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The RMA is based on the assessment of the effects of proposed development to meet environmental bottom lines. However, when environmental bottom lines have been exceeded proactive measures to address the causes of these exceedances are needed to ensure sustainable development. Managing to limits is not enough to achieve environmental outcomes. Where there are cumulative effects from multiple sources there is a need for a systems-based approach, like nested adaptive systems, to devise management interventions to achieve sustainable resource management.
For the Canterbury Water Management Strategy , improved water use efficiency is a key element. However, a more comprehensive approach to measuring and managing water use efficiency is needed at the farm and catchment scale. While solutions packages have been developed for water quality improvement , they only represent a first step towards sustainable water quality outcomes. Further interventions are needed.
Implementation of actions towards some targets has been significant and there has been considerable collaboration with industry in defining good management practices . However other targets have received insufficient attention, leading to the disengagement of some stakeholders from the collaborative process. Adaptation to projected effects of climate change on reduced water availability and reducing the increasing emissions from agricultural intensification have not been adequately addressed in strategy implementation.
Shifting from proponent-led development to devising alternatives and interventions for improved sustainability outcomes highlights the issue of affordability and funding of the actions to be taken. There is a need for an agency with a mandate for environmental infrastructure and infrastructure coordination and an investment framework for funding proactive measures . There is also the need for water framework legislation which addresses sustainable development of water resources.
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Brown, P. (2016). Canterbury detailed irrigated area mapping. Christchurch: Aqualinc.
European Commission. (2015). Report on the progress in implementation of the Water Framework Directive Programme of Measures. Brussels: European Commission.
Foundation for Arable Research, New Zealand Pork, DairyNZ, Beef+Lamb New Zealand, Horticulture New Zealand, & Deer Industry New Zealand. (2015). Industry-agreed good management practices relating to water quality. Christchurch: Environment Canterbury.
Vorosmarty, C., McIntyre, P., Gessner, M., Dudgeon, D., Prusevich, A., Green, P., Glidden, S., Bunn, S., Sullivan, C., Reidy Liermann, C., & Davies, P. (2010). Global threats to human security and river biodiversity. Nature, 467, 555–561. CrossRef
- Concluding Comments
Bryan R. Jenkins
- Springer Netherlands
- Chapter 15
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen