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Über dieses Buch

The sixteen-volume set comprising the LNCS volumes 11205-11220 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Computer Vision, ECCV 2018, held in Munich, Germany, in September 2018.The 776 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 2439 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on learning for vision; computational photography; human analysis; human sensing; stereo and reconstruction; optimization; matching and recognition; video attention; and poster sessions.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Poster Session

Frontmatter

Shift-Net: Image Inpainting via Deep Feature Rearrangement

Deep convolutional networks (CNNs) have exhibited their potential in image inpainting for producing plausible results. However, in most existing methods, e.g., context encoder, the missing parts are predicted by propagating the surrounding convolutional features through a fully connected layer, which intends to produce semantically plausible but blurry result. In this paper, we introduce a special shift-connection layer to the U-Net architecture, namely Shift-Net, for filling in missing regions of any shape with sharp structures and fine-detailed textures. To this end, the encoder feature of the known region is shifted to serve as an estimation of the missing parts. A guidance loss is introduced on decoder feature to minimize the distance between the decoder feature after fully connected layer and the ground-truth encoder feature of the missing parts. With such constraint, the decoder feature in missing region can be used to guide the shift of encoder feature in known region. An end-to-end learning algorithm is further developed to train the Shift-Net. Experiments on the Paris StreetView and Places datasets demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our Shift-Net in producing sharper, fine-detailed, and visually plausible results. The codes and pre-trained models are available at https://github.com/Zhaoyi-Yan/Shift-Net .

Zhaoyi Yan, Xiaoming Li, Mu Li, Wangmeng Zuo, Shiguang Shan

Interactive Boundary Prediction for Object Selection

Interactive image segmentation is critical for many image editing tasks. While recent advanced methods on interactive segmentation focus on the region-based paradigm, more traditional boundary-based methods such as Intelligent Scissor are still popular in practice as they allow users to have active control of the object boundaries. Existing methods for boundary-based segmentation solely rely on low-level image features, such as edges for boundary extraction, which limits their ability to adapt to high-level image content and user intention. In this paper, we introduce an interaction-aware method for boundary-based image segmentation. Instead of relying on pre-defined low-level image features, our method adaptively predicts object boundaries according to image content and user interactions. Therein, we develop a fully convolutional encoder-decoder network that takes both the image and user interactions (e.g. clicks on boundary points) as input and predicts semantically meaningful boundaries that match user intentions. Our method explicitly models the dependency of boundary extraction results on image content and user interactions. Experiments on two public interactive segmentation benchmarks show that our method significantly improves the boundary quality of segmentation results compared to state-of-the-art methods while requiring fewer user interactions.

Hoang Le, Long Mai, Brian Price, Scott Cohen, Hailin Jin, Feng Liu

X-Ray Computed Tomography Through Scatter

In current Xray CT scanners, tomographic reconstruction relies only on directly transmitted photons. The models used for reconstruction have regarded photons scattered by the body as noise or disturbance to be disposed of, either by acquisition hardware (an anti-scatter grid) or by the reconstruction software. This increases the radiation dose delivered to the patient. Treating these scattered photons as a source of information, we solve an inverse problem based on a 3D radiative transfer model that includes both elastic (Rayleigh) and inelastic (Compton) scattering. We further present ways to make the solution numerically efficient. The resulting tomographic reconstruction is more accurate than traditional CT, while enabling significant dose reduction and chemical decomposition. Demonstrations include both simulations based on a standard medical phantom and a real scattering tomography experiment.

Adam Geva, Yoav Y. Schechner, Yonatan Chernyak, Rajiv Gupta

Video Re-localization

Many methods have been developed to help people find the video content they want efficiently. However, there are still some unsolved problems in this area. For example, given a query video and a reference video, how to accurately localize a segment in the reference video such that the segment semantically corresponds to the query video? We define a distinctively new task, namely video re-localization, to address this need. Video re-localization is an important enabling technology with many applications, such as fast seeking in videos, video copy detection, as well as video surveillance. Meanwhile, it is also a challenging research task because the visual appearance of a semantic concept in videos can have large variations. The first hurdle to clear for the video re-localization task is the lack of existing datasets. It is labor expensive to collect pairs of videos with semantic coherence or correspondence, and label the corresponding segments. We first exploit and reorganize the videos in ActivityNet to form a new dataset for video re-localization research, which consists of about 10,000 videos of diverse visual appearances associated with the localized boundary information. Subsequently, we propose an innovative cross gated bilinear matching model such that every time-step in the reference video is matched against the attentively weighted query video. Consequently, the prediction of the starting and ending time is formulated as a classification problem based on the matching results. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the baseline methods. Our code is available at: https://github.com/fengyang0317/video_reloc .

Yang Feng, Lin Ma, Wei Liu, Tong Zhang, Jiebo Luo

Mask TextSpotter: An End-to-End Trainable Neural Network for Spotting Text with Arbitrary Shapes

Recently, models based on deep neural networks have dominated the fields of scene text detection and recognition. In this paper, we investigate the problem of scene text spotting, which aims at simultaneous text detection and recognition in natural images. An end-to-end trainable neural network model for scene text spotting is proposed. The proposed model, named as Mask TextSpotter, is inspired by the newly published work Mask R-CNN. Different from previous methods that also accomplish text spotting with end-to-end trainable deep neural networks, Mask TextSpotter takes advantage of simple and smooth end-to-end learning procedure, in which precise text detection and recognition are acquired via semantic segmentation. Moreover, it is superior to previous methods in handling text instances of irregular shapes, for example, curved text. Experiments on ICDAR2013, ICDAR2015 and Total-Text demonstrate that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art results in both scene text detection and end-to-end text recognition tasks.

Pengyuan Lyu, Minghui Liao, Cong Yao, Wenhao Wu, Xiang Bai

DFT-based Transformation Invariant Pooling Layer for Visual Classification

We propose a novel discrete Fourier transform-based pooling layer for convolutional neural networks. The DFT magnitude pooling replaces the traditional max/average pooling layer between the convolution and fully-connected layers to retain translation invariance and shape preserving (aware of shape difference) properties based on the shift theorem of the Fourier transform. Thanks to the ability to handle image misalignment while keeping important structural information in the pooling stage, the DFT magnitude pooling improves the classification accuracy significantly. In addition, we propose the DFT+ method for ensemble networks using the middle convolution layer outputs. The proposed methods are extensively evaluated on various classification tasks using the ImageNet, CUB 2010-2011, MIT Indoors, Caltech 101, FMD and DTD datasets. The AlexNet, VGG-VD 16, Inception-v3, and ResNet are used as the base networks, upon which DFT and DFT+ methods are implemented. Experimental results show that the proposed methods improve the classification performance in all networks and datasets.

Jongbin Ryu, Ming-Hsuan Yang, Jongwoo Lim

Appearance-Based Gaze Estimation via Evaluation-Guided Asymmetric Regression

Eye gaze estimation has been increasingly demanded by recent intelligent systems to accomplish a range of interaction-related tasks, by using simple eye images as input. However, learning the highly complex regression between eye images and gaze directions is nontrivial, and thus the problem is yet to be solved efficiently. In this paper, we propose the Asymmetric Regression-Evaluation Network (ARE-Net), and try to improve the gaze estimation performance to its full extent. At the core of our method is the notion of “two eye asymmetry” observed during gaze estimation for the left and right eyes. Inspired by this, we design the multi-stream ARE-Net; one asymmetric regression network (AR-Net) predicts 3D gaze directions for both eyes with a novel asymmetric strategy, and the evaluation network (E-Net) adaptively adjusts the strategy by evaluating the two eyes in terms of their performance during optimization. By training the whole network, our method achieves promising results and surpasses the state-of-the-art methods on multiple public datasets.

Yihua Cheng, Feng Lu, Xucong Zhang

ShuffleNet V2: Practical Guidelines for Efficient CNN Architecture Design

Currently, the neural network architecture design is mostly guided by the indirect metric of computation complexity, i.e., FLOPs. However, the direct metric, e.g., speed, also depends on the other factors such as memory access cost and platform characterics. Thus, this work proposes to evaluate the direct metric on the target platform, beyond only considering FLOPs. Based on a series of controlled experiments, this work derives several practical guidelines for efficient network design. Accordingly, a new architecture is presented, called ShuffleNet V2. Comprehensive ablation experiments verify that our model is the state-of-the-art in terms of speed and accuracy tradeoff.

Ningning Ma, Xiangyu Zhang, Hai-Tao Zheng, Jian Sun

Deep Clustering for Unsupervised Learning of Visual Features

Clustering is a class of unsupervised learning methods that has been extensively applied and studied in computer vision. Little work has been done to adapt it to the end-to-end training of visual features on large-scale datasets. In this work, we present DeepCluster, a clustering method that jointly learns the parameters of a neural network and the cluster assignments of the resulting features. DeepCluster iteratively groups the features with a standard clustering algorithm, k-means, and uses the subsequent assignments as supervision to update the weights of the network. We apply DeepCluster to the unsupervised training of convolutional neural networks on large datasets like ImageNet and YFCC100M. The resulting model outperforms the current state of the art by a significant margin on all the standard benchmarks.

Mathilde Caron, Piotr Bojanowski, Armand Joulin, Matthijs Douze

Modular Generative Adversarial Networks

Existing methods for multi-domain image-to-image translation (or generation) attempt to directly map an input image (or a random vector) to an image in one of the output domains. However, most existing methods have limited scalability and robustness, since they require building independent models for each pair of domains in question. This leads to two significant shortcomings: (1) the need to train exponential number of pairwise models, and (2) the inability to leverage data from other domains when training a particular pairwise mapping. Inspired by recent work on module networks, this paper proposes ModularGAN for multi-domain image generation and image-to-image translation. ModularGAN consists of several reusable and composable modules that carry on different functions (e.g., encoding, decoding, transformations). These modules can be trained simultaneously, leveraging data from all domains, and then combined to construct specific GAN networks at test time, according to the specific image translation task. This leads to ModularGAN’s superior flexibility of generating (or translating to) an image in any desired domain. Experimental results demonstrate that our model not only presents compelling perceptual results but also outperforms state-of-the-art methods on multi-domain facial attribute transfer.

Bo Zhao, Bo Chang, Zequn Jie, Leonid Sigal

Graph Distillation for Action Detection with Privileged Modalities

We propose a technique that tackles action detection in multimodal videos under a realistic and challenging condition in which only limited training data and partially observed modalities are available. Common methods in transfer learning do not take advantage of the extra modalities potentially available in the source domain. On the other hand, previous work on multimodal learning only focuses on a single domain or task and does not handle the modality discrepancy between training and testing. In this work, we propose a method termed graph distillation that incorporates rich privileged information from a large-scale multimodal dataset in the source domain, and improves the learning in the target domain where training data and modalities are scarce. We evaluate our approach on action classification and detection tasks in multimodal videos, and show that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art by a large margin on the NTU RGB+D and PKU-MMD benchmarks. The code is released at http://alan.vision/eccv18_graph/ .

Zelun Luo, Jun-Ting Hsieh, Lu Jiang, Juan Carlos Niebles, Li Fei-Fei

Weakly-Supervised Video Summarization Using Variational Encoder-Decoder and Web Prior

Video summarization is a challenging under-constrained problem because the underlying summary of a single video strongly depends on users’ subjective understandings. Data-driven approaches, such as deep neural networks, can deal with the ambiguity inherent in this task to some extent, but it is extremely expensive to acquire the temporal annotations of a large-scale video dataset. To leverage the plentiful web-crawled videos to improve the performance of video summarization, we present a generative modelling framework to learn the latent semantic video representations to bridge the benchmark data and web data. Specifically, our framework couples two important components: a variational autoencoder for learning the latent semantics from web videos, and an encoder-attention-decoder for saliency estimation of raw video and summary generation. A loss term to learn the semantic matching between the generated summaries and web videos is presented, and the overall framework is further formulated into a unified conditional variational encoder-decoder, called variational encoder-summarizer-decoder (VESD). Experiments conducted on the challenging datasets CoSum and TVSum demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed VESD to existing state-of-the-art methods. The source code of this work can be found at https://github.com/cssjcai/vesd .

Sijia Cai, Wangmeng Zuo, Larry S. Davis, Lei Zhang

Single Image Intrinsic Decomposition Without a Single Intrinsic Image

Intrinsic image decomposition—decomposing a natural image into a set of images corresponding to different physical causes—is one of the key and fundamental problems of computer vision. Previous intrinsic decomposition approaches either address the problem in a fully supervised manner, or require multiple images of the same scene as input. These approaches are less desirable in practice, as ground truth intrinsic images are extremely difficult to acquire, and requirement of multiple images pose severe limitation on applicable scenarios. In this paper, we propose to bring the best of both worlds. We present a two stream convolutional neural network framework that is capable of learning the decomposition effectively in the absence of any ground truth intrinsic images, and can be easily extended to a (semi-)supervised setup. At inference time, our model can be easily reduced to a single stream module that performs intrinsic decomposition on a single input image. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework through extensive experimental study on both synthetic and real-world datasets, showing superior performance over previous approaches in both single-image and multi-image settings. Notably, our approach outperforms previous state-of-the-art single image methods while using only 50% of ground truth supervision.

Wei-Chiu Ma, Hang Chu, Bolei Zhou, Raquel Urtasun, Antonio Torralba

Learning to Dodge A Bullet: Concyclic View Morphing via Deep Learning

The bullet-time effect, presented in feature film “The Matrix”, has been widely adopted in feature films and TV commercials to create an amazing stopping-time illusion. Producing such visual effects, however, typically requires using a large number of cameras/images surrounding the subject. In this paper, we present a learning-based solution that is capable of producing the bullet-time effect from only a small set of images. Specifically, we present a view morphing framework that can synthesize smooth and realistic transitions along a circular view path using as few as three reference images. We apply a novel cyclic rectification technique to align the reference images onto a common circle and then feed the rectified results into a deep network to predict its motion field and per-pixel visibility for new view interpolation. Comprehensive experiments on synthetic and real data show that our new framework outperforms the state-of-the-art and provides an inexpensive and practical solution for producing the bullet-time effects.

Shi Jin, Ruiynag Liu, Yu Ji, Jinwei Ye, Jingyi Yu

Compositional Learning for Human Object Interaction

The world of human-object interactions is rich. While generally we sit on chairs and sofas, if need be we can even sit on TVs or top of shelves. In recent years, there has been progress in modeling actions and human-object interactions. However, most of these approaches require lots of data. It is not clear if the learned representations of actions are generalizable to new categories. In this paper, we explore the problem of zero-shot learning of human-object interactions. Given limited verb-noun interactions in training data, we want to learn a model than can work even on unseen combinations. To deal with this problem, In this paper, we propose a novel method using external knowledge graph and graph convolutional networks which learns how to compose classifiers for verb-noun pairs. We also provide benchmarks on several dataset for zero-shot learning including both image and video. We hope our method, dataset and baselines will facilitate future research in this direction.

Keizo Kato, Yin Li, Abhinav Gupta

Viewpoint Estimation—Insights and Model

This paper addresses the problem of viewpoint estimation of an object in a given image. It presents five key insights and a CNN that is based on them. The network’s major properties are as follows. (i) The architecture jointly solves detection, classification, and viewpoint estimation. (ii) New types of data are added and trained on. (iii) A novel loss function, which takes into account both the geometry of the problem and the new types of data, is propose. Our network allows a substantial boost in performance: from 36.1% gained by SOTA algorithms to 45.9%.

Gilad Divon, Ayellet Tal

PersonLab: Person Pose Estimation and Instance Segmentation with a Bottom-Up, Part-Based, Geometric Embedding Model

We present a box-free bottom-up approach for the tasks of pose estimation and instance segmentation of people in multi-person images using an efficient single-shot model. The proposed PersonLab model tackles both semantic-level reasoning and object-part associations using part-based modeling. Our model employs a convolutional network which learns to detect individual keypoints and predict their relative displacements, allowing us to group keypoints into person pose instances. Further, we propose a part-induced geometric embedding descriptor which allows us to associate semantic person pixels with their corresponding person instance, delivering instance-level person segmentations. Our system is based on a fully-convolutional architecture and allows for efficient inference, with runtime essentially independent of the number of people present in the scene. Trained on COCO data alone, our system achieves COCO test-dev keypoint average precision of 0.665 using single-scale inference and 0.687 using multi-scale inference, significantly outperforming all previous bottom-up pose estimation systems. We are also the first bottom-up method to report competitive results for the person class in the COCO instance segmentation task, achieving a person category average precision of 0.417.

George Papandreou, Tyler Zhu, Liang-Chieh Chen, Spyros Gidaris, Jonathan Tompson, Kevin Murphy

Task-Driven Webpage Saliency

In this paper, we present an end-to-end learning framework for predicting task-driven visual saliency on webpages. Given a webpage, we propose a convolutional neural network to predict where people look at it under different task conditions. Inspired by the observation that given a specific task, human attention is strongly correlated with certain semantic components on a webpage (e.g., images, buttons and input boxes), our network explicitly disentangles saliency prediction into two independent sub-tasks: task-specific attention shift prediction and task-free saliency prediction. The task-specific branch estimates task-driven attention shift over a webpage from its semantic components, while the task-free branch infers visual saliency induced by visual features of the webpage. The outputs of the two branches are combined to produce the final prediction. Such a task decomposition framework allows us to efficiently learn our model from a small-scale task-driven saliency dataset with sparse labels (captured under a single task condition). Experimental results show that our method outperforms the baselines and prior works, achieving state-of-the-art performance on a newly collected benchmark dataset for task-driven webpage saliency detection.

Quanlong Zheng, Jianbo Jiao, Ying Cao, Rynson W. H. Lau

Deep Image Demosaicking Using a Cascade of Convolutional Residual Denoising Networks

Demosaicking and denoising are among the most crucial steps of modern digital camera pipelines and their joint treatment is a highly ill-posed inverse problem where at-least two-thirds of the information are missing and the rest are corrupted by noise. This poses a great challenge in obtaining meaningful reconstructions and a special care for the efficient treatment of the problem is required. While there are several machine learning approaches that have been recently introduced to deal with joint image demosaicking-denoising, in this work we propose a novel deep learning architecture which is inspired by powerful classical image regularization methods and large-scale convex optimization techniques. Consequently, our derived network is more transparent and has a clear interpretation compared to alternative competitive deep learning approaches. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that our network outperforms any previous approaches on both noisy and noise-free data. This improvement in reconstruction quality is attributed to the principled way we design our network architecture, which also requires fewer trainable parameters than the current state-of-the-art deep network solution. Finally, we show that our network has the ability to generalize well even when it is trained on small datasets, while keeping the overall number of trainable parameters low.

Filippos Kokkinos, Stamatios Lefkimmiatis

A New Large Scale Dynamic Texture Dataset with Application to ConvNet Understanding

We introduce a new large scale dynamic texture dataset. With over 10,000 videos, our Dynamic Texture DataBase (DTDB) is two orders of magnitude larger than any previously available dynamic texture dataset. DTDB comes with two complementary organizations, one based on dynamics independent of spatial appearance and one based on spatial appearance independent of dynamics. The complementary organizations allow for uniquely insightful experiments regarding the abilities of major classes of spatiotemporal ConvNet architectures to exploit appearance vs. dynamic information. We also present a new two-stream ConvNet that provides an alternative to the standard optical-flow-based motion stream to broaden the range of dynamic patterns that can be encompassed. The resulting motion stream is shown to outperform the traditional optical flow stream by considerable margins. Finally, the utility of DTDB as a pretraining substrate is demonstrated via transfer learning on a different dynamic texture dataset as well as the companion task of dynamic scene recognition resulting in a new state-of-the-art.

Isma Hadji, Richard P. Wildes

Deep Feature Factorization for Concept Discovery

We propose Deep Feature Factorization (DFF), a method capable of localizing similar semantic concepts within an image or a set of images. We use DFF to gain insight into a deep convolutional neural network’s learned features, where we detect hierarchical cluster structures in feature space. This is visualized as heat maps, which highlight semantically matching regions across a set of images, revealing what the network ‘perceives’ as similar. DFF can also be used to perform co-segmentation and co-localization, and we report state-of-the-art results on these tasks.

Edo Collins, Radhakrishna Achanta, Sabine Süsstrunk

Deep Regression Tracking with Shrinkage Loss

Regression trackers directly learn a mapping from regularly dense samples of target objects to soft labels, which are usually generated by a Gaussian function, to estimate target positions. Due to the potential for fast-tracking and easy implementation, regression trackers have recently received increasing attention. However, state-of-the-art deep regression trackers do not perform as well as discriminative correlation filters (DCFs) trackers. We identify the main bottleneck of training regression networks as extreme foreground-background data imbalance. To balance training data, we propose a novel shrinkage loss to penalize the importance of easy training data. Additionally, we apply residual connections to fuse multiple convolutional layers as well as their output response maps. Without bells and whistles, the proposed deep regression tracking method performs favorably against state-of-the-art trackers, especially in comparison with DCFs trackers, on five benchmark datasets including OTB-2013, OTB-2015, Temple-128, UAV-123 and VOT-2016.

Xiankai Lu, Chao Ma, Bingbing Ni, Xiaokang Yang, Ian Reid, Ming-Hsuan Yang

Dist-GAN: An Improved GAN Using Distance Constraints

We introduce effective training algorithms for Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) to alleviate mode collapse and gradient vanishing. In our system, we constrain the generator by an Autoencoder (AE). We propose a formulation to consider the reconstructed samples from AE as “real” samples for the discriminator. This couples the convergence of the AE with that of the discriminator, effectively slowing down the convergence of discriminator and reducing gradient vanishing. Importantly, we propose two novel distance constraints to improve the generator. First, we propose a latent-data distance constraint to enforce compatibility between the latent sample distances and the corresponding data sample distances. We use this constraint to explicitly prevent the generator from mode collapse. Second, we propose a discriminator-score distance constraint to align the distribution of the generated samples with that of the real samples through the discriminator score. We use this constraint to guide the generator to synthesize samples that resemble the real ones. Our proposed GAN using these distance constraints, namely Dist-GAN, can achieve better results than state-of-the-art methods across benchmark datasets: synthetic, MNIST, MNIST-1K, CelebA, CIFAR-10 and STL-10 datasets. Our code is published here ( https://github.com/tntrung/gan ) for research.

Ngoc-Trung Tran, Tuan-Anh Bui, Ngai-Man Cheung

Pivot Correlational Neural Network for Multimodal Video Categorization

This paper considers an architecture for multimodal video categorization referred to as Pivot Correlational Neural Network (Pivot CorrNN). The architecture consists of modal-specific streams dedicated exclusively to one specific modal input as well as modal-agnostic pivot stream that considers all modal inputs without distinction, and the architecture tries to refine the pivot prediction based on modal-specific predictions. The Pivot CorrNN consists of three modules: (1) maximizing pivot-correlation module that maximizes the correlation between the hidden states as well as the predictions of the modal-agnostic pivot stream and modal-specific streams in the network, (2) contextual Gated Recurrent Unit (cGRU) module which extends the capability of a generic GRU to take multimodal inputs in updating the pivot hidden-state, and (3) adaptive aggregation module that aggregates all modal-specific predictions as well as the modal-agnostic pivot predictions into one final prediction. We evaluate the Pivot CorrNN on two publicly available large-scale multimodal video categorization datasets, FCVID and YouTube-8M. From the experimental results, Pivot CorrNN achieves the best performance on the FCVID database and performance comparable to the state-of-the-art on YouTube-8M database.

Sunghun Kang, Junyeong Kim, Hyunsoo Choi, Sungjin Kim, Chang D. Yoo

Part-Aligned Bilinear Representations for Person Re-identification

Comparing the appearance of corresponding body parts is essential for person re-identification. As body parts are frequently misaligned between the detected human boxes, an image representation that can handle this misalignment is required. In this paper, we propose a network that learns a part-aligned representation for person re-identification. Our model consists of a two-stream network, which generates appearance and body part feature maps respectively, and a bilinear-pooling layer that fuses two feature maps to an image descriptor. We show that it results in a compact descriptor, where the image matching similarity is equivalent to an aggregation of the local appearance similarities of the corresponding body parts. Since the image similarity does not depend on the relative positions of parts, our approach significantly reduces the part misalignment problem. Training the network does not require any part annotation on the person re-identification dataset. Instead, we simply initialize the part sub-stream using a pre-trained sub-network of an existing pose estimation network and train the whole network to minimize the re-identification loss. We validate the effectiveness of our approach by demonstrating its superiority over the state-of-the-art methods on the standard benchmark datasets including Market-1501, CUHK03, CUHK01 and DukeMTMC, and standard video dataset MARS.

Yumin Suh, Jingdong Wang, Siyu Tang, Tao Mei, Kyoung Mu Lee

Learning to Navigate for Fine-Grained Classification

Fine-grained classification is challenging due to the difficulty of finding discriminative features. Finding those subtle traits that fully characterize the object is not straightforward. To handle this circumstance, we propose a novel self-supervision mechanism to effectively localize informative regions without the need of bounding-box/part annotations. Our model, termed NTS-Net for Navigator-Teacher-Scrutinizer Network, consists of a Navigator agent, a Teacher agent and a Scrutinizer agent. In consideration of intrinsic consistency between informativeness of the regions and their probability being ground-truth class, we design a novel training paradigm, which enables Navigator to detect most informative regions under the guidance from Teacher. After that, the Scrutinizer scrutinizes the proposed regions from Navigator and makes predictions. Our model can be viewed as a multi-agent cooperation, wherein agents benefit from each other, and make progress together. NTS-Net can be trained end-to-end, while provides accurate fine-grained classification predictions as well as highly informative regions during inference. We achieve state-of-the-art performance in extensive benchmark datasets.

Ze Yang, Tiange Luo, Dong Wang, Zhiqiang Hu, Jun Gao, Liwei Wang

NAM: Non-Adversarial Unsupervised Domain Mapping

Several methods were recently proposed for the task of translating images between domains without prior knowledge in the form of correspondences. The existing methods apply adversarial learning to ensure that the distribution of the mapped source domain is indistinguishable from the target domain, which suffers from known stability issues. In addition, most methods rely heavily on “cycle” relationships between the domains, which enforce a one-to-one mapping. In this work, we introduce an alternative method: Non-Adversarial Mapping (NAM), which separates the task of target domain generative modeling from the cross-domain mapping task. NAM relies on a pre-trained generative model of the target domain, and aligns each source image with an image synthesized from the target domain, while jointly optimizing the domain mapping function. It has several key advantages: higher quality and resolution image translations, simpler and more stable training and reusable target models. Extensive experiments are presented validating the advantages of our method.

Yedid Hoshen, Lior Wolf

Transferable Adversarial Perturbations

State-of-the-art deep neural network classifiers are highly vulnerable to adversarial examples which are designed to mislead classifiers with a very small perturbation. However, the performance of black-box attacks (without knowledge of the model parameters) against deployed models always degrades significantly. In this paper, We propose a novel way of perturbations for adversarial examples to enable black-box transfer. We first show that maximizing distance between natural images and their adversarial examples in the intermediate feature maps can improve both white-box attacks (with knowledge of the model parameters) and black-box attacks. We also show that smooth regularization on adversarial perturbations enables transferring across models. Extensive experimental results show that our approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods both in white-box and black-box attacks.

Wen Zhou, Xin Hou, Yongjun Chen, Mengyun Tang, Xiangqi Huang, Xiang Gan, Yong Yang

Semantically Aware Urban 3D Reconstruction with Plane-Based Regularization

We propose a method for urban 3D reconstruction, which incorporates semantic information and plane priors within the reconstruction process in order to generate visually appealing 3D models. We introduce a plane detection algorithm using 3D lines, which detects a more complete and less spurious plane set compared to point-based methods in urban environments. Further, the proposed normalized visibility-based energy formulation eases the combination of several energy terms within a tetrahedra occupancy labeling algorithm and, hence, is well suited for combining it with class specific smoothness terms. As a result, we produce visually appealing and detailed building models (i.e., straight edges and planar surfaces) and a smooth reconstruction of the surroundings.

Thomas Holzmann, Michael Maurer, Friedrich Fraundorfer, Horst Bischof

Joint 3D Tracking of a Deformable Object in Interaction with a Hand

We present a novel method that is able to track a complex deformable object in interaction with a hand. This is achieved by formulating and solving an optimization problem that jointly considers the hand, the deformable object and the hand/object contact points. The optimization evaluates several hand/object contact configuration hypotheses and adopts the one that results in the best fit of the object’s model to the available RGBD observations in the vicinity of the hand. Thus, the hand is not treated as a distractor that occludes parts of the deformable object, but as a source of valuable information. Experimental results on a dataset that has been developed specifically for this new problem illustrate the superior performance of the proposed approach against relevant, state of the art solutions.

Aggeliki Tsoli, Antonis A. Argyros

HBE: Hand Branch Ensemble Network for Real-Time 3D Hand Pose Estimation

The goal of this paper is to estimate the 3D coordinates of the hand joints from a single depth image. To give consideration to both the accuracy and the real time performance, we design a novel three-branch Convolutional Neural Networks named Hand Branch Ensemble network (HBE), where the three branches correspond to the three parts of a hand: the thumb, the index finger and the other fingers. The structural design inspiration of the HBE network comes from the understanding of the differences in the functional importance of different fingers. In addition, a feature ensemble layer along with a low-dimensional embedding layer ensures the overall hand shape constraints. The experimental results on three public datasets demonstrate that our approach achieves comparable or better performance to state-of-the-art methods with less training data, shorter training time and faster frame rate.

Yidan Zhou, Jian Lu, Kuo Du, Xiangbo Lin, Yi Sun, Xiaohong Ma

Sequential Clique Optimization for Video Object Segmentation

A novel algorithm to segment out objects in a video sequence is proposed in this work. First, we extract object instances in each frame. Then, we select a visually important object instance in each frame to construct the salient object track through the sequence. This can be formulated as finding the maximal weight clique in a complete k-partite graph, which is NP hard. Therefore, we develop the sequential clique optimization (SCO) technique to efficiently determine the cliques corresponding to salient object tracks. We convert these tracks into video object segmentation results. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art video object segmentation and video salient object detection algorithms on recent benchmark datasets.

Yeong Jun Koh, Young-Yoon Lee, Chang-Su Kim

Joint 3D Face Reconstruction and Dense Alignment with Position Map Regression Network

We propose a straightforward method that simultaneously reconstructs the 3D facial structure and provides dense alignment. To achieve this, we design a 2D representation called UV position map which records the 3D shape of a complete face in UV space, then train a simple Convolutional Neural Network to regress it from a single 2D image. We also integrate a weight mask into the loss function during training to improve the performance of the network. Our method does not rely on any prior face model, and can reconstruct full facial geometry along with semantic meaning. Meanwhile, our network is very light-weighted and spends only 9.8 ms to process an image, which is extremely faster than previous works. Experiments on multiple challenging datasets show that our method surpasses other state-of-the-art methods on both reconstruction and alignment tasks by a large margin. Code is available at https://github.com/YadiraF/PRNet .

Yao Feng, Fan Wu, Xiaohu Shao, Yanfeng Wang, Xi Zhou

Efficient Relative Attribute Learning Using Graph Neural Networks

A sizable body of work on relative attributes provides evidence that relating pairs of images along a continuum of strength pertaining to a visual attribute yields improvements in a variety of vision tasks. In this paper, we show how emerging ideas in graph neural networks can yield a solution to various problems that broadly fall under relative attribute learning. Our main idea is the observation that relative attribute learning naturally benefits from exploiting the graph of dependencies among the different relative attributes of images, especially when only partial ordering is provided at training time. We use message passing to perform end to end learning of the image representations, their relationships as well as the interplay between different attributes. Our experiments show that this simple framework is effective in achieving competitive accuracy with specialized methods for both relative attribute learning and binary attribute prediction, while relaxing the requirements on the training data and/or the number of parameters, or both.

Zihang Meng, Nagesh Adluru, Hyunwoo J. Kim, Glenn Fung, Vikas Singh

Deep Kalman Filtering Network for Video Compression Artifact Reduction

When lossy video compression algorithms are applied, compression artifacts often appear in videos, making decoded videos unpleasant for human visual systems. In this paper, we model the video artifact reduction task as a Kalman filtering procedure and restore decoded frames through a deep Kalman filtering network. Different from the existing works using the noisy previous decoded frames as temporal information in the restoration problem, we utilize the less noisy previous restored frame and build a recursive filtering scheme based on the Kalman model. This strategy can provide more accurate and consistent temporal information, which produces higher quality restoration results. In addition, the strong prior information of prediction residual is also exploited for restoration through a well designed neural network. These two components are combined under the Kalman framework and optimized through the deep Kalman filtering network. Our approach can well bridge the gap between the model-based methods and learning-based methods by integrating the recursive nature of the Kalman model and highly non-linear transformation ability of deep neural network. Experimental results on the benchmark dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

Guo Lu, Wanli Ouyang, Dong Xu, Xiaoyun Zhang, Zhiyong Gao, Ming-Ting Sun

A Deeply-Initialized Coarse-to-fine Ensemble of Regression Trees for Face Alignment

In this paper we present DCFE, a real-time facial landmark regression method based on a coarse-to-fine Ensemble of Regression Trees (ERT). We use a simple Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to generate probability maps of landmarks location. These are further refined with the ERT regressor, which is initialized by fitting a 3D face model to the landmark maps. The coarse-to-fine structure of the ERT lets us address the combinatorial explosion of parts deformation. With the 3D model we also tackle other key problems such as robust regressor initialization, self occlusions, and simultaneous frontal and profile face analysis. In the experiments DCFE achieves the best reported result in AFLW, COFW, and 300 W private and common public data sets.

Roberto Valle, José M. Buenaposada, Antonio Valdés, Luis Baumela

DeepVS: A Deep Learning Based Video Saliency Prediction Approach

In this paper, we propose a novel deep learning based video saliency prediction method, named DeepVS. Specifically, we establish a large-scale eye-tracking database of videos (LEDOV), which includes 32 subjects’ fixations on 538 videos. We find from LEDOV that human attention is more likely to be attracted by objects, particularly the moving objects or the moving parts of objects. Hence, an object-to-motion convolutional neural network (OM-CNN) is developed to predict the intra-frame saliency for DeepVS, which is composed of the objectness and motion subnets. In OM-CNN, cross-net mask and hierarchical feature normalization are proposed to combine the spatial features of the objectness subnet and the temporal features of the motion subnet. We further find from our database that there exists a temporal correlation of human attention with a smooth saliency transition across video frames. We thus propose saliency-structured convolutional long short-term memory (SS-ConvLSTM) network, using the extracted features from OM-CNN as the input. Consequently, the inter-frame saliency maps of a video can be generated, which consider both structured output with center-bias and cross-frame transitions of human attention maps. Finally, the experimental results show that DeepVS advances the state-of-the-art in video saliency prediction.

Lai Jiang, Mai Xu, Tie Liu, Minglang Qiao, Zulin Wang

Learning Efficient Single-Stage Pedestrian Detectors by Asymptotic Localization Fitting

Though Faster R-CNN based two-stage detectors have witnessed significant boost in pedestrian detection accuracy, it is still slow for practical applications. One solution is to simplify this working flow as a single-stage detector. However, current single-stage detectors (e.g. SSD) have not presented competitive accuracy on common pedestrian detection benchmarks. This paper is towards a successful pedestrian detector enjoying the speed of SSD while maintaining the accuracy of Faster R-CNN. Specifically, a structurally simple but effective module called Asymptotic Localization Fitting (ALF) is proposed, which stacks a series of predictors to directly evolve the default anchor boxes of SSD step by step into improving detection results. As a result, during training the latter predictors enjoy more and better-quality positive samples, meanwhile harder negatives could be mined with increasing IoU thresholds. On top of this, an efficient single-stage pedestrian detection architecture (denoted as ALFNet) is designed, achieving state-of-the-art performance on CityPersons and Caltech, two of the largest pedestrian detection benchmarks, and hence resulting in an attractive pedestrian detector in both accuracy and speed. Code is available at https://github.com/VideoObjectSearch/ALFNet .

Wei Liu, Shengcai Liao, Weidong Hu, Xuezhi Liang, Xiao Chen

Scenes-Objects-Actions: A Multi-task, Multi-label Video Dataset

This paper introduces a large-scale, multi-label and multi-task video dataset named Scenes-Objects-Actions (SOA). Most prior video datasets are based on a predefined taxonomy, which is used to define the keyword queries issued to search engines. The videos retrieved by the search engines are then verified for correctness by human annotators. Datasets collected in this manner tend to generate high classification accuracy as search engines typically rank “easy” videos first. The SOA dataset adopts a different approach. We rely on uniform sampling to get a better representation of videos on the Web. Trained annotators are asked to provide free-form text labels describing each video in three different aspects: scene, object and action. These raw labels are then merged, split and renamed to generate a taxonomy for SOA. All the annotations are verified again based on the taxonomy. The final dataset includes 562K videos with 3.64M annotations spanning 49 categories for scenes, 356 for objects, 148 for actions, and naturally captures the long tail distribution of visual concepts in the real world. We show that datasets collected in this way are quite challenging by evaluating existing popular video models on SOA. We provide in-depth analysis about the performance of different models on SOA, and highlight potential new directions in video classification. We compare SOA with existing datasets and discuss various factors that impact the performance of transfer learning. A key-feature of SOA is that it enables the empirical study of correlation among scene, object and action recognition in video. We present results of this study and further analyze the potential of using the information learned from one task to improve the others. We also demonstrate different ways of scaling up SOA to learn better features. We believe that the challenges presented by SOA offer the opportunity for further advancement in video analysis as we progress from single-label classification towards a more comprehensive understanding of video data.

Jamie Ray, Heng Wang, Du Tran, Yufei Wang, Matt Feiszli, Lorenzo Torresani, Manohar Paluri

Accelerating Dynamic Programs via Nested Benders Decomposition with Application to Multi-Person Pose Estimation

We present a novel approach to solve dynamic programs (DP), which are frequent in computer vision, on tree-structured graphs with exponential node state space. Typical DP approaches have to enumerate the joint state space of two adjacent nodes on every edge of the tree to compute the optimal messages. Here we propose an algorithm based on Nested Benders Decomposition (NBD) that iteratively lower-bounds the message on every edge and promises to be far more efficient. We apply our NBD algorithm along with a novel Minimum Weight Set Packing (MWSP) formulation to a multi-person pose estimation problem. While our algorithm is provably optimal at termination it operates in linear time for practical DP problems, gaining up to 500 $${\times }$$ × speed up over traditional DP algorithm which have polynomial complexity.

Shaofei Wang, Alexander Ihler, Konrad Kording, Julian Yarkony

Human Motion Analysis with Deep Metric Learning

Effectively measuring the similarity between two human motions is necessary for several computer vision tasks such as gait analysis, person identification and action retrieval. Nevertheless, we believe that traditional approaches such as L2 distance or Dynamic Time Warping based on hand-crafted local pose metrics fail to appropriately capture the semantic relationship across motions and, as such, are not suitable for being employed as metrics within these tasks. This work addresses this limitation by means of a triplet-based deep metric learning specifically tailored to deal with human motion data, in particular with the problem of varying input size and computationally expensive hard negative mining due to motion pair alignment. Specifically, we propose (1) a novel metric learning objective based on a triplet architecture and Maximum Mean Discrepancy; as well as, (2) a novel deep architecture based on attentive recurrent neural networks. One benefit of our objective function is that it enforces a better separation within the learned embedding space of the different motion categories by means of the associated distribution moments. At the same time, our attentive recurrent neural network allows processing varying input sizes to a fixed size of embedding while learning to focus on those motion parts that are semantically distinctive. Our experiments on two different datasets demonstrate significant improvements over conventional human motion metrics.

Huseyin Coskun, David Joseph Tan, Sailesh Conjeti, Nassir Navab, Federico Tombari

Exploring Visual Relationship for Image Captioning

It is always well believed that modeling relationships between objects would be helpful for representing and eventually describing an image. Nevertheless, there has not been evidence in support of the idea on image description generation. In this paper, we introduce a new design to explore the connections between objects for image captioning under the umbrella of attention-based encoder-decoder framework. Specifically, we present Graph Convolutional Networks plus Long Short-Term Memory (dubbed as GCN-LSTM) architecture that novelly integrates both semantic and spatial object relationships into image encoder. Technically, we build graphs over the detected objects in an image based on their spatial and semantic connections. The representations of each region proposed on objects are then refined by leveraging graph structure through GCN. With the learnt region-level features, our GCN-LSTM capitalizes on LSTM-based captioning framework with attention mechanism for sentence generation. Extensive experiments are conducted on COCO image captioning dataset, and superior results are reported when comparing to state-of-the-art approaches. More remarkably, GCN-LSTM increases CIDEr-D performance from 120.1% to 128.7% on COCO testing set.

Ting Yao, Yingwei Pan, Yehao Li, Tao Mei

Single Shot Scene Text Retrieval

Textual information found in scene images provides high level semantic information about the image and its context and it can be leveraged for better scene understanding. In this paper we address the problem of scene text retrieval: given a text query, the system must return all images containing the queried text. The novelty of the proposed model consists in the usage of a single shot CNN architecture that predicts at the same time bounding boxes and a compact text representation of the words in them. In this way, the text based image retrieval task can be casted as a simple nearest neighbor search of the query text representation over the outputs of the CNN over the entire image database. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed architecture outperforms previous state-of-the-art while it offers a significant increase in processing speed.

Lluís Gómez, Andrés Mafla, Marçal Rusiñol, Dimosthenis Karatzas

Folded Recurrent Neural Networks for Future Video Prediction

This work introduces double-mapping Gated Recurrent Units (dGRU), an extension of standard GRUs where the input is considered as a recurrent state. An extra set of logic gates is added to update the input given the output. Stacking multiple such layers results in a recurrent auto-encoder: the operators updating the outputs comprise the encoder, while the ones updating the inputs form the decoder. Since the states are shared between corresponding encoder and decoder layers, the representation is stratified during learning: some information is not passed to the next layers. We test our model on future video prediction. Main challenges for this task include high variability in videos, temporal propagation of errors, and non-specificity of future frames. We show how only the encoder or decoder needs to be applied for encoding or prediction. This reduces the computational cost and avoids re-encoding predictions when generating multiple frames, mitigating error propagation. Furthermore, it is possible to remove layers from a trained model, giving an insight to the role of each layer. Our approach improves state of the art results on MMNIST and UCF101, being competitive on KTH with 2 and 3 times less memory usage and computational cost than the best scored approach.

Marc Oliu, Javier Selva, Sergio Escalera

Matching and Recognition

Frontmatter

CornerNet: Detecting Objects as Paired Keypoints

We propose CornerNet, a new approach to object detection where we detect an object bounding box as a pair of keypoints, the top-left corner and the bottom-right corner, using a single convolution neural network. By detecting objects as paired keypoints, we eliminate the need for designing a set of anchor boxes commonly used in prior single-stage detectors. In addition to our novel formulation, we introduce corner pooling, a new type of pooling layer that helps the network better localize corners. Experiments show that CornerNet achieves a 42.1% AP on MS COCO, outperforming all existing one-stage detectors.

Hei Law, Jia Deng

RelocNet: Continuous Metric Learning Relocalisation Using Neural Nets

We propose a method of learning suitable convolutional representations for camera pose retrieval based on nearest neighbour matching and continuous metric learning-based feature descriptors. We introduce information from camera frusta overlaps between pairs of images to optimise our feature embedding network. Thus, the final camera pose descriptor differences represent camera pose changes. In addition, we build a pose regressor that is trained with a geometric loss to infer finer relative poses between a query and nearest neighbour images. Experiments show that our method is able to generalise in a meaningful way, and outperforms related methods across several experiments.

Vassileios Balntas, Shuda Li, Victor Prisacariu

The Contextual Loss for Image Transformation with Non-aligned Data

Feed-forward CNNs trained for image transformation problems rely on loss functions that measure the similarity between the generated image and a target image. Most of the common loss functions assume that these images are spatially aligned and compare pixels at corresponding locations. However, for many tasks, aligned training pairs of images will not be available. We present an alternative loss function that does not require alignment, thus providing an effective and simple solution for a new space of problems. Our loss is based on both context and semantics – it compares regions with similar semantic meaning, while considering the context of the entire image. Hence, for example, when transferring the style of one face to another, it will translate eyes-to-eyes and mouth-to-mouth. Our code can be found at https://www.github.com/roimehrez/contextualLoss .

Roey Mechrez, Itamar Talmi, Lihi Zelnik-Manor

Acquisition of Localization Confidence for Accurate Object Detection

Modern CNN-based object detectors rely on bounding box regression and non-maximum suppression to localize objects. While the probabilities for class labels naturally reflect classification confidence, localization confidence is absent. This makes properly localized bounding boxes degenerate during iterative regression or even suppressed during NMS. In the paper we propose IoU-Net learning to predict the IoU between each detected bounding box and the matched ground-truth. The network acquires this confidence of localization, which improves the NMS procedure by preserving accurately localized bounding boxes. Furthermore, an optimization-based bounding box refinement method is proposed, where the predicted IoU is formulated as the objective. Extensive experiments on the MS-COCO dataset show the effectiveness of IoU-Net, as well as its compatibility with and adaptivity to several state-of-the-art object detectors.

Borui Jiang, Ruixuan Luo, Jiayuan Mao, Tete Xiao, Yuning Jiang

Deep Model-Based 6D Pose Refinement in RGB

We present a novel approach for model-based 6D pose refinement in color data. Building on the established idea of contour-based pose tracking, we teach a deep neural network to predict a translational and rotational update. At the core, we propose a new visual loss that drives the pose update by aligning object contours, thus avoiding the definition of any explicit appearance model. In contrast to previous work our method is correspondence-free, segmentation-free, can handle occlusion and is agnostic to geometrical symmetry as well as visual ambiguities. Additionally, we observe a strong robustness towards rough initialization. The approach can run in real-time and produces pose accuracies that come close to 3D ICP without the need for depth data. Furthermore, our networks are trained from purely synthetic data and will be published together with the refinement code at http://campar.in.tum.de/Main/FabianManhardt to ensure reproducibility.

Fabian Manhardt, Wadim Kehl, Nassir Navab, Federico Tombari

Backmatter

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