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Between 1920 and 2013, the National Football League (NFL) admitted 34 expansion franchises. Eighteen or 53 % of them joined the league before 1933, ten or 29 % from 1933 to 1970, and six or 18 % after 1970. Of the group, 13 or 38 % are current NFL teams while the majority of others bankrupted and suspended their operations because of demographic, financial, and sport-specific reasons such as their performances in games during regular seasons and/or postseasons. Despite the failure of these professional football franchises, expansion has been a successful long run strategy for the NFL.
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For readings on expansion franchises in the NFL, see Jozsa and Guthrie 1999; Noll 1974; Quirk and Fort 1992.
NFL teams and their home sites are discussed in such books as Jozsa 2010; King 1994; McDonough 1999; Neft and Cohen 1997; Peterson 1997.
As of early 2014, the data about stadiums was in various articles from newspapers in Buffalo, Cincinnati, Jacksonville, Oakland, San Diego, St. Louis, and Tampa Bay. Also, see “Teams Websites” at http://www.nfl.com cited 13 November 2013.
A few weeks before blacking out the team’s preseason home games, executive vice president and Chief Executive Officer A.G. Spanos told the North County Times that “We’re in one of the oldest stadiums in the league, and don’t have opportunities that other teams have to increase revenue with things like a bigger naming rights deal or digital signage. We rely heavily on ticket sales as a primary revenue stream. This market has shown an ability to sell out games over the last 10 years, and we need to take advantage of that.” For this topic, see Bailey 2014, and Gardner 2014.
Information about domestic professional football leagues and their mergers is in, for example, Felser 2008, and Rappoport 2010.
Frank P. Jozsa Jr.
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