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Über dieses Buch

The sixteen-volume set comprising the LNCS volumes 11205-11220 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Computer Vision, ECCV 2018, held in Munich, Germany, in September 2018.The 776 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 2439 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on learning for vision; computational photography; human analysis; human sensing; stereo and reconstruction; optimization; matching and recognition; video attention; and poster sessions.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Poster Session

Frontmatter

BSN: Boundary Sensitive Network for Temporal Action Proposal Generation

Temporal action proposal generation is an important yet challenging problem, since temporal proposals with rich action content are indispensable for analysing real-world videos with long duration and high proportion irrelevant content. This problem requires methods not only generating proposals with precise temporal boundaries, but also retrieving proposals to cover truth action instances with high recall and high overlap using relatively fewer proposals. To address these difficulties, we introduce an effective proposal generation method, named Boundary-Sensitive Network (BSN), which adopts “local to global” fashion. Locally, BSN first locates temporal boundaries with high probabilities, then directly combines these boundaries as proposals. Globally, with Boundary-Sensitive Proposal feature, BSN retrieves proposals by evaluating the confidence of whether a proposal contains an action within its region. We conduct experiments on two challenging datasets: ActivityNet-1.3 and THUMOS14, where BSN outperforms other state-of-the-art temporal action proposal generation methods with high recall and high temporal precision. Finally, further experiments demonstrate that by combining existing action classifiers, our method significantly improves the state-of-the-art temporal action detection performance.

Tianwei Lin, Xu Zhao, Haisheng Su, Chongjing Wang, Ming Yang

Progressive Structure from Motion

Structure from Motion or the sparse 3D reconstruction out of individual photos is a long studied topic in computer vision. Yet none of the existing reconstruction pipelines fully addresses a progressive scenario where images are only getting available during the reconstruction process and intermediate results are delivered to the user. Incremental pipelines are capable of growing a 3D model but often get stuck in local minima due to wrong (binding) decisions taken based on incomplete information. Global pipelines on the other hand need the access to the complete viewgraph and are not capable of delivering intermediate results. In this paper we propose a new reconstruction pipeline working in a progressive manner rather than in a batch processing scheme. The pipeline is able to recover from failed reconstructions in early stages, avoids to take binding decisions, delivers a progressive output and yet maintains the capabilities of existing pipelines. We demonstrate and evaluate our method on diverse challenging public and dedicated datasets including those with highly symmetric structures and compare to the state of the art.

Alex Locher, Michal Havlena, Luc Van Gool

Monocular Depth Estimation Using Whole Strip Masking and Reliability-Based Refinement

We propose a monocular depth estimation algorithm based on whole strip masking (WSM) and reliability-based refinement. First, we develop a convolutional neural network (CNN) tailored for the depth estimation. Specifically, we design a novel filter, called WSM, to exploit the tendency that a scene has similar depths in horizonal or vertical directions. The proposed CNN combines WSM upsampling blocks with a ResNet encoder. Second, we measure the reliability of an estimated depth, by appending additional layers to the main CNN. Using the reliability information, we perform conditional random field (CRF) optimization to refine the estimated depth map. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm provides the state-of-the-art depth estimation performance.

Minhyeok Heo, Jaehan Lee, Kyung-Rae Kim, Han-Ul Kim, Chang-Su Kim

Local Spectral Graph Convolution for Point Set Feature Learning

Feature learning on point clouds has shown great promise, with the introduction of effective and generalizable deep learning frameworks such as pointnet++. Thus far, however, point features have been abstracted in an independent and isolated manner, ignoring the relative layout of neighboring points as well as their features. In the present article, we propose to overcome this limitation by using spectral graph convolution on a local graph, combined with a novel graph pooling strategy. In our approach, graph convolution is carried out on a nearest neighbor graph constructed from a point’s neighborhood, such that features are jointly learned. We replace the standard max pooling step with a recursive clustering and pooling strategy, devised to aggregate information from within clusters of nodes that are close to one another in their spectral coordinates, leading to richer overall feature descriptors. Through extensive experiments on diverse datasets, we show a consistent demonstrable advantage for the tasks of both point set classification and segmentation. Our implementations are available at https://github.com/fate3439/LocalSpecGCN .

Chu Wang, Babak Samari, Kaleem Siddiqi

Piggyback: Adapting a Single Network to Multiple Tasks by Learning to Mask Weights

This work presents a method for adapting a single, fixed deep neural network to multiple tasks without affecting performance on already learned tasks. By building upon ideas from network quantization and pruning, we learn binary masks that “piggyback” on an existing network, or are applied to unmodified weights of that network to provide good performance on a new task. These masks are learned in an end-to-end differentiable fashion, and incur a low overhead of 1 bit per network parameter, per task. Even though the underlying network is fixed, the ability to mask individual weights allows for the learning of a large number of filters. We show performance comparable to dedicated fine-tuned networks for a variety of classification tasks, including those with large domain shifts from the initial task (ImageNet), and a variety of network architectures. Our performance is agnostic to task ordering and we do not suffer from catastrophic forgetting or competition between tasks.

Arun Mallya, Dillon Davis, Svetlana Lazebnik

Real-Time MDNet

We present a fast and accurate visual tracking algorithm based on the multi-domain convolutional neural network (MDNet). The proposed approach accelerates feature extraction procedure and learns more discriminative models for instance classification; it enhances representation quality of target and background by maintaining a high resolution feature map with a large receptive field per activation. We also introduce a novel loss term to differentiate foreground instances across multiple domains and learn a more discriminative embedding of target objects with similar semantics. The proposed techniques are integrated into the pipeline of a well known CNN-based visual tracking algorithm, MDNet. We accomplish approximately 25 times speed-up with almost identical accuracy compared to MDNet. Our algorithm is evaluated in multiple popular tracking benchmark datasets including OTB2015, UAV123, and TempleColor, and outperforms the state-of-the-art real-time tracking methods consistently even without dataset-specific parameter tuning.

Ilchae Jung, Jeany Son, Mooyeol Baek, Bohyung Han

Real-Time Hair Rendering Using Sequential Adversarial Networks

We present an adversarial network for rendering photorealistic hair as an alternative to conventional computer graphics pipelines. Our deep learning approach does not require low-level parameter tuning nor ad-hoc asset design. Our method simply takes a strand-based 3D hair model as input and provides intuitive user-control for color and lighting through reference images. To handle the diversity of hairstyles and its appearance complexity, we disentangle hair structure, color, and illumination properties using a sequential GAN architecture and a semi-supervised training approach. We also introduce an intermediate edge activation map to orientation field conversion step to ensure a successful CG-to-photoreal transition, while preserving the hair structures of the original input data. As we only require a feed-forward pass through the network, our rendering performs in real-time. We demonstrate the synthesis of photorealistic hair images on a wide range of intricate hairstyles and compare our technique with state-of-the-art hair rendering methods.

Lingyu Wei, Liwen Hu, Vladimir Kim, Ersin Yumer, Hao Li

Model-free Consensus Maximization for Non-Rigid Shapes

Many computer vision methods use consensus maximization to relate measurements containing outliers with the correct transformation model. In the context of rigid shapes, this is typically done using Random Sampling and Consensus (RANSAC) by estimating an analytical model that agrees with the largest number of measurements (inliers). However, small parameter models may not be always available. In this paper, we formulate the model-free consensus maximization as an Integer Program in a graph using ‘rules’ on measurements. We then provide a method to solve it optimally using the Branch and Bound (BnB) paradigm. We focus its application on non-rigid shapes, where we apply the method to remove outlier 3D correspondences and achieve performance superior to the state of the art. Our method works with outlier ratio as high as 80%. We further derive a similar formulation for 3D template to image matching, achieving similar or better performance compared to the state of the art.

Thomas Probst, Ajad Chhatkuli, Danda Pani Paudel, Luc Van Gool

Relaxation-Free Deep Hashing via Policy Gradient

In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective relaxation-free method to learn more effective binary codes via policy gradient for scalable image search. While a variety of deep hashing methods have been proposed in recent years, most of them are confronted by the dilemma to obtain optimal binary codes in a truly end-to-end manner with non-smooth sign activations. Unlike existing methods which usually employ a general relaxation framework to adapt to the gradient-based algorithms, our approach formulates the non-smooth part of the hashing network as sampling with a stochastic policy, so that the retrieval performance degradation caused by the relaxation can be avoided. Specifically, our method directly generates the binary codes and maximizes the expectation of rewards for similarity preservation, where the network can be trained directly via policy gradient. Hence, the differentiation challenge for discrete optimization can be naturally addressed, which leads to effective gradients and binary codes. Extensive experimental results on three benchmark datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Xin Yuan, Liangliang Ren, Jiwen Lu, Jie Zhou

Question Type Guided Attention in Visual Question Answering

Visual Question Answering (VQA) requires integration of feature maps with drastically different structures. Image descriptors have structures at multiple spatial scales, while lexical inputs inherently follow a temporal sequence and naturally cluster into semantically different question types. A lot of previous works use complex models to extract feature representations but neglect to use high-level information summary such as question types in learning. In this work, we propose Question Type-guided Attention (QTA). It utilizes the information of question type to dynamically balance between bottom-up and top-down visual features, respectively extracted from ResNet and Faster R-CNN networks. We experiment with multiple VQA architectures with extensive input ablation studies over the TDIUC dataset and show that QTA systematically improves the performance by more than 5% across multiple question type categories such as “Activity Recognition”, “Utility” and “Counting” on TDIUC dataset compared to the state-of-art. By adding QTA on the state-of-art model MCB, we achieve 3% improvement in overall accuracy. Finally, we propose a multi-task extension to predict question types which generalizes QTA to applications that lack question type, with a minimal performance loss.

Yang Shi, Tommaso Furlanello, Sheng Zha, Animashree Anandkumar

Estimating Depth from RGB and Sparse Sensing

We present a deep model that can accurately produce dense depth maps given an RGB image with known depth at a very sparse set of pixels. The model works simultaneously for both indoor/outdoor scenes and produces state-of-the-art dense depth maps at nearly real-time speeds on both the NYUv2 and KITTI datasets. We surpass the state-of-the-art for monocular depth estimation even with depth values for only 1 out of every $${\sim }10000$$ image pixels, and we outperform other sparse-to-dense depth methods at all sparsity levels. With depth values for $$1{\slash }256$$ of the image pixels, we achieve a mean error of less than $$1\%$$ of actual depth on indoor scenes, comparable to the performance of consumer-grade depth sensor hardware. Our experiments demonstrate that it would indeed be possible to efficiently transform sparse depth measurements obtained using e.g. lower-power depth sensors or SLAM systems into high-quality dense depth maps.

Zhao Chen, Vijay Badrinarayanan, Gilad Drozdov, Andrew Rabinovich

Specular-to-Diffuse Translation for Multi-view Reconstruction

Most multi-view 3D reconstruction algorithms, especially when shape-from-shading cues are used, assume that object appearance is predominantly diffuse. To alleviate this restriction, we introduce S2Dnet, a generative adversarial network for transferring multiple views of objects with specular reflection into diffuse ones, so that multi-view reconstruction methods can be applied more effectively. Our network extends unsupervised image-to-image translation to multi-view “specular to diffuse” translation. To preserve object appearance across multiple views, we introduce a Multi-View Coherence loss (MVC) that evaluates the similarity and faithfulness of local patches after the view-transformation. In addition, we carefully design and generate a large synthetic training data set using physically-based rendering. During testing, our network takes only the raw glossy images as input, without extra information such as segmentation masks or lighting estimation. Results demonstrate that multi-view reconstruction can be significantly improved using the images filtered by our network.

Shihao Wu, Hui Huang, Tiziano Portenier, Matan Sela, Daniel Cohen-Or, Ron Kimmel, Matthias Zwicker

Stacked Cross Attention for Image-Text Matching

In this paper, we study the problem of image-text matching. Inferring the latent semantic alignment between objects or other salient stuff (e.g. snow, sky, lawn) and the corresponding words in sentences allows to capture fine-grained interplay between vision and language, and makes image-text matching more interpretable. Prior work either simply aggregates the similarity of all possible pairs of regions and words without attending differentially to more and less important words or regions, or uses a multi-step attentional process to capture limited number of semantic alignments which is less interpretable. In this paper, we present Stacked Cross Attention to discover the full latent alignments using both image regions and words in a sentence as context and infer image-text similarity. Our approach achieves the state-of-the-art results on the MS-COCO and Flickr30K datasets. On Flickr30K, our approach outperforms the current best methods by 22.1% relatively in text retrieval from image query, and 18.2% relatively in image retrieval with text query (based on Recall@1). On MS-COCO, our approach improves sentence retrieval by 17.8% relatively and image retrieval by 16.6% relatively (based on Recall@1 using the 5K test set). Code has been made available at: ( https://github.com/kuanghuei/SCAN ).

Kuang-Huei Lee, Xi Chen, Gang Hua, Houdong Hu, Xiaodong He

Deep Texture and Structure Aware Filtering Network for Image Smoothing

Image smoothing is a fundamental task in computer vision, that attempts to retain salient structures and remove insignificant textures. In this paper, we aim to address the fundamental shortcomings of existing image smoothing methods, which cannot properly distinguish textures and structures with similar low-level appearance. While deep learning approaches have started to explore structure preservation through image smoothing, existing work does not yet properly address textures. To this end, we generate a large dataset by blending natural textures with clean structure-only images, and use this to build a texture prediction network (TPN) that predicts the location and magnitude of textures. We then combine the TPN with a semantic structure prediction network (SPN) so that the final texture and structure aware filtering network (TSAFN) is able to identify the textures to remove (“texture-awareness”) and the structures to preserve (“structure-awareness”). The proposed model is easy to understand and implement, and shows good performance on real images in the wild as well as our generated dataset.

Kaiyue Lu, Shaodi You, Nick Barnes

VSO: Visual Semantic Odometry

Robust data association is a core problem of visual odometry, where image-to-image correspondences provide constraints for camera pose and map estimation. Current state-of-the-art direct and indirect methods use short-term tracking to obtain continuous frame-to-frame constraints, while long-term constraints are established using loop closures. In this paper, we propose a novel visual semantic odometry (VSO) framework to enable medium-term continuous tracking of points using semantics. Our proposed framework can be easily integrated into existing direct and indirect visual odometry pipelines. Experiments on challenging real-world datasets demonstrate a significant improvement over state-of-the-art baselines in the context of autonomous driving simply by integrating our semantic constraints.

Konstantinos-Nektarios Lianos, Johannes L. Schönberger, Marc Pollefeys, Torsten Sattler

MPLP++: Fast, Parallel Dual Block-Coordinate Ascent for Dense Graphical Models

Dense, discrete Graphical Models with pairwise potentials are a powerful class of models which are employed in state-of-the-art computer vision and bio-imaging applications. This work introduces a new MAP-solver, based on the popular Dual Block-Coordinate Ascent principle. Surprisingly, by making a small change to a low-performing solver, the Max Product Linear Programming (MPLP) algorithm [7], we derive the new solver MPLP++ that significantly outperforms all existing solvers by a large margin, including the state-of-the-art solver Tree-Reweighted Sequential (TRW-S) message-passing algorithm [17]. Additionally, our solver is highly parallel, in contrast to TRW-S, which gives a further boost in performance with the proposed GPU and multi-thread CPU implementations. We verify the superiority of our algorithm on dense problems from publicly available benchmarks as well as a new benchmark for 6D Object Pose estimation. We also provide an ablation study with respect to graph density.

Siddharth Tourani, Alexander Shekhovtsov, Carsten Rother, Bogdan Savchynskyy

Single Image Highlight Removal with a Sparse and Low-Rank Reflection Model

We propose a sparse and low-rank reflection model for specular highlight detection and removal using a single input image. This model is motivated by the observation that the specular highlight of a natural image usually has large intensity but is rather sparsely distributed while the remaining diffuse reflection can be well approximated by a linear combination of several distinct colors with a sparse and low-rank weighting matrix. We further impose the non-negativity constraint on the weighting matrix as well as the highlight component to ensure that the model is purely additive. With this reflection model, we reformulate the task of highlight removal as a constrained nuclear norm and $$l_1$$ -norm minimization problem which can be solved effectively by the augmented Lagrange multiplier method. Experimental results show that our method performs well on both synthetic images and many real-world examples and is competitive with previous methods, especially in some challenging scenarios featuring natural illumination, hue-saturation ambiguity and strong noises.

Jie Guo, Zuojian Zhou, Limin Wang

Spatio-temporal Channel Correlation Networks for Action Classification

The work in this paper is driven by the question if spatio-temporal correlations are enough for 3D convolutional neural networks (CNN)? Most of the traditional 3D networks use local spatio-temporal features. We introduce a new block that models correlations between channels of a 3D CNN with respect to temporal and spatial features. This new block can be added as a residual unit to different parts of 3D CNNs. We name our novel block ‘Spatio-Temporal Channel Correlation’ (STC). By embedding this block to the current state-of-the-art architectures such as ResNext and ResNet, we improve the performance by 2–3% on the Kinetics dataset. Our experiments show that adding STC blocks to current state-of-the-art architectures outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on the HMDB51, UCF101 and Kinetics datasets. The other issue in training 3D CNNs is about training them from scratch with a huge labeled dataset to get a reasonable performance. So the knowledge learned in 2D CNNs is completely ignored. Another contribution in this work is a simple and effective technique to transfer knowledge from a pre-trained 2D CNN to a randomly initialized 3D CNN for a stable weight initialization. This allows us to significantly reduce the number of training samples for 3D CNNs. Thus, by fine-tuning this network, we beat the performance of generic and recent methods in 3D CNNs, which were trained on large video datasets, e.g. Sports-1M, and fine-tuned on the target datasets, e.g. HMDB51/UCF101.

Ali Diba, Mohsen Fayyaz, Vivek Sharma, M. Mahdi Arzani, Rahman Yousefzadeh, Juergen Gall, Luc Van Gool

A Zero-Shot Framework for Sketch Based Image Retrieval

Sketch-based image retrieval (SBIR) is the task of retrieving images from a natural image database that correspond to a given hand-drawn sketch. Ideally, an SBIR model should learn to associate components in the sketch (say, feet, tail, etc.) with the corresponding components in the image having similar shape characteristics. However, current evaluation methods simply focus only on coarse-grained evaluation where the focus is on retrieving images which belong to the same class as the sketch but not necessarily having the same shape characteristics as in the sketch. As a result, existing methods simply learn to associate sketches with classes seen during training and hence fail to generalize to unseen classes. In this paper, we propose a new benchmark for zero-shot SBIR where the model is evaluated on novel classes that are not seen during training. We show through extensive experiments that existing models for SBIR that are trained in a discriminative setting learn only class specific mappings and fail to generalize to the proposed zero-shot setting. To circumvent this, we propose a generative approach for the SBIR task by proposing deep conditional generative models that take the sketch as an input and fill the missing information stochastically. Experiments on this new benchmark created from the “Sketchy” dataset, which is a large-scale database of sketch-photo pairs demonstrate that the performance of these generative models is significantly better than several state-of-the-art approaches in the proposed zero-shot framework of the coarse-grained SBIR task.

Sasi Kiran Yelamarthi, Shiva Krishna Reddy, Ashish Mishra, Anurag Mittal

Lambda Twist: An Accurate Fast Robust Perspective Three Point (P3P) Solver

We present Lambda Twist; a novel P3P solver which is accurate, fast and robust. Current state-of-the-art P3P solvers find all roots to a quartic and discard geometrically invalid and duplicate solutions in a post-processing step. Instead of solving a quartic, the proposed P3P solver exploits the underlying elliptic equations which can be solved by a fast and numerically accurate diagonalization. This diagonalization requires a single real root of a cubic which is then used to find the, up to four, P3P solutions. Unlike the direct quartic solvers our method never computes geometrically invalid or duplicate solutions.Extensive evaluation on synthetic data shows that the new solver has better numerical accuracy and is faster compared to the state-of-the-art P3P implementations. Implementation and benchmark are available on github.

Mikael Persson, Klas Nordberg

Linear RGB-D SLAM for Planar Environments

We propose a new formulation for including orthogonal planar features as a global model into a linear SLAM approach based on sequential Bayesian filtering. Previous planar SLAM algorithms estimate the camera poses and multiple landmark planes in a pose graph optimization. However, since it is formulated as a high dimensional nonlinear optimization problem, there is no guarantee the algorithm will converge to the global optimum. To overcome these limitations, we present a new SLAM method that jointly estimates camera position and planar landmarks in the map within a linear Kalman filter framework. It is rotations that make the SLAM problem highly nonlinear. Therefore, we solve for the rotational motion of the camera using structural regularities in the Manhattan world (MW), resulting in a linear SLAM formulation. We test our algorithm on standard RGB-D benchmarks as well as additional large indoors environments, demonstrating comparable performance to other state-of-the-art SLAM methods without the use of expensive nonlinear optimization.

Pyojin Kim, Brian Coltin, H. Jin Kim

Attentive Semantic Alignment with Offset-Aware Correlation Kernels

Semantic correspondence is the problem of establishing correspondences across images depicting different instances of the same object or scene class. One of recent approaches to this problem is to estimate parameters of a global transformation model that densely aligns one image to the other. Since an entire correlation map between all feature pairs across images is typically used to predict such a global transformation, noisy features from different backgrounds, clutter, and occlusion distract the predictor from correct estimation of the alignment. This is a challenging issue, in particular, in the problem of semantic correspondence where a large degree of image variations is often involved. In this paper, we introduce an attentive semantic alignment method that focuses on reliable correlations, filtering out distractors. For effective attention, we also propose an offset-aware correlation kernel that learns to capture translation-invariant local transformations in computing correlation values over spatial locations. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the attentive model and offset-aware kernel, and the proposed model combining both techniques achieves the state-of-the-art performance.

Paul Hongsuck Seo, Jongmin Lee, Deunsol Jung, Bohyung Han, Minsu Cho

Mancs: A Multi-task Attentional Network with Curriculum Sampling for Person Re-Identification

We propose a novel deep network called Mancs that solves the person re-identification problem from the following aspects: fully utilizing the attention mechanism for the person misalignment problem and properly sampling for the ranking loss to obtain more stable person representation. Technically, we contribute a novel fully attentional block which is deeply supervised and can be plugged into any CNN, and a novel curriculum sampling method which is effective for training ranking losses. The learning tasks are integrated into a unified framework and jointly optimized. Experiments have been carried out on Market1501, CUHK03 and DukeMTMC. All the results show that Mancs can significantly outperform the previous state-of-the-arts. In addition, the effectiveness of the newly proposed ideas has been confirmed by extensive ablation studies.

Cheng Wang, Qian Zhang, Chang Huang, Wenyu Liu, Xinggang Wang

Deep Discriminative Model for Video Classification

This paper presents a new deep learning approach for video-based scene classification. We design a Heterogeneous Deep Discriminative Model (HDDM) whose parameters are initialized by performing an unsupervised pre-training in a layer-wise fashion using Gaussian Restricted Boltzmann Machines (GRBM). In order to avoid the redundancy of adjacent frames, we extract spatiotemporal variation patterns within frames and represent them sparsely using Sparse Cubic Symmetrical Pattern (SCSP). Then, a pre-initialized HDDM is separately trained using the videos of each class to learn class-specific models. According to the minimum reconstruction error from the learnt class-specific models, a weighted voting strategy is employed for the classification. The performance of the proposed method is extensively evaluated on two action recognition datasets; UCF101 and Hollywood II, and three dynamic texture and dynamic scene datasets; DynTex, YUPENN, and Maryland. The experimental results and comparisons against state-of-the-art methods demonstrate that the proposed method consistently achieves superior performance on all datasets.

Mohammad Tavakolian, Abdenour Hadid

Task-Aware Image Downscaling

Image downscaling is one of the most classical problems in computer vision that aims to preserve the visual appearance of the original image when it is resized to a smaller scale. Upscaling a small image back to its original size is a difficult and ill-posed problem due to information loss that arises in the downscaling process. In this paper, we present a novel technique called task-aware image downscaling to support an upscaling task. We propose an auto-encoder-based framework that enables joint learning of the downscaling network and the upscaling network to maximize the restoration performance. Our framework is efficient, and it can be generalized to handle an arbitrary image resizing operation. Experimental results show that our task-aware downscaled images greatly improve the performance of the existing state-of-the-art super-resolution methods. In addition, realistic images can be recovered by recursively applying our scaling model up to an extreme scaling factor of x128. We also validate our model’s generalization capability by applying it to the task of image colorization.

Heewon Kim, Myungsub Choi, Bee Lim, Kyoung Mu Lee

Self-calibration of Cameras with Euclidean Image Plane in Case of Two Views and Known Relative Rotation Angle

The internal calibration of a pinhole camera is given by five parameters that are combined into an upper-triangular $$3\times 3$$ calibration matrix. If the skew parameter is zero and the aspect ratio is equal to one, then the camera is said to have Euclidean image plane. In this paper, we propose a non-iterative self-calibration algorithm for a camera with Euclidean image plane in case the remaining three internal parameters — the focal length and the principal point coordinates — are fixed but unknown. The algorithm requires a set of $$N \ge 7$$ point correspondences in two views and also the measured relative rotation angle between the views. We show that the problem generically has six solutions (including complex ones).The algorithm has been implemented and tested both on synthetic data and on publicly available real dataset. The experiments demonstrate that the method is correct, numerically stable and robust.

Evgeniy Martyushev

Learning to Detect and Track Visible and Occluded Body Joints in a Virtual World

Multi-People Tracking in an open-world setting requires a special effort in precise detection. Moreover, temporal continuity in the detection phase gains more importance when scene cluttering introduces the challenging problems of occluded targets. For the purpose, we propose a deep network architecture that jointly extracts people body parts and associates them across short temporal spans. Our model explicitly deals with occluded body parts, by hallucinating plausible solutions of not visible joints. We propose a new end-to-end architecture composed by four branches (visible heatmaps, occluded heatmaps, part affinity fields and temporal affinity fields) fed by a time linker feature extractor. To overcome the lack of surveillance data with tracking, body part and occlusion annotations we created the vastest Computer Graphics dataset for people tracking in urban scenarios by exploiting a photorealistic videogame. It is up to now the vastest dataset (about 500.000 frames, almost 10 million body poses) of human body parts for people tracking in urban scenarios. Our architecture trained on virtual data exhibits good generalization capabilities also on public real tracking benchmarks, when image resolution and sharpness are high enough, producing reliable tracklets useful for further batch data association or re-id modules.

Matteo Fabbri, Fabio Lanzi, Simone Calderara, Andrea Palazzi, Roberto Vezzani, Rita Cucchiara

DeepJDOT: Deep Joint Distribution Optimal Transport for Unsupervised Domain Adaptation

In computer vision, one is often confronted with problems of domain shifts, which occur when one applies a classifier trained on a source dataset to target data sharing similar characteristics (e.g. same classes), but also different latent data structures (e.g. different acquisition conditions). In such a situation, the model will perform poorly on the new data, since the classifier is specialized to recognize visual cues specific to the source domain. In this work we explore a solution, named DeepJDOT, to tackle this problem: through a measure of discrepancy on joint deep representations/labels based on optimal transport, we not only learn new data representations aligned between the source and target domain, but also simultaneously preserve the discriminative information used by the classifier. We applied DeepJDOT to a series of visual recognition tasks, where it compares favorably against state-of-the-art deep domain adaptation methods.

Bharath Bhushan Damodaran, Benjamin Kellenberger, Rémi Flamary, Devis Tuia, Nicolas Courty

Two at Once: Enhancing Learning and Generalization Capacities via IBN-Net

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have achieved great successes in many computer vision problems. Unlike existing works that designed CNN architectures to improve performance on a single task of a single domain and not generalizable, we present IBN-Net, a novel convolutional architecture, which remarkably enhances a CNN’s modeling ability on one domain (e.g. Cityscapes) as well as its generalization capacity on another domain (e.g. GTA5) without finetuning. IBN-Net carefully integrates Instance Normalization (IN) and Batch Normalization (BN) as building blocks, and can be wrapped into many advanced deep networks to improve their performances. This work has three key contributions. (1) By delving into IN and BN, we disclose that IN learns features that are invariant to appearance changes, such as colors, styles, and virtuality/reality, while BN is essential for preserving content related information. (2) IBN-Net can be applied to many advanced deep architectures, such as DenseNet, ResNet, ResNeXt, and SENet, and consistently improve their performance without increasing computational cost. (3) When applying the trained networks to new domains, e.g. from GTA5 to Cityscapes, IBN-Net achieves comparable improvements as domain adaptation methods, even without using data from the target domain. With IBN-Net, we won the 1st place on the WAD 2018 Challenge Drivable Area track, with an mIoU of 86.18%.

Xingang Pan, Ping Luo, Jianping Shi, Xiaoou Tang

Beyond Part Models: Person Retrieval with Refined Part Pooling (and A Strong Convolutional Baseline)

Employing part-level features offers fine-grained information for pedestrian image description. A prerequisite of part discovery is that each part should be well located. Instead of using external resources like pose estimator, we consider content consistency within each part for precise part location. Specifically, we target at learning discriminative part-informed features for person retrieval and make two contributions. (i) A network named Part-based Convolutional Baseline (PCB). Given an image input, it outputs a convolutional descriptor consisting of several part-level features. With a uniform partition strategy, PCB achieves competitive results with the state-of-the-art methods, proving itself as a strong convolutional baseline for person retrieval. (ii) A refined part pooling (RPP) method. Uniform partition inevitably incurs outliers in each part, which are in fact more similar to other parts. RPP re-assigns these outliers to the parts they are closest to, resulting in refined parts with enhanced within-part consistency. Experiment confirms that RPP allows PCB to gain another round of performance boost. For instance, on the Market-1501 dataset, we achieve (77.4+4.2)% mAP and (92.3+1.5)% rank-1 accuracy, surpassing the state of the art by a large margin. Code is available at: https://github.com/syfafterzy/PCB_RPP

Yifan Sun, Liang Zheng, Yi Yang, Qi Tian, Shengjin Wang

RefocusGAN: Scene Refocusing Using a Single Image

Post-capture control of the focus position of an image is a useful photographic tool. Changing the focus of a single image involves the complex task of simultaneously estimating the radiance and the defocus radius of all scene points. We introduce RefocusGAN, a deblur-then-reblur approach to single image refocusing. We train conditional adversarial networks for deblurring and refocusing using wide-aperture images created from light-fields. By appropriately conditioning our networks with a focus measure, an in-focus image and a refocus control parameter $$\delta $$ , we are able to achieve generic free-form refocusing over a single image.

Parikshit Sakurikar, Ishit Mehta, Vineeth N. Balasubramanian, P. J. Narayanan

Zero-Shot Keyword Spotting for Visual Speech Recognition In-the-wild

Visual keyword spotting (KWS) is the problem of estimating whether a text query occurs in a given recording using only video information. This paper focuses on visual KWS for words unseen during training, a real-world, practical setting which so far has received no attention by the community. To this end, we devise an end-to-end architecture comprising (a) a state-of-the-art visual feature extractor based on spatiotemporal Residual Networks, (b) a grapheme-to-phoneme model based on sequence-to-sequence neural networks, and (c) a stack of recurrent neural networks which learn how to correlate visual features with the keyword representation. Different to prior works on KWS, which try to learn word representations merely from sequences of graphemes (i.e. letters), we propose the use of a grapheme-to-phoneme encoder-decoder model which learns how to map words to their pronunciation. We demonstrate that our system obtains very promising visual-only KWS results on the challenging LRS2 database, for keywords unseen during training. We also show that our system outperforms a baseline which addresses KWS via automatic speech recognition (ASR), while it drastically improves over other recently proposed ASR-free KWS methods.

Themos Stafylakis, Georgios Tzimiropoulos

Real-to-Virtual Domain Unification for End-to-End Autonomous Driving

In the spectrum of vision-based autonomous driving, vanilla end-to-end models are not interpretable and suboptimal in performance, while mediated perception models require additional intermediate representations such as segmentation masks or detection bounding boxes, whose annotation can be prohibitively expensive as we move to a larger scale. More critically, all prior works fail to deal with the notorious domain shift if we were to merge data collected from different sources, which greatly hinders the model generalization ability. In this work, we address the above limitations by taking advantage of virtual data collected from driving simulators, and present DU-drive, an unsupervised real-to-virtual domain unification framework for end-to-end autonomous driving. It first transforms real driving data to its less complex counterpart in the virtual domain, and then predicts vehicle control commands from the generated virtual image. Our framework has three unique advantages: (1) it maps driving data collected from a variety of source distributions into a unified domain, effectively eliminating domain shift; (2) the learned virtual representation is simpler than the input real image and closer in form to the “minimum sufficient statistic” for the prediction task, which relieves the burden of the compression phase while optimizing the information bottleneck tradeoff and leads to superior prediction performance; (3) it takes advantage of annotated virtual data which is unlimited and free to obtain. Extensive experiments on two public driving datasets and two driving simulators demonstrate the performance superiority and interpretive capability of DU-drive.

Luona Yang, Xiaodan Liang, Tairui Wang, Eric Xing

The Mutex Watershed: Efficient, Parameter-Free Image Partitioning

Image partitioning, or segmentation without semantics, is the task of decomposing an image into distinct segments; or equivalently, the task of detecting closed contours in an image. Most prior work either requires seeds, one per segment; or a threshold; or formulates the task as an NP-hard signed graph partitioning problem. Here, we propose an algorithm with empirically linearithmic complexity. Unlike seeded watershed, the algorithm can accommodate not only attractive but also repulsive cues, allowing it to find a previously unspecified number of segments without the need for explicit seeds or a tunable threshold. The algorithm itself, which we dub “Mutex Watershed”, is closely related to a minimal spanning tree computation. It is deterministic and easy to implement. When presented with short-range attractive and long-range repulsive cues from a deep neural network, the Mutex Watershed gives results that currently define the state-of-the-art in the competitive ISBI 2012 EM segmentation benchmark. These results are also better than those obtained from other recently proposed clustering strategies operating on the very same network outputs.

Steffen Wolf, Constantin Pape, Alberto Bailoni, Nasim Rahaman, Anna Kreshuk, Ullrich Köthe, Fred A. Hamprecht

W-TALC: Weakly-Supervised Temporal Activity Localization and Classification

Most activity localization methods in the literature suffer from the burden of frame-wise annotation requirement. Learning from weak labels may be a potential solution towards reducing such manual labeling effort. Recent years have witnessed a substantial influx of tagged videos on the Internet, which can serve as a rich source of weakly-supervised training data. Specifically, the correlations between videos with similar tags can be utilized to temporally localize the activities. Towards this goal, we present W-TALC, a Weakly-supervised Temporal Activity Localization and Classification framework using only video-level labels. The proposed network can be divided into two sub-networks, namely the Two-Stream based feature extractor network and a weakly-supervised module, which we learn by optimizing two complimentary loss functions. Qualitative and quantitative results on two challenging datasets - Thumos14 and ActivityNet1.2, demonstrate that the proposed method is able to detect activities at a fine granularity and achieve better performance than current state-of-the-art methods.

Sujoy Paul, Sourya Roy, Amit K. Roy-Chowdhury

Value-Aware Quantization for Training and Inference of Neural Networks

We propose a novel value-aware quantization which applies aggressively reduced precision to the majority of data while separately handling a small amount of large values in high precision, which reduces total quantization errors under very low precision. We present new techniques to apply the proposed quantization to training and inference. The experiments show that our method with 3-bit activations (with 2% of large ones) can give the same training accuracy as full-precision one while offering significant (41.6% and 53.7%) reductions in the memory cost of activations in ResNet-152 and Inception-v3 compared with the state-of-the-art method. Our experiments also show that deep networks such as Inception-v3, ResNet-101 and DenseNet-121 can be quantized for inference with 4-bit weights and activations (with 1% 16-bit data) within 1% top-1 accuracy drop.

Eunhyeok Park, Sungjoo Yoo, Peter Vajda

Fully-Convolutional Point Networks for Large-Scale Point Clouds

This work proposes a general-purpose, fully-convolutional network architecture for efficiently processing large-scale 3D data. One striking characteristic of our approach is its ability to process unorganized 3D representations such as point clouds as input, then transforming them internally to ordered structures to be processed via 3D convolutions. In contrast to conventional approaches that maintain either unorganized or organized representations, from input to output, our approach has the advantage of operating on memory efficient input data representations while at the same time exploiting the natural structure of convolutional operations to avoid the redundant computing and storing of spatial information in the network. The network eliminates the need to pre- or post process the raw sensor data. This, together with the fully-convolutional nature of the network, makes it an end-to-end method able to process point clouds of huge spaces or even entire rooms with up to 200k points at once. Another advantage is that our network can produce either an ordered output or map predictions directly onto the input cloud, thus making it suitable as a general-purpose point cloud descriptor applicable to many 3D tasks. We demonstrate our network’s ability to effectively learn both low-level features as well as complex compositional relationships by evaluating it on benchmark datasets for semantic voxel segmentation, semantic part segmentation and 3D scene captioning.

Dario Rethage, Johanna Wald, Jürgen Sturm, Nassir Navab, Federico Tombari

Multiple-Gaze Geometry: Inferring Novel 3D Locations from Gazes Observed in Monocular Video

We develop using person gaze direction for scene understanding. In particular, we use intersecting gazes to learn 3D locations that people tend to look at, which is analogous to having multiple camera views. The 3D locations that we discover need not be visible to the camera. Conversely, knowing 3D locations of scene elements that draw visual attention, such as other people in the scene, can help infer gaze direction. We provide a Bayesian generative model for the temporal scene that captures the joint probability of camera parameters, locations of people, their gaze, what they are looking at, and locations of visual attention. Both the number of people in the scene and the number of extra objects that draw attention are unknown and need to be inferred. To execute this joint inference we use a probabilistic data association approach that enables principled comparison of model hypotheses. We use MCMC for inference over the discrete correspondence variables, and approximate the marginalization over continuous parameters using the Metropolis-Laplace approximation, using Hamiltonian (Hybrid) Monte Carlo for maximization. As existing data sets do not provide the 3D locations of what people are looking at, we contribute a small data set that does. On this data set, we infer what people are looking at with 59% precision compared with 13% for a baseline approach, and where those objects are within about 0.58 m.

Ernesto Brau, Jinyan Guan, Tanya Jeffries, Kobus Barnard

Video

Frontmatter

Learning-Based Video Motion Magnification

Video motion magnification techniques allow us to see small motions previously invisible to the naked eyes, such as those of vibrating airplane wings, or swaying buildings under the influence of the wind. Because the motion is small, the magnification results are prone to noise or excessive blurring. The state of the art relies on hand-designed filters to extract representations that may not be optimal. In this paper, we seek to learn the filters directly from examples using deep convolutional neural networks. To make training tractable, we carefully design a synthetic dataset that captures small motion well, and use two-frame input for training. We show that the learned filters achieve high-quality results on real videos, with less ringing artifacts and better noise characteristics than previous methods. While our model is not trained with temporal filters, we found that the temporal filters can be used with our extracted representations up to a moderate magnification, enabling a frequency-based motion selection. Finally, we analyze the learned filters and show that they behave similarly to the derivative filters used in previous works. Our code, trained model, and datasets will be available online.

Tae-Hyun Oh, Ronnachai Jaroensri, Changil Kim, Mohamed Elgharib, Frédo Durand, William T. Freeman, Wojciech Matusik

Massively Parallel Video Networks

We introduce a class of causal video understanding models that aims to improve efficiency of video processing by maximising throughput, minimising latency, and reducing the number of clock cycles. Leveraging operation pipelining and multi-rate clocks, these models perform a minimal amount of computation (e.g. as few as four convolutional layers) for each frame per timestep to produce an output. The models are still very deep, with dozens of such operations being performed but in a pipelined fashion that enables depth-parallel computation. We illustrate the proposed principles by applying them to existing image architectures and analyse their behaviour on two video tasks: action recognition and human keypoint localisation. The results show that a significant degree of parallelism, and implicitly speedup, can be achieved with little loss in performance.

João Carreira, Viorica Pătrăucean, Laurent Mazare, Andrew Zisserman, Simon Osindero

DeepWrinkles: Accurate and Realistic Clothing Modeling

We present a novel method to generate accurate and realistic clothing deformation from real data capture. Previous methods for realistic cloth modeling mainly rely on intensive computation of physics-based simulation (with numerous heuristic parameters), while models reconstructed from visual observations typically suffer from lack of geometric details. Here, we propose an original framework consisting of two modules that work jointly to represent global shape deformation as well as surface details with high fidelity. Global shape deformations are recovered from a subspace model learned from 3D data of clothed people in motion, while high frequency details are added to normal maps created using a conditional Generative Adversarial Network whose architecture is designed to enforce realism and temporal consistency. This leads to unprecedented high-quality rendering of clothing deformation sequences, where fine wrinkles from (real) high resolution observations can be recovered. In addition, as the model is learned independently from body shape and pose, the framework is suitable for applications that require retargeting (e.g., body animation). Our experiments show original high quality results with a flexible model. We claim an entirely data-driven approach to realistic cloth wrinkle generation is possible.

Zorah Lähner, Daniel Cremers, Tony Tung

Learning Discriminative Video Representations Using Adversarial Perturbations

Adversarial perturbations are noise-like patterns that can subtly change the data, while failing an otherwise accurate classifier. In this paper, we propose to use such perturbations for improving the robustness of video representations. To this end, given a well-trained deep model for per-frame video recognition, we first generate adversarial noise adapted to this model. Using the original data features from the full video sequence and their perturbed counterparts, as two separate bags, we develop a binary classification problem that learns a set of discriminative hyperplanes – as a subspace – that will separate the two bags from each other. This subspace is then used as a descriptor for the video, dubbed discriminative subspace pooling. As the perturbed features belong to data classes that are likely to be confused with the original features, the discriminative subspace will characterize parts of the feature space that are more representative of the original data, and thus may provide robust video representations. To learn such descriptors, we formulate a subspace learning objective on the Stiefel manifold and resort to Riemannian optimization methods for solving it efficiently. We provide experiments on several video datasets and demonstrate state-of-the-art results.

Jue Wang, Anoop Cherian

End-to-End Joint Semantic Segmentation of Actors and Actions in Video

Traditional video understanding tasks include human action recognition and actor/object semantic segmentation. However, the combined task of providing semantic segmentation for different actor classes simultaneously with their action class remains a challenging but necessary task for many applications. In this work, we propose a new end-to-end architecture for tackling this task in videos. Our model effectively leverages multiple input modalities, contextual information, and multitask learning in the video to directly output semantic segmentations in a single unified framework. We train and benchmark our model on the Actor-Action Dataset (A2D) for joint actor-action semantic segmentation, and demonstrate state-of-the-art performance for both segmentation and detection. We also perform experiments verifying our approach improves performance for zero-shot recognition, indicating generalizability of our jointly learned feature space.

Jingwei Ji, Shyamal Buch, Alvaro Soto, Juan Carlos Niebles

Humans Analysis

Frontmatter

Scaling Egocentric Vision: The Dataset

First-person vision is gaining interest as it offers a unique viewpoint on people’s interaction with objects, their attention, and even intention. However, progress in this challenging domain has been relatively slow due to the lack of sufficiently large datasets. In this paper, we introduce , a large-scale egocentric video benchmark recorded by 32 participants in their native kitchen environments. Our videos depict non-scripted daily activities: we simply asked each participant to start recording every time they entered their kitchen. Recording took place in 4 cities (in North America and Europe) by participants belonging to 10 different nationalities, resulting in highly diverse cooking styles. Our dataset features 55h of video consisting of 11.5M frames, which we densely labelled for a total of 39.6K action segments and 454.3K object bounding boxes. Our annotation is unique in that we had the participants narrate their own videos (after recording), thus reflecting true intention, and we crowd-sourced ground-truths based on these. We describe our object, action and anticipation challenges, and evaluate several baselines over two test splits, seen and unseen kitchens.

Dima Damen, Hazel Doughty, Giovanni Maria Farinella, Sanja Fidler, Antonino Furnari, Evangelos Kazakos, Davide Moltisanti, Jonathan Munro, Toby Perrett, Will Price, Michael Wray

Unsupervised Person Re-identification by Deep Learning Tracklet Association

Most existing person re-identification (re-id) methods rely on supervised model learning on per-camera-pair manually labelled pairwise training data. This leads to poor scalability in practical re-id deployment due to the lack of exhaustive identity labelling of image positive and negative pairs for every camera pair. In this work, we address this problem by proposing an unsupervised re-id deep learning approach capable of incrementally discovering and exploiting the underlying re-id discriminative information from automatically generated person tracklet data from videos in an end-to-end model optimisation. We formulate a Tracklet Association Unsupervised Deep Learning (TAUDL) framework characterised by jointly learning per-camera (within-camera) tracklet association (labelling) and cross-camera tracklet correlation by maximising the discovery of most likely tracklet relationships across camera views. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of the proposed TAUDL model over the state-of-the-art unsupervised and domain adaptation re-id methods using six person re-id benchmarking datasets.

Minxian Li, Xiatian Zhu, Shaogang Gong

Predicting Gaze in Egocentric Video by Learning Task-Dependent Attention Transition

We present a new computational model for gaze prediction in egocentric videos by exploring patterns in temporal shift of gaze fixations (attention transition) that are dependent on egocentric manipulation tasks. Our assumption is that the high-level context of how a task is completed in a certain way has a strong influence on attention transition and should be modeled for gaze prediction in natural dynamic scenes. Specifically, we propose a hybrid model based on deep neural networks which integrates task-dependent attention transition with bottom-up saliency prediction. In particular, the task-dependent attention transition is learned with a recurrent neural network to exploit the temporal context of gaze fixations, e.g. looking at a cup after moving gaze away from a grasped bottle. Experiments on public egocentric activity datasets show that our model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art gaze prediction methods and is able to learn meaningful transition of human attention.

Yifei Huang, Minjie Cai, Zhenqiang Li, Yoichi Sato

Instance-Level Human Parsing via Part Grouping Network

Instance-level human parsing towards real-world human analysis scenarios is still under-explored due to the absence of sufficient data resources and technical difficulty in parsing multiple instances in a single pass. Several related works all follow the “parsing-by-detection” pipeline that heavily relies on separately trained detection models to localize instances and then performs human parsing for each instance sequentially. Nonetheless, two discrepant optimization targets of detection and parsing lead to suboptimal representation learning and error accumulation for final results. In this work, we make the first attempt to explore a detection-free Part Grouping Network (PGN) for efficiently parsing multiple people in an image in a single pass. Our PGN reformulates instance-level human parsing as two twinned sub-tasks that can be jointly learned and mutually refined via a unified network: (1) semantic part segmentation for assigning each pixel as a human part (e.g., face, arms); (2) instance-aware edge detection to group semantic parts into distinct person instances. Thus the shared intermediate representation would be endowed with capabilities in both characterizing fine-grained parts and inferring instance belongings of each part. Finally, a simple instance partition process is employed to get final results during inference. We conducted experiments on PASCAL-Person-Part dataset and our PGN outperforms all state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, we show its superiority on a newly collected multi-person parsing dataset (CIHP) including 38,280 diverse images, which is the largest dataset so far and can facilitate more advanced human analysis. The CIHP benchmark and our source code are available at http://sysu-hcp.net/lip/ .

Ke Gong, Xiaodan Liang, Yicheng Li, Yimin Chen, Ming Yang, Liang Lin

Adversarial Geometry-Aware Human Motion Prediction

We explore an approach to forecasting human motion in a few milliseconds given an input 3D skeleton sequence based on a recurrent encoder-decoder framework. Current approaches suffer from the problem of prediction discontinuities and may fail to predict human-like motion in longer time horizons due to error accumulation. We address these critical issues by incorporating local geometric structure constraints and regularizing predictions with plausible temporal smoothness and continuity from a global perspective. Specifically, rather than using the conventional Euclidean loss, we propose a novel frame-wise geodesic loss as a geometrically meaningful, more precise distance measurement. Moreover, inspired by the adversarial training mechanism, we present a new learning procedure to simultaneously validate the sequence-level plausibility of the prediction and its coherence with the input sequence by introducing two global recurrent discriminators. An unconditional, fidelity discriminator and a conditional, continuity discriminator are jointly trained along with the predictor in an adversarial manner. Our resulting adversarial geometry-aware encoder-decoder (AGED) model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art deep learning based approaches on the heavily benchmarked H3.6M dataset in both short-term and long-term predictions.

Liang-Yan Gui, Yu-Xiong Wang, Xiaodan Liang, José M. F. Moura

Backmatter

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