wireless sensor networks for the data transmission cost matrix which is a power function of the distance between transmitter and receiver with any real exponent. We show, how these solutions can be utilized to solve the minimum energy problem for the data transmission cost matrix which is a linear combination of two power functions. We define the minimum energy problem in terms of the sensors signal power, transmission time and capacities of transmission channels. We prove, that for the point-to-point data transmission method utilized by the sensors in the physical layer, when the transmitter adjust the power of its radio signal to the distance to the receiver, the optimal transmission is without interference. We also show, that the solutions of the minimum energy problem written in terms of data transmission cost matrix and in terms of the sensor signal power coincide.

Zbigniew Lipiński

Detection of Malicious Data in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks for Traffic Signal Control Applications

Effective applications of vehicular ad hoc networks in traffic signal control require new methods for detection of malicious data. Injection of malicious data can result in significantly decreased performance of such applications, increased vehicle delays, fuel consumption, congestion, or even safety threats. This paper introduces a method, which combines a model of expected driver behaviour with position verification in order to detect the malicious data injected by vehicle nodes that perform Sybil attacks. Effectiveness of this approach was demonstrated in simulation experiments for a decentralized self-organizing system that controls the traffic signals at multiple intersections in an urban road network. Experimental results show that the proposed method is useful for mitigating the negative impact of malicious data on the performance of traffic signal control.

Bartłomiej Płaczek, Marcin Bernas

Anti-evasion Technique for the Botnets Detection Based on the Passive DNS Monitoring and Active DNS Probing

A new DNS-based anti-evasion technique for botnets detection in the corporate area networks is proposed. Combining of the passive DNS monitoring and active DNS probing have made it possible to construct effective BotGRABBER detection system for botnets, which uses such evasion techniques as cycling of IP mapping, “domain flux”, “fast flux”, DNS-tunneling. BotGRABBER system is based on a cluster analysis of the features obtained from the payload of DNS-messages and uses active probing analysis. Usage of the developed method makes it possible to detect infected hosts by bots of the botnets with high efficiency.

Oksana Pomorova, Oleg Savenko, Sergii Lysenko, Andrii Kryshchuk, Kira Bobrovnikova

Measuring Client-Server Anonymity

The primary intent of clients performing anonymous online tasks is to conceal the extent of their already encrypted communication with sensitive servers. We present an accurate method for evaluating the amount of anonymity still available to such clients in the aftermath of an attack. Our method is based upon probabilities arrived at by the attack of possible client-server association levels for being the real one, along with the correctness levels of those associations. We demonstrate how additionally taking correctness levels into account results in more accurate anonymity measurement than the customary approach of just computing the Shannon entropy of the probabilities.

Rajiv Bagai, Huabo Lu

Probabilistic Model Checking of Security Protocols without Perfect Cryptography Assumption

This paper presents the description of a new, probabilistic approach to model checking of security protocols. The protocol, beyond traditional verification, goes through a phase in which we resign from a perfect cryptography assumption. We assume a certain minimal, but measurable probability of breaking/gaining the cryptographic key, and explore how it affects the execution of the protocol. As part of this work we have implemented a tool, that helps to analyze the probability of interception of sensitive information by the Intruder, depending on the preset parameters (number of communication participants, keys, nonces, the probability of breaking a cipher, etc.). Due to the huge size of the constructed computational spaces, we use parallel computing to search for states that contain the considered properties.

Olga Siedlecka-Lamch, Miroslaw Kurkowski, Jacek Piatkowski

High-Interaction Linux Honeypot Architecture in Recent Perspective

High-interaction honeypots providing virtually an unlimited set of OS services to attackers are necessary to capture the most sophisticated human-made attacks for further analysis. Unfortunately, this field is not covered by recent publications. The paper analyses existing approaches and available open source solutions that can be used to form high-interaction honeypots first. Then the most prospective approach is chosen and best applicable tools are composed. The setup is tested eventually and its usefulness is proven.

Tomas Sochor, Matej Zuzcak

About the Efficiency of Malware Monitoring via Server-Side Honeypots

Gathering information on malware activity is based on two sources of information: trap systems (Honeypots) and program agents in the AntiVirus tools. Both of them deliver only fragmentary picture of malware population, visible from trap systems or from users systems on corporate or home networks. Due to this fragmentation, there is no uniform overall picture of malware state, and various sources present different, often quite different approximations thereof, depending on the their ability of gathering samples of various types of threats and operating locally malware. Another question is how complete is this picture and whether the tools used do not lose some important informations. The paper compares current available informations about malware with data gathered by a set of honeypot systems and discusses usability of some types of malware traps at current state of malware expansion.

Mirosław Skrzewski

Algorithms for Transmission Failure Detection in a Communication System with Two Buses

Designing systems with parallel transmission for industrial purposes, requires first defining the types of a failure, and next detecting it. Another step is to execute an appropriate procedure that can ensure the continuity of transmission. The issue of a failure detection can be a problem in itself, but is can also be a component of data transmission via dual bus. To make the transmission system work correctly, apart from creating the scenario of exchanges, it is necessary to solve the problem of a failure occurrence so that to maintain the transmission continuity. The paper presents the methods of failure detection and algorithms used when such failure occurs.

Andrzej Kwiecień, Błażej Kwiecień, Michał Maćkowski

A Failure Influence on Parameters of Real-Time System with Two Buses

The paper refers to the time parameters of transmission in industrial systems that use two buses. Applying the systems with two buses makes sense only if it is possible to control the transmission all the time, and make modifications and reconstruction of transmission scenario in case of a failure. The paper presents the results of empiric research into testing software algorithm for failure detection of transmission line and network node in industrial communication system. After implemented this algorithm in PLC the results referring to measurements of duration of basic transaction in a system and duration of failure detection on communication buses were presented. The authors tried to clarify whether a failure detection in two buses transmission can have an influence on the delays of transmission. The paper consists of description of a test bench for time parameters measurements, the test results and conclusion.

Andrzej Kwiecień, Błażej Kwiecień, Michał Maćkowski

Event-Driven Approach to Modeling and Performance Estimation of a Distributed Control System

Currently Distributed Control Systems are commonly used in the industry. Proper operation of such systems depends on reliable and efficient communication. Simulation of the system operation in different conditions, performed during early development stages, allows to estimate performance and predict behavior of final implementation. In this paper new event-driven model of a DCS has been introduced and compared with the previous one. Structure of the model decreased simulation time and improved scalability of the approach, whereas precision of the results was not diminished.

Wojciech Rząsa, Dariusz Rzonca

QoE-Oriented Fairness Control for DASH Systems Based on the Hierarchical Structure of SVC Streams

Nowadays, multimedia content is the basis of most popular network services. At the same time, adaptive video streaming is becoming more widely used method for delivering such content to end users. The main purpose of the mechanisms of adaptation is to maximize the usage of network resources while ensuring the best quality of transmitted video. The implementation of adaptation, however, has a serious drawback of not considering the mutual influence of simultaneous transmission of multiple video streams. In this article, we propose a method of the QoE-oriented fairness control for DASH systems which uses a new utility function. This function based on a hierarchical structure of a SVC video stream. The properties of this solution were evaluated in a test environment that uses SDN principles. Functional features of the proposed control method were compared with standard algorithm of the adaptation used by DASH supported devices.

Slawomir Przylucki, Dariusz Czerwinski, Artur Sierszen

The Impact of the Degree of Self-Similarity on the NLREDwM Mechanism with Drop from Front Strategy

This paper examines the impact of the degree of self-similarity on the selected AQM mechanisms. During the tests we analyzed the length of the queue, the number of rejected packets and waiting times in queues. We use fractional Gaussian noise as a self-similar traffic source. The quantitative analysis is based on simulation.

Adam Domański, Joanna Domańska, Tadeusz Czachórski

Teleinformatics and Telecommunications


Influence of Noise and Voice Activity Detection on Speaker Verification

The scope of this paper is to check influence of voice activity detection VAD procedure and its accuracy on speaker verification error rates. It is shown that for speech of high quality, it is absolutely necessary to remove silence from the signal as the errors increase radically. It is better to remove more than less from the signal as the equal error rate EER is the worst for the original speech with silence. Additionally influence of white noise, which was added to speech utterances, was examined. Presented results show that in order to achieve highly reliable speaker verification system it must be insensitive to low quality of speech, since noise is the most important factor responsible for high error rates.

Adam Dustor

Load Balancing in LTE by Tx Power Adjustment

The paper describes a novel method of load balancing in cellular networks based on the management of the reference signal transmit power. The method described is easy in implementation, as it requires only reconfiguration of one of the parameters already defined in the LTE eNodeB in response to the changes in spatial distribution of the clients in the network. The proposed method is evaluated using simulation. The results prove that it allows to significantly decrease the number of unsatisfied clients (by up to 50 % for partially overloaded network), while does not decrease the total efficiency of the network in terms of the summary amount of bits per second transferred by network in time.

Krzysztof Grochla, Konrad Połys

USB 3.1 Gen 1 Hub Time Delay Influence on System Timeout and Bus Clock Synchronization

The USB device designer must be aware of the worst case total delay between the host and a peripheral, because this value is necessary for setting the transaction timeout (allowable response packet delay).In the paper the problem of USB bus timeout is covered for different USB buses: Low/FullSpeed USB 1.x, HighSpeed USB 2.0 and SuperSpeed USB 3.1 Gen 1. The USB 3.1 bus time delay measurement results are presented and supremum of response time is estimated. Additionaly, time delay of isochronous timestamps broadcasting is considered. At last, the demand for adaptive setting of the USB 3.1 bus timeout is expressed.

Wojciech Mielczarek, Michał Sawicki

New Technologies


Quantum Network Protocol for Qudits with Use of Quantum Repeaters and Pauli Z-Type Operational Errors

In this paper a quantum communication protocol with use of repeaters is presented. The protocol is constructed for qudits i.e. the generalized quantum information units. One-dit teleportation is based on the generalized Pauli-Z (phase-flip) gate’s correction. This approach avoids using Pauli-X and Hadamard gates unlike in other known protocols based on quantum repeaters which were constructed for qubits and qudits. It is also important to mention that the repeaters based on teleportation protocol, described in this paper, allow a measurement in the standard base (what simplifies the measurement process) and the use of teleportation causes only Pauli-Z operational errors.

Marek Sawerwain, Joanna Wiśniewska

Multi-level Virtualization and Its Impact on System Performance in Cloud Computing

The results of benchmarking tests of multi-level virtualized environments are presented. There is analysed the performance impact of hardware virtualization, container-type isolation and programming level abstraction. The comparison is made on the basis of a proposed score metric that allows you to compare different aspects of performance. There is general performance (CPU and memory), networking, disk operations and application-like load taken into account. The tested technologies are, inter alia, VMware ESXi, Docker and Oracle JVM.

Paweł Lubomski, Andrzej Kalinowski, Henryk Krawczyk

Ping-Pong Protocol Eavesdropping in Almost Perfect Channels

An undetectable eavesdropping of the entanglement based quantum direct communication in lossy quantum channels has already been demonstrated by Zhang et al. (Phys Lett A 333(12):46–50, 2004). The circuit proposed therein induces losses at a constant 25 % rate. Skipping of some protocol cycles is advised in situations when the induced loss rate is too high. However, such policy leads to a reduction in information gain proportional to the number of skipped cycles.The entangling transformation, parametrized by the induced loss ratio, is proposed. The new method permits fine-tuning of the loss ratio by a modification of coupling coefficients. The proposed method significantly improves efficiency of the attack operated in the low loss regime. The other properties of the attack remain the same.

Piotr Zawadzki

Queueing Theory


A Regeneration-Based Estimation of High Performance Multiserver Systems

In this paper we develop a novel approach to confidence estimation of the stationary measures in high performance multiserver queueing systems. This approach is based on construction of the two processes which are, respectively, upper and lower (stochastic) bounds for the trajectories of the basic queue size process in the original system. The main feature of these envelopes is that they have classical regenerations. This approach turns out to be useful when the original process is not regenerative or regenerations occur extremely rare to be applied in estimation. We apply this approach to construct confidence intervals for the steady-state queue size in classical multiserver systems and also for the novel high performance cluster (HPC) model, a multiserver system with simultaneous service. Simulation based on a real HPC dataset shows that this approach allows to estimate stationary queue size in a reasonable time with a given accuracy.

Evsey Morozov, Ruslana Nekrasova, Irina Peshkova, Alexander Rumyantsev

Queuing Model of the Access System in the Packet Network

This article proposes a new multi-dimensional Erlang’s Ideal Grading (EIG) model with queues that can service a number of call classes with differentiated access to resources. The model was used to determine delays and packet loss probabilities in the access system composed of a node in the operator’s network and a number of users. The analytical results obtained in the study were then compared with the results of a simulation, which confirmed the essential and required accuracy of the proposed model. The model developed in the study can be used to analyse, design and optimize present-day operator’s networks.

Sławomir Hanczewski, Maciej Stasiak, Joanna Weissenberg, Piotr Zwierzykowski

A Study of IP Router Queues with the Use of Markov Models

We investigate the use of Markov chains in modeling the queues inside IP routers. The model takes into account the measured size of packets, i.e. collected histogram is represented by a linear combination of exponentially distributed phases. We discuss also the impact of the distribution of IP packets size on the loss probability resulting from the limited size of a router memory buffer. The model considers a self similar traffic generated by on-off sources. A special interest is paid to the duration of a queue transient state following the changes of traffic intensity as a function of traffic Hurst parameter and of the utilization of the link. Our goal is to see how far, taking into account the known constraints of Markov models (state explosion) we are able to refine the queueing model.

Tadeusz Czachórski, Adam Domański, Joanna Domańska, Artur Rataj

Analysis of a Queueing Model with Contingent Additional Server

We consider a two-server queueing system with a finite buffer. Customers arrive to the system according to the Markovian arrival process. Normally, only one server is active. The service time of a customer has a phase-type distribution. An additional server is activated only if the queue length exceeds some fixed preassigned threshold. The service time by the additional server also has a phase-type distribution with the same state space. While the underlying Markov chains of service at two servers have non-coinciding states, service in two servers is provided independently. But if it occurs that the underlying Markov chain for one server, say, server 1, needs transition to the state, at which the underlying Markov chain for server 2 is currently staying, service in the server 1 is postponed until the Markov chain for server 2 transits to another state. Dynamics of the system is described by the multi-dimensional Markov chain. The generator of this Markov chain is written down. Expressions for computation of performance measures are derived. Problem of numerical determination of the optimal threshold is solved.

Chesoong Kim, Alexander Dudin

A Dual Tandem Queue with Multi-server Stations and Losses

In this paper, a tandem queue consisting of two multi-server stations without buffers is investigated. Customers of two different types arrive to the first station in accordance with MMAP (Marked Markovian Arrival Process). The first type customers are satisfied with service at the first station only while the second type customers should be served successively at both stations. The system is studied in steady state. The stationary distribution of the system is calculated. A number of useful performance measures is derived. Decomposition and optimization problems are discussed.

Valentina Klimenok, Vladimir Vishnevsky

Innovative Applications


Adjustable Sampling Rate – An Efficient Way to Reduce the Impact of Network-Induced Uncertainty in Networked Control Systems?

The practical realization of Network Control Systems (NCSs) enforces handling network-induced effects: information transfer and processing delay, delay variability, packet loss and reordering, etc. The impact of these phenomena can be limited by using dedicated, expensive real-time networks and control systems, or by implementation of algorithmic methods. This paper presents an adjustable sampling rate (ASR) algorithm to alleviate negative influence of network-induced uncertainty in NCSs, and compares it with previously developed predictor based (PB) one in a common experimental framework. Since the experiments are conducted using standard modules and communication technologies, the reported results are applicable to a relatively broad class of remote control applications and NCSs.

Michał Morawski, Przemysław Ignaciuk

A SIP-Based Home Gateway for Domotics Systems: From the Architecture to the Prototype

The integration of the various home devices into a single, multi-service, and user-friendly platform is still an area of active research. In this scenario, we propose a domotics framework based on the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and on a SIP-based Home Gateway (SHG). The SHG retains the compatibility with the existing SIP infrastructure, allowing the user to control all domotics devices through his usual SIP client. Particular attention has been paid to the usability and scalability of the system, which brought us to define a functional addressing and control paradigm. A working prototype of the SHG and a customized SIP event package have been used to provide a proof-of-concept of our architecture, in which the SHG has been interfaced with ZigBee and Bluetooth networks.

Rosario G. Garroppo, Loris Gazzarrini, Stefano Giordano, Michele Pagano, Luca Tavanti

The Cloud Computing Stream Analysis System for Road Artefacts Detection

The paper presents the cloud computing system designed for monitoring the state of roads by processing data packages covering such data as the car’s acceleration and position acquired by mobile devices (smartphones and tablets) mounted in cars and implemented on IBM BlueMix platform. Such data are being directly sent to the cloud system, where they are being saved and processed online. The system is capable of performing the authors’ pothole detection algorithm which is characterized by high detection rate, but on continuously arriving data. Finally, the system is presenting its results in the form of website and data packages sent back to mobile devices.

Marcin Badurowicz, Tomasz Cieplak, Jerzy Montusiewicz

RSSI-Based Localisation of the Radio Waves Source by Mobile Agents

The paper presents a practical realisation of the localisation of a radio wave source. The system is based on the RSSI principle and uses a set of blind mobile agents. The main goal of the research was to implement the localisation system of the root node in WSN on the low-cost autonomous mobile embedded platform. This platform has a limited ability for complex mathematical operations, therefore more easy algorithms should be used. The study focused on implementation of movement algorithms and exchanging the knowledge between blind agents. In the solution described the gradient search path algorithm was implemented.

Dariusz Czerwinski, Slawomir Przylucki, Dmitry Mukharsky

Evolutionary Scanner of Web Application Vulnerabilities

With every passing year, there are more and more websites, which often process sensitive and/or valuable information. Due to models like Continuous Development, manual testing and code review are reduced to minimum, with new features implemented and deployed even on the same day. This calls for development of new automated testing methods, especially the ones that will allow for identification of potential security issues. In this article such a new method, which is based on automated web pages comparisons, clustering and grammatical evolution is proposed. This method allows for automated testing of a website and can identify outstanding (unusual) web pages. Such pages can then be further investigated by checking if they are legitimate, contain some unused modules or potential threats to application security. The proposed method can identify such anomalous pages within the set of interlinked web pages, but can also find web pages that are not linked to any other web page on the server by utilizing genetic-based generation of URLs.

Dariusz Pałka, Marek Zachara, Krzysztof Wójcik

Data Transformation Using Custom Class Generator as Part of Systems Integration in Manufacturing Company

This paper attempts to bring closer one of the issues of data exchange between different subjects of IT structure in production enterprises which is the essence of their integration. The paper focuses primarily on transformation of data swapped between systems in open B2MML format. The article presents a design concept of solution for data transformation using custom class generator. Its operability was tested on sample data presented in B2MML format.

Jacek Pękala

Signal Recognition Based on Multidimensional Optimization of Distance Function in Medical Applications

The paper presents an idea of the method of creating the signal classifier which is based on the optimization of the metric (distance) function. The authors suggest that the proper choice of metric function parameters allows to adapt the whole classification operation to solve certain problems of the time-varied signal recognition, especially in medical applications. The main advantage of the described approach is a possibility to interpret the obtained solutions. This may enable to progress the doctor’s skills, as well as improve the automatic classification method. The paper presents a brief example of the method usage in a practical application. It deals with the classification of the signals obtained from MEMS (3-axis accelerometer) sensors during the Lachman knee test. The authors point to main conditions which determine an increase in the efficiency of the described approach. Particularly, they are involved in developing efficient optimization methods of discontinuous criterion functions and algorithms for detection the cohesive group of points that define the relevant signal regions.

Krzysztof Wójcik, Bogdan Wziętek, Piotr Wziętek, Marcin Piekarczyk

Determining the Popularity of Design Patterns Used by Programmers Based on the Analysis of Questions and Answers on Social Network

User-generated content in social networks constitutes tremendous stores of knowledge to be analysed. The article presented results of research on the popularity of design patterns on the basis of data gathered in the specialised social networks. The conducted analyses concerned i.a. general popularity of questions about design patterns and indicating a group of patterns which cause possible problems during implementation. The research results were obtained thanks to using data mining techniques.

Daniel Czyczyn-Egird, Rafal Wojszczyk


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