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2024 | Buch

Conservation of Architectural Heritage (CAH)

Developing Sustainable Practices

herausgegeben von: Maria Luisa Germanà, Natsuko Akagawa, Antonella Versaci, Nicola Cavalagli

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

Buchreihe : Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation


Über dieses Buch

This book presents practical, applicable solutions that contribute to built heritage conservation, discussing challenges like resource constraints, ineffective legislation, lack of coordination between different relevant bodies, and absence of public awareness and involvement. This is to maintain the beauty and cultural meaning of the architectural heritage since they are like a glimpse from the past life, representing how people lived, their religions, and beliefs in addition to the primitive but inspirational technology used in construction. As a result, this book is of significant importance to professionals in the fields of architecture, sustainability, as well as policymakers.



Introductory Chapter

Quality in the Conservation of Architectural Heritage: Methodological Issues for Developing Sustainable Practices

The goal of architectural heritage conservation has never been questioned since the very concept of heritage arose. This objective has evolved during the last century, on the one side enlarging the object of conservation (from the single building to the historical landscape) on the other including intangible forms of heritage. Furthermore, on the one hand, the objective of conservation has gradually acquired a dynamic dimension (since its achievement extends over time, since punctual results are not sufficient); on the other, it is now considered fully integrated with the contemporary world (in the multiple and intertwined dimensions of the social, cultural, economic and environmental aspects). Observing the evolution of the objective of conservation of architectural heritage, it can be observed that the focus initially shifted quickly from “why” to conserve to “what” to conserve, and then moved more slowly to “how” to conserve. This last step is still maturing today, both theoretically and operationally, helping to emphasize the importance of quality orientation, pivotal in any technological process, also in the field of built heritage. Therefore, the noun conservation today is no longer sufficient and needs qualifying adjectives (such as sustainable; reliable; inclusive), which largely depend on the kinds of conservation practices. That is why a conscious approach to the process-based vision of conservation (in which experts and users interact and in which clearly defined objectives can guarantee reliable results) is increasingly important. The contribution explores the meanings that a sticky word as “quality” can assume in the conservation of the architectural heritage, aiming to lay the foundations for a comparison between the many good practices already available, in a way that can be useful for spreading and increasing them.

Maria Luisa Germanà
The Transcultural Dimension in Heritage Conservation

In recent years the meaning and value of cultural heritage have taken on a local dimension, favoring the centrality of communities and the development of territories in relation to their characteristics. This new perspective has been favored by the need to regenerate all those cultural processes of local realities, putting the value of culture back at the center. The serious imbalances and disharmonies that currently exist in the world highlight the need to start from the cultural values of individual communities and to build transcultural relational processes capable of giving priority to human, spiritual and educational values, all fundamental references for building a sustainable world. Meanwhile, these complicated problems of the world highlight the need to enhance the value of local cultural realities, communities, individuals with the aim of pursuing greater balance and harmony. All this requires a greater capacity for sharing, cooperation and creativity in order to achieve lifestyles more compatible with the sustainable development that the whole world now requires. This contribution aims to bring the reader closer to some issues aimed at enhancing education in culture and one's own heritage, fundamental resources for the development of our personality and our life in dialogue with others.

Olimpia Niglio

Citizens’ Involvement and Their Roles in Conserving Their History

Life and History: Challenges on Urban Conservation and a Possible Solution: Case Studies on Historic Quarters in Beijing and Shanghai, China

In recent decades, the redevelopment process in Chinese cities has challenged historic quarters. While conservation awareness rises, scholars started to criticise these quarters for being restored in “improper methods”. Moreover, property privatisation and tourism development in historic quarters caused dilemmas: the majority of inhabitants were relocated under the monetary compensation system; the overwhelming tourism activities resulted in a significant loss of the uniqueness of living elements. They all pushed the local government and the inhabitants to a deeper collaboration with other stakeholders. This paper first overviewed the approaches to urban conservation, from integrity conservation to the Historic Urban Landscape, and analysed their merits and defects. Focusing on two cases in Beijing and Shanghai, it further illustrated processes of inhabitants’ participation and collaboration modes with other stakeholders, including local organisations and authorities, to safeguard the architectural heritage and redevelop the historic quarters. The measures could provide feasible approaches to balance the conflict between urban conservation and redevelopment in the aspect of heritage management.

Yanhan Zhu
Art as a Main Tool to Expressing Identity in Architectural Heritage: A Case Study of Fatimid Cairo

Art and Architecture, over centuries, have been known to represent a tool through which an artist is able to represent his or her character. More specifically, Architecture not only denotes the character of the architect, but it also tells more about the society and era to which the architect belonged as they are characterized by unique styles. Considered emblems, both Art and Architecture can tell stories of identity and a culture that is associated with people from a specific community. Each of those cultures is marked by certain elements that give its architecture a unique identity, which is manifested through building facades. In this study, the importance of Art in shaping the unique architectural heritage of Egypt is highlighted through a case study on Fatimid Cairo. Fatimid Cairo exemplifies the ways in which Art can represent a tool for heritage conservation to maintain long-lasting architecture and heritage through different ages for future generations. This type of architecture maintains and has the power to deeply influence a whole community and society’s identity as well as represent its past, present, and future of architectural heritage accumulation.

Samira Mohamed Ahmed Abdullah
Framing a Conceptual Approach for Urban Conservation in Historic Cities- A Case of Kuttichira, Kerala

Urban heritage is a source of identity and pride and can drive sustainable and equitable economic and social development. It represents an opportunity to build upon local traditions, skills, crafts, and techniques, helping conserve our natural resources. It also holds the potential to connect people with their past and build understanding among communities through shared experience. India's conservation movement has evolved from emphasizing prominent buildings to focusing on area-specific conservation efforts. Urban heritage conservation in India is a significant subject that can seldom be ignored. Urban heritage includes physical, commemorative, social, and economic aspects of the heritage interwoven with each other. The conservation movement has also come a long way with its changing focus—from the conservation of tangible objects to the conservation of intangible cultural heritage, from protection to participation, from control to encouragement, and from a single-purpose preservation-driven approach to a multiple-use approach. The paper aims to investigate the importance and conduct of a community-oriented approach in urban heritage conservation in India through which we can understand its role in the urban development of historic precincts. The study proposes a community-oriented conceptual methodology that can further achieve sustainable goals within the community, strengthening community participation and involvement. The proposed framework recognizes and emphasizes the community as the key stakeholder in their locality. The paper attempts to comprehend the sensitivity achieved in urban development through a community-oriented approach. The study has future scope for the conceptual approach to be explored multi-dimensionally. The methodology can assist policymakers in developing case-sensitive policies for historic urban areas.

Shahim Abdurahiman, A. K. Kasthurba, Afifa Nuzhat
Revitalizing Historic Plazas for Integrated Urban Conservation

Historic plazas play a major role in improving or creating place identity, place memory, and belonging of heritage areas. They maintain elements of tangible and intangible heritage, such as accommodating social networks, traditions, lifestyles, traditional crafts, festivals, or rituals. Above all, they manifest a unique sense of place, and collective memory of cities to local communities, contributing to the historical character of heritage areas. The paper claims that the revitalization of historic plazas intends to reconcile conserving their historical urban landscape (HUL) to meet the changing requirements of local communities. It argues that revitalizing historical plazas is an innovative approach that helps to overcome the current urban conservation gaps in many heritage areas. Likewise, it strengthens the perceptions of the built heritage and historic buildings, while retaining their historic character and increasing their social vitality and performance. Furthermore, the distinctiveness of historic plazas can uncover the hidden forms and fabrics in historic areas and inspire their future development. This review paper aims to describe how historical public spaces as places of social interactions and traditional cultural activities are significant in conserving historic living areas. It aims to investigate a variety of approaches to the conservation of historical buildings/sites through the revitalization of historic plazas as multidimensional spaces in selected case studies. The methodology used is to study the usage of current patterns of selected historic public places; to analyze various strategies implemented to revitalize those patterns. The main objective is to contribute in formulating a practical approach to enhance the liveliness and the quality of life of historic plazas; to fit the residents’ culture as an integral part of urban conservation.

Mona Helmy

Heritage Forms and Types of Conservation

Virtual Museumification to Protect and Transmit the Paleo-Christian Heritage of the East Algerian Region

The conservation of monuments and ruins, which are already exposed in their sites, needs a huge budget and skilled labor. How can we transmit this heritage to future generations when its conservation is not the government’s priority, or when the competent authorities do not allocate the required budget for conservation? If the conservation of cultural heritage is mainly the competent authorities’ task, its transmission is the citizens’ responsibility. This paper suggests the use of virtual exhibitions to ensure the sound conservation of the Paleo-Christian heritage of the East Algerian region and its transmission to coming generations. The lack of interest in this heritage and the absence of research and studies still exist, despite the archaeological and artistic values this heritage has. Thus, the focal point of this paper is to highlight such idiosyncracies. We present in this article, mainly, the results of a field study on visiting these basilicas, supported by a survey on social media, Instagram in our case, to reach a greater number of probable visitors.

Fatima Zahra Boughanem, Etienne Wolff
Design Technics for the Intervention on Architectural Heritage. The Case of the Partial Recomposition of Vaulted Spaces

This article aims to research the design techniques used in heritage works publicly recognised through awards and publications. Specifically, it studies the case of interventions that seek to recompose vaulted spaces that have partially disappeared. In order to carry out the research, four works have been selected and analysed and studied both individually and comparatively to understand the benefits of each one of them: San Filippo Neri Oratory in Bologna, Chapel of the Counts of Fuensaldaña in Valladolid, Church of the Pious Schools of the College of San Fernando in Madrid and St. Peter's Basilica in Syracuse. The result obtained is the recognition of a set of techniques of great design interest that, when properly applied, can be extrapolated to future interventions.

Luis Bosch-Roig, Valeria Marcenac, María José Ballester-Bordes, Ignacio Bosch-Reig
Preservation and Innovation of the Rinnovata Pizzigoni School, a Symbolic Place of the Early 20apex Century Experimental Pedagogy in Milan

In the early 1900s, Giuseppina Pizzigoni launched an experimental pedagogical programme in Milan based on the reform of teaching methods and the design and construction of a new school in keeping with her innovative educational principles. Today, the Pizzigoni method is still implemented in this school, whose special spaces are still in use. However, a lack of investment in maintenance and retrofitting and the emergence of new educational needs and requirements over time has led the building to deteriorate and become functionally inadequate. In 2020, a set of interventions was initiated with a view to conserving this architectural heritage asset. The restoration project demanded an innovative and multidisciplinary approach given its aims of conserving original materials, enhancing the building’s energy and seismic performances, updating its systems, and adapting its layout to meet the current needs of the school community. In this paper, we first present the key features of both the Pizzigoni method and the school building. Then we outline the technical issues with the building and the main intervention strategies. Finally, we focus on the co-design process brought to bear on the functional layout of the school building, and the outcomes of this process, which was implemented with the participation of the school principal and teaching staff and the involvement of the other stakeholders, including the main sponsor of the intervention.

Maria Fianchini, Nicola Berlucchi, Franca Zuccoli, Flavia Mainardi
The Sub-City: Architectural Conservation as a Series of Experiential Spaces Drawing in Historical Memory in Salvador De Bahia, Brazil

The sub-city is the underlying historical narrative of every city in the world. Specific to every city, the story is a struggle, an accomplishment, or a tragedy, and in all cases, is a series of events the city and its people underwent or performed that constitute the sub-city. Given the layers that modernity added to cities, it has become significant to peal some of those layers to preserve and conserve history. This paper proposes to translate the narrative of the sub-city, or the historical memory of Salvador De Bahia to user-space experiences via architectural conservation and intervention. The city of Salvador De Bahia in Brazil served as a case study and a demonstration of design methodologies that could be implemented in architecturally conserving abandoned or old sites in the city.

Asil Y. Zureigat
Documenting the Works of the Philippine National Artists in Architecture

The Philippines has trailblazed in recognizing its artists who have championed its culture, heritage, and tradition. Proclamation No. 1001, s. 1972, signed by then President Ferdinand E. Marcos, aims to give the highest distinction to Filipino Artists who have exemplarily promoted the identity of the country with utmost dignity and integrity. The National Artist Award covers the areas of music, dance, theatre, visual arts, literature, film and media, arts, architecture, and design. Over time, the preservation of the arts has been perfected by law, awareness of the people, and advancement of technology. However, the field of architecture has become a challenge due to its cost and ownership of the structures. To date, there are six National Artists in Architecture, namely Juan F. Nakpil, Pablo S. Antonio, Leandro V. Locsin, Ildefonso P. Santos, Jr., Jose Maria V. Zaragoza, and Francisco T. Mañosa, who have all passed away. This study aims to document the works of these National Artists and identify the buildings that are still in physical existence, as a means of providing clearer public perception, which in turn can contribute to the protection and preservation of their legacy. Descriptive and archival methodologies were utilized. It is notable that some of the structures that were created by these prominent architects have since been demolished. The purview of the research takes into consideration the laws that protect the heritage of the country. Investigative findings revealed that demolitions of such heritage architecture can sometimes be inevitable because there are contributing factors, like economic, lifespan, and urbanization, to name a few. Despite this predicament, intervention is still viable . Technology, specifically digitalization or Virtual Reality, is a key channel so that the next generation will still be able to appreciate, enjoy, and comprehend the works of the National Artists, even those not existing in the physical world anymore.

Jocelyn A. Rivera-Lutap, John Benedict A. Castillo
Restoration and Arrangement of Archaeological Remains in the Mediterranean: The Protection of the Testimonies Between Past and Contemporary Experiences

In general, the need to provide for the protection of archaeological remains has always been a priority in the work of archaeologists and architects. In the past, the work of Italian archaeologists and architects in the Mediterranean has been remarkable, engaged, even outside the territory of our country, as in the island of Crete and in particular in Gortina, Festòs, and Haghìa Triàda (late nineteenth century and early decades of the twentieth century), in the restoration, accommodation and protection of archaeological remains brought to light. While in Italy, and particularly in Sicily, for example, the case of the protection, with de-restoration operations, of the Villa Romana del Casale in Piazza Armerina (2015) remains exemplary and even problematic today, in Malta (2010) and Turkey (2019). We witness the protection of archaeological remains with the construction of tensile structures that compromise the basic relationship with the surrounding environment. My talk explores the theme of the protection of archaeological remains starting from the past experiences of Italian archaeologists and architects, in the Mediterranean, and comparing these interventions with recent ones both in Italy and in countries such as Greece, Malta, and Turkey, in order to offer food for thought useful to identify suitable activities for the conservation, use and enhancement of the archaeological heritage, essential for our lives.

Rosario Scaduto
The Accessibility of Archaeological Areas in Urban Contexts: The Valorisation of the Archaeological Areas of San Giorgio and Castello San Pietro in the Wake of the I-Access Project

The I-Access project, developed for the historic centres of Palermo and Valletta (Malta), has made it possible to verify a method for the regeneration of the two historic centres, with the aim of improving both physical and cultural accessibility of the heritage. It is now necessary to enlarge the range of action of the project, also including another type of heritage, that of archaeological areas in an urban setting. In particular, the reference is to the case of the archaeological areas of San Giorgio and Castello San Pietro, located in an extended archaeological area in the historic centre of Palermo. These areas today are abandoned, fenced and inaccessible, despite being fundamental elements for the knowledge and understanding of the evolutionary history of the city. It is possible to carry out a valorisation project, with the aim of full accessibility, by implementing the methodology already tested and by using a more structured and adaptable approach to an extended and complex heritage, as already done in other experiences taken as a reference and cited in this paper, which also helps in the objectification of the results. An approach borrowed in part from the technological area and in part from the valuation disciplines. In particular, reference is made to the application of precise multi-criteria analysis, therefore to the systematic collection of data on the basis of objective criteria, which in the design phase allow us to understand at the same time the criticalities and strengths in support of the valorisation project, in subsequently, they allow the quality control of the project itself (both on a territorial and architectural scale) and, finally, they allow a continuous monitoring of the conditions of usability of the site, according to principles that respond to the so-called “planned conservation”.

Clelia La Mantia
Multidimensional Approach to Evaluation of Weathering Degree of Lower Plant on Stone Cultural Heritage in Cambodia

The West Gate of Nokorbachey Temple, built by King Jayavarman VII in the Angkor period (12–13 c), is decorated with bas-relief on medium-grained sandstone. It is being damaged by lower plants such as algae and lichens, which inhabit the surface of the stone and produce organic acids, releasing minerals into the soil and causing physical damage when removed. The high temperature, humid climate and spore reproduction of lower plants make it impossible to completely solve the biological damage of stone cultural properties in Cambodia. Thus, it is necessary to collect data on biological distribution and activity through monitoring and establish scientific conservation measures based on the analysis. In particular, because damage by lower plants is a three-dimensional damage type that accompanies the corrosion of stone through biochemical action rather than simple biofilm formation, quantitative and qualitative evaluations were carried out in parallel. In this West Gate, the incidence rate of photosynthetic algae and lichens is close to 80%; however, the bas-relief showed relatively little coverage and vitality due to the role of roof shading. As a result, partial cleaning and consolidation of the two passage gates and the right area of the external side are required due to the high level of biological weathering.

Myoungju Choie, Myeng Seong Lee, Sovann In, Sineth Oum, Yu Gun Chun, Ji Hyun Yoo, Jung A Kang
Activating and Institutionalising Heritage Regulations in Sacred Historic Cities: The Case of Vrindavan, India

India is a country with a rich and diverse heritage due to the numerous ethnicities and religions that have settled in the region over thousands of years. The country has many historic cities with unique and complex architectural heritage, which attract millions of tourists worldwide. However, due to rapid urbanisation and intensive development, these heritage assets are often neglected and at risk of being lost. This paper aims to address this issue by integrating planning and urban conservation paradigms to ensure heritage regulations and awareness towards sensitive development in historic cities. The case of Vrindavan, a prominent heritage city in northern India, is examined as an example. With its unique cultural identity under threat from rapid expansion, this study proposes a methodological approach to preserve and conserve the heritage fabric of the city and generate awareness among locals and tourists. This study could be used as a basis for future research and to suggest strategies and recommendations for conserving and revitalising other historic cities worldwide.

Charlie Gupta, Ridhu Dhan Gahalot

Management and Conservation of Architectural Heritage

Development and Application of an Intelligent Modeling Process for Heritage Masonry Structures in BIM Applications: Literature Review

The Heritage Building Information Modelling (HBIM) technology for historic and heritage masonry buildings has recently expanded in response to urgent conservation and structural analysis needs. The masonry structures of ancient architectural construction have a unique cultural, spiritual, and historical significance. However, there is a lack of research concerning the reliability of the recent HBIM modeling process of these structures. This process confronts major challenges due to the inherent complexity and uniqueness of the heritage masonry structures. It is primarily based on tracing the point clouds and infrequently adheres to documents, archival records, or direct observation. This method produces highly abstract models with an accuracy that doesn’t go beyond LOD 200. Masonry assemblies, particularly curved elements such as arches, vaults, and domes, are typically modeled with standard BIM components or in-place models, and brick textures are input graphically. Hence, future investigation is necessary to establish a methodology to automatically generate parametric masonry components for these structures. These components should be developed algorithmically in accordance with the mathematical and geometrical accuracy and validity of the survey data. The main goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the state of the art of literature that has been conducted on the HBIM modeling of the heritage masonry structural elements. It investigates the latest approaches that have been applied to obtain parametric models that have both high visual fidelity and high geometrical accuracy. The paper examined over 700 articles, with proceedings papers from 2017 to 2021 focusing on the keywords “HBIM and Masonry.” The co-occurrence bibliometric method was used to analyze these publications after they were downloaded from reputable, well-known bibliographic databases. The analysis was performed using VOSviewer software, which extracts the main keywords from these publications to retrieve the relevant works. Subsequently, the literature, most closely related to the subject and the highest frequency of occurrence was assessed through the qualitative review. In the qualitative review phase, the latest approaches and the future suggestions proposed in these publications were collected, which can be a valuable reference for researchers and BIM specialists who are interested in developing the modeling process of historic masonry structures.

Sara Ben Lashihar
Integrated Urban Conservation Management Framework for M&E-Systems Applying PDCA Method and Logic Model Approach

The need for improving the performance of Integrated Urban Conservation Interventions in terms of outputs, outcomes, and overall achievement of urban conservation goals by using monitoring and evaluation systems (M&E-systems) becomes more and more important and has been stressed and considered by many researchers and organizations recently. Although some attempts have been undertaken in Urban Planning, there is still a lack of an underlying conceptual framework for Key Performance Indicator (KPI) based M&E-systems that draws a holistic picture from an Integrated Urban Conservation point of view on the whole landscape. This paper proposes an analytically derived Integrated Urban Conservation Management Framework (IUCMF), including its functions, structure, and scope. The framework is based on ISO 9001 (Quality Management Systems), DIN 69909–2 (Multi-Project Management), and the Burra Charter Process and allows a high level of application flexibility for M&E-systems developer for a geographically defined area, according to cultural specifics, local features, and available regional data. The framework consists of a strategic and an operational level. The strategic level contains Integrated Urban Conservation policies, charters, and objectives, the objective breakdown according to regional specifics, and evaluation and impact of outcomes. The operational level considers the implementation of Integrated Urban Conservation targets and requirements via interventions at a place of cultural significance and contains program management, project management, and project phases. Inherent to this framework on both levels is the application of Plan-Do-Check-Act method (PDCA) and the Logic Model approach. The PDCA method foresees feedback loops within the IUCMF on a strategic level, but also within the programs and projects on an operational level. The logic model approach is inherent to the operational level, which allows monitoring of project performance. Objective determination and outcome evaluation are linked to the “Plan” and “Check” step on strategic level. Finally, the framework indicates the underlying activities (i.e., purpose factors) of each framework element as a precondition to derive Key Performance Indicators (KPI) for M&E-Systems. The IUCMF shall help researchers in developing appropriate M&E-systems but also policymakers, program managers, and local authorities to receive inputs for informed decisions regarding policy amendments, goal continuation, or project performance.

Leila Mueller-Shahbazi
Carlo Scarpa in Palermo: Vladimir Zoric and the Restoration Experiences at Palazzo Abatellis and the Transformations of the Steri

Scarpa's architecture in Palermo has undergone several maintenance or restoration interventions over time. Scarpa works with great attention to the existing structures and the museum installations are real stage machines, complex gears to be deciphered in order to be adequately preserved. In Vladimir Zoric's interventions there is this great attention to the study of the complexity of the materials used, in relation to the local components but also to what we now recognize as a clear and unmistakable formal language. The paper studies the works of Carlo Scarpa in Palermo in two important sites: the museum organization of Palazzo Abatellis and the collaboration in the adaptation to the seat of the Rectorate of Palazzo Steri. The restoration work on these buildings became necessary just thirty years after their construction. This is due to the materials used and the unscrupulous construction techniques often pushed to the extreme limits of strength and durability. The intervention required for the adaptation of the systems and safety equipment was different. Both at Palazzo Abatellis and at the Steri there has been a change in the intended use of some rooms which entailed adaptations and modifications that are not always in line with the aims of the project, generating a real anthropic degradation. Zoric's program for Palazzo Abatelis starts from Scarpa's techniques. In fact, he knew Scarpa's language well, having often collaborated with the master and having designed together with him some permanent installations of the museum. In the paper I wanted to remember how Vladimir Zoric, with extreme sensitivity, solves the problem of lighting adaptation by opting for light sources hidden from view. He wisely uses inexpensive elements, such as fluorescent neon tubes, which are placed on the roof, in positions hidden from the view of museum users and able to give diffused and non-punctual lighting, as in the frames of the dome-skylight of the ancient Chapel of the Palace. The comparison with the latest extension works of the National Gallery is an opportunity to reflect on the methods of intervention in historic buildings. Scarpa's lesson at the Steri is declined between agreements and contrasts, modern materials used in an ancient way and ancient techniques that give a new shape to iron and concrete. The analysis of the cases addressed in the paper shows many ideas to reflect on. There is a close relationship between conservation, restoration and maintenance. Years later we are witnessing the need for “restoration of the restoration” but it can be said that both at Steri and Abatellis it is the so-called anthropic degradation that causes the greatest damage and causes heavy transformations in the work of Carlo Scarpa.

Cinzia Accetta
Seismic Reinforcement of Brickwork Shear Walls Using Titanium Rods

Titanium alloys (TA) exhibit high mechanical properties, great durability, and high deformation capacity. These characteristics make TAs of interest also in Conservation Engineering. This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign on the use of titanium threaded bars for reinforcement of masonry shear walls. TA rods have been used to reinforce 8 full-scale brickwork walls (dimensions 1230 × 1230 ×  215 mm) against in-plane loading. The investigated retrofitting method consisted in the application of TA rods fully embedded into the horizontal mortar bed joints, known as Bed Joint Reinforcement (BJR). Different layouts have been considered and tested, with TA rods installed on a single side of the walls (single-sided reinforcement) or on both sides (double-sided reinforcement). The structural performance of the brickwork walls under lateral loading is also discussed showing the wall response after TA reinforcement in terms of energy dissipation, shear stiffness, deformation capacity, and in-plane shear strength provided by the various types of BJR. This study has a significance because it uses a new material, TA, in Conservation Engineering along with a new method of BJR.

Fitsum Haile, Marco Corradi, Jill Adkins
Conservation of Wooden Built Heritage in Poland—The Current State and Future Challenges

Poland is a country with an extremely rich tradition of wooden building. Due to its location in the heart of Europe, Poland has for centuries combined the influences of the frame construction popular in the west of the continent and log construction widespread in the east. Thanks to this, the wooden structures with unique architectural solutions and aesthetic values have developed here. These include the oldest and largest historic Roman Catholic and Greek Catholic wooden churches in the world, currently inscribed on the UNESCO list.The protection and conservation of wooden architectural heritage in Poland has a long and rich tradition. This can be demonstrated, above all, in the number of preserved historical wooden structures, both in situ and open-air museums created especially for the purpose of saving vernacular heritage. This paper is a concise review of the development of the idea of an open-air museum in Poland and at the same time discusses the conservation and technical solutions for the protection of wooden heritage that have been implemented in recent decades in Poland. Additionally, the paper deals with the issue of maintaining the authenticity of historic wooden structures in the context of the dynamically changing cultural landscape of Poland. Finally, it critically discusses the problems and the challenges that currently face the protection of wooden built heritage in Poland.

Tomasz Tomaszek
Turning to History and Science in Order to Preserve Wooden Shingles in Sweden

The use of wooden shingles as a building material has a long tradition in Scandinavia, going back to medieval times. Unfortunately, knowledge regarding manufacturing, quality, and maintenance of shingles has been partly lost and without it we cannot properly preserve the precious historic values of shingles. A recent project on wooden shingles on churches in the dioceses of Strängnäs and Västerås in Sweden investigates why, in too many cases, relatively new shingles have proven to be less durable than old ones and demanding more maintenance in comparison to older ones. 300–400 year-old wooden shingles in the study demonstrate outstanding sustainability, hold unique values, and have to be handled with great caution. The main purpose of the project has been to increase knowledge on shingles as a façade and roof covering throughout history in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the material. In an attempt to find out about traditional manufacturing methods, surface treatment and maintenance of shingles as well as how conservation principles have varied over time, we turned to the archives. In order to find out more about the quality of the wood and the surface protection of the shingles, tar in most cases, different methods of scientific analysis have been carried out. Through X-ray of shingles, chemical analysis, and analysis of mold and rot, we have been able to thoroughly investigate the properties of the wood and different surface treatments as well as the decay of the wood. The different types of analyses and approaches stated above give a comprehensive picture of which factors that work in the long-term perspective. The results will be an important tool for authorities in approving interventions and of use for property caretakers. It is hoped that the results—in the long run—will lead to reduced maintenance costs for the parishes, paired with greater caution during renovation.

Maria Mellgren
Questioning the Rural Architectural Typology and Its Transmission Due to Reuse: The Cases of Guest Houses in Bağlıköy/Ampelikou

Rural architecture is the built reflection of the lifestyle, economy, and culture of a rural society and it is also shaped by the environmental characteristics of the region in which it evolved. Therefore, it is considered to be cultural heritage and should be valued, protected, and handed down to future generations. However, abandonment has become the destiny of rural settlements in general and vernacular houses in particular, as a result of lifestyle changes and technological developments. There are opportunities for abandoned vernacular houses to be reused for other functions. The reuse of vernacular houses provides various benefits to the owners and community such as a positive contribution to the economy of the household and/or the economy of the rural settlement. Moreover, reuse contributes to the preservation of the rural architectural typology and rural architectural heritage, and enables the transmission of this rural heritage to future generations. Bağlıköy/Ampelikou in Cyprus is a rural settlement that experienced abandonment and is therefore comprised of many uninhabited vernacular buildings. This rural settlement attempted to become an eco-village in the last decade and consequently underwent some changes. The introduction of the guest house concept to the village and the opening of two guest houses through the reuse of vernacular houses are two of these changes. Although at the first glance these changes can be evaluated as a positive endeavour, further exploration is still needed to understand their impact on the typology of rural architecture in the village. To sum up, this study explores two guest houses in Bağlıköy/Ampelikou which have been converted from houses, in order to interrogate the impact of reuse on the vernacular architectural typology. First, the original typology of these two houses is explained, and then alterations to and adaptations of the houses are identified. The study is expected to draw lessons for possible future efforts to reuse vernacular houses.

Makbule Oktay
“Lessico Famigliare”: Toward a New Paradigm of Spontaneous Rural Architecture in North-Western Sicily: From Historical Testimony of Peasant Culture to Sustainable Resource

The research proposes a reinterpretation of so-called spontaneous architectures (Rudofsky, 1964) in the Sicilian north-western countryside, considering them as a system of “identity fortresses” and marking a paradigm shift in their interpretation, from a heritage of historical evidences of the consolidated structure of the countryside physical environment (Pagano & Daniel, in L’architettura rurale italiana [Italian rural architecture]. Hoepli editore, 1936), to a resource for the new housing needs of a contemporary society (Germanà, in L’architettura rurale tradizionale in Sicilia: conservazione e recupero [Traditional rural architecture in Sicily: conservation and recovery]. Publisicula Editrice, 1999). Single phantasmic entities are seen, not as isolated monads in the landscape, but rather intertwined by an invisible line, as protagonists of a narrative that reveals the vital nucleus of architecture (Culotta, Insediamenti nuovi nella Valle dell’Eleuterio [New settlements in the Eleuterio Valley]. Medina, 1990), allowing the construction of an identity through the recognition of the permanence of shapes in space. As dialectal phrases in the 1963 novel, Lessico Famigliare by Natalia Ginzburg, these sharp-edged prismatic volumes, embedded in the ground, mono-material and monochromatic from their base to the sky line, are a simple formal expression, having the strength to make a recognizable place and to establish their belonging to a specific territory. The relationship between territory and these small buildings is fundamental in the structure of the landscape which, considering the changes in the contemporary social and working organization, can drive toward the construction of a new settlement geography. Saving these lexical forms from oblivion, in order to pass them on to the next generations, does not simply mean preserving them but involves a further effort, finding the right measure, through even a minimal transformation, to re-establish a natural relationship with them (Collovà, in Piccole figure che passano [Small figures that pass]. 22publishing, 2012).The identification of characters expressing a representative class of artifacts, reconfigured through the architectural project, is one of the objectives of this research, in order to produce new interpretative and operational keys of transformation, making these rural structures of north-western Sicily as places of an in-fieri tale, no longer simple historical attestations but places that serve the needs of individuals and communities, rediscovering the authenticity of the architecture vital nucleus in a contemporary Mediterranean setting.

Antonio Biancucci, Salvatore Oddo
The Most Common Problems of the Nineteenth-Century and the Early Twentieth-Century Apartment Building Structures and the Possibilities of Their Restoration

The nineteenth- and early twentieth-century tenement house is an important architectural phenomenon and a representative of the technical progress of rapidly developing European cities. In this context, the conservation of a large number of nineteenth- and early twentieth-century urban buildings of relatively high structural quality, in which many complementary structural elements such as windows, doors, floors, plaster, stucco elements, decorative paintings, etc., have been preserved, becomes increasingly important. The buildings of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries often provide a very plastic image of the lifestyle of their time, while the principles and technologies of traditional craftsmanship are still preserved in their construction elements. However, the load-bearing and non-load-bearing structures of these houses nowadays show characteristic, recurring defects and failures, which are most often caused by defects in materials, degradation processes caused mainly by moisture, faulty design, execution, use and neglected maintenance. Not only the restoration of the wooden and stucco elements but also of the locksmiths and other exterior and interior components of these buildings often results in the loss of these elements and the deterioration of the expression not only of the building itself but also of the street frontage or the entire area. In many cases, knowledge of the nature of the disturbance can facilitate and accelerate the design of the restoration of a historic building without compromising its heritage values and without compromising the integrity of the building itself and the urban fabric. The paper presents an overview of the most frequently occurring defects and failures of the front elevation of urban apartment buildings of the mentioned period and, for selected examples, the possibilities of restoration.

Klara Kroftova

Sustainable Conservation of Built Heritage: Case Studies and Best Practices

Challenges for Sustainable Urban Heritage Conservation in the Twenty-First Century: The French Perspective

Over the past decades, the interest in urban sustainability has grown internationally through the implementation of a multitude of policies, initiatives, and tools. This growth is primarily due to the intensity of climate change, intensification of pollution, and rapidly increasing urbanization, among other factors. In this worldwide context, heritage conservation tools have often proved to be inadequate in handling contemporary challenges. The conservation community has called for a renewed approach to better integrate heritage management strategies within the larger goals of overall sustainable development. However, the convergence of heritage conservation and sustainability agendas is not evident despite the fact that the role of heritage in sustainable development is becoming unquestionable. To date, several publications on this topic tend to focus mostly on theoretical discourse. There is practically no general consensus in terms of how to update heritage conservation policies and tools to take the imperatives of sustainability into account. To address this gap, the current paper aims to discuss the need to implement a holistic and integrated approach to urban conservation by presenting the French case study. Indeed, since the beginning of the 2000s, France has revised its consolidated regulatory framework for the safeguarding of urban heritage to open up to sustainability targets. Recognizing sustainability as a primary challenge facing urban conservation, the paper is divided into three parts. Firstly, a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field of urban heritage conservation and sustainable development is provided. Secondly, the French context is presented, focusing on the influence of national environment and sustainability legislation on urban conservation tools. Lastly, the emblematic case study of Paris is investigated. The research finds that an integrated approach appears to be necessary, both at theoretical and operative levels, and some first-stage answers have been provided in this direction.

Federica Appendino
A Methodology Proposal for a Brownfield Redevelopment

Redesigning abandoned industrial areas (brownfield) requires the consideration of environmental concerns such as remediation. The design process should consider this context's economic and social sensitivities and environmental factors. In this study, a methodology for the redevelopment of the brownfield has been proposed. The proposed method consists of the parts which determine the design approach, collection, analysis, and synthesis of the data, determining the aims and objectives, determining intervention areas, the search for form with a visual programming language, layout plan, and architectural design. The methodology is applied in the context of an urban design project (Antalya Kepez Sumerbank Weaving Factory site). The process can be used in the conceptual design stage of brownfield redevelopment projects.

Beyza Karadeniz, Asli Agirbas, Merve Ozen
The Recovery of Coastal Flooding Archaeological Heritage Sites Through Nature-Based Solutions and Community Needs

Flood phenomena linked to anthropogenic actions, such as large-scale urbanization, massive tourist flows and climate change are some of the main causes of degrading coastal archaeological heritage sites. In the field of Architectural Technology, the study investigates the degradation status of these sites and its causes and identifies recovery and adaptation strategies based on technological and nature-based solutions to mitigate the problem. Starting from the application of the alignment check of the demand-performance approach (UNI 8289, 1981) to nature-based solutions, this research proposes a recovery strategy to mitigate degradation of coastal archaeological sites threatened by floods. The strategy focuses on mediating conservation and transformation of the surrounding built environment, preserving the archaeological heritage for future generations and promoting sustainable tourism. The integration of technological and nature-based solutions in the cultural heritage sites may allow the reactivation of parts of the sites no longer able to communicate with the contemporary settlement system in which diaphasic landscape, environmental and technological dimensions are grafted. This topic is explored by focusing on the example of archaeological site of the Villa di Pollio Felice (called also Bagni della Regina Giovanna) in Sorrento, Southern Italy. The urbanistic position of this site makes the maritime villa and its promontory of artificial terraces a site of infrastructural interest accessible from both sea and land. This gives the site's recovery actions an ambivalent value to operate both in the sense of material culture, exposed to flooding, and immaterial culture, exposed to degradation and the risk of losing the cultural identity of the community. This study provides a rehabilitation model of coastal archaeological sites which encourages the appropriate relation between material and immaterial built heritage, by improving the integration of nature-based solutions. The model links the need to conserve the cities of the past and transform the nowadays cities. Exploiting the flooding phenomena can be an opportunity to empower the recovery tools for the cultural heritage and its built environment.

Francesca Ciampa, Carla Sofia Santos Ferreira
Microclimatic Monitoring for Archeological Shelters Across Indoor Comfort and Conservation: The Case Study of the Villa del Casale in Piazza Armerina (Sicily, Italy)

Conservation and use raise priority and complementary needs in the archeological built heritage and, within the contemporary paradigm, they are no longer conflictual activities. The minimum intervention principle and compatibility are key objectives to avoid altering the values of the heritage. However, the musealization process also requires a double focus: on the one hand, the conservation of the material asset; on the other, the well-being of the users. The influence of environmental parameters on material decay is a well-known item: this occurs through chemical, physical, and biological processes, which contribute to reducing the expected life of archeological finds. Furthermore, the conditions of thermo-hygrometric comfort are necessary to guarantee the correct use of the site. The paper focuses on the thermo-hygrometric well-being in archeological sites and, in particular, on the case of Villa Romana del Casale, in Piazza Armerina, Sicily, which is a UNESCO site. A complex restoration project was performed on this site a few decades ago, aimed at improving the conservation of the mosaic apparatuses and users’ well-being, through the redesign and consequent replacement of the shelter system. The microclimate monitoring, aimed to verify the environmental conditions created by the new covering system, has been focused on sample room, on which the new covering system has been completed, and rooms that still are covered by the methacrylate old system. The comparison between the environmental parameters related to the old covering system, which caused undesired effects both for use and conservation, and the data related to the new covering system, allowed verifying the improvement in microclimatic conditions after the intervention. Data have demonstrated that the new one has reduced temperature inside the rooms and has increased humidity values. These analytical data demonstrate that the conservative intervention provided a positive impact on microclimatic conditions. Indeed, the comparison also showed the absence of the dangerous greenhouse effect. The conclusion of the paper will propose a comparative analysis of these results and other general aspects of the quality of the intervention, which cannot be measured or can only be measured indirectly.

Elvira Nicolini, Maria Luisa Germanà, Maria Francesca Alberghina, Salvatore Schiavone, Fernanda Prestileo
Innovating Processes to Mitigate the New Emergencies: Proposal for a Collaborative Approach to Maintenance in the Archaeological Park of Pompei

The COVID-19 pandemic, which has interrupted and slowed down the fruition of the built environment, had a significant impact on the regular planning of maintenance activities. The research is in the field of heritage maintenance and management, with particular reference to the facilities to support the fruition of archaeological sites. The paper discusses innovative procedures and methods, with the involvement of citizens and tourists, for archaeological area maintenance. The common citizen becomes, in continuity with the contents of the Faro Convention, the guardian of the built environment, in contexts where planned maintenance is struggling to become an established practice. The methodology provides an analysis of stakeholders to identify the contribution they can make to the maintenance process and their needs, the analysis and identification of the requirements that have emerged as a result of the current pandemic situation, and the critical elements of the building system. The case study concerns the buildings that support the fruition of the Archaeological Park of Pompeii. The result is a framework of actions that through the involvement of common knowledge can improve the maintenance service to preserve the identity of the built heritage and at the same time generate knowledge and awareness of the community.

Maria Giovanna Pacifico
Sustainable Conservation of Built Heritage for the Houses Casbah of Algeria: The Case Study of the Casbah of Algeria

The history of the Casbah of Algiers bears witness to the importance and status that this medina had. The subsequent passage of different civilizations, mainly Berber and Ottoman, made the Casbah the medina that has survived time and that we have inherited. The Casbah of Algiers is a historical site classified in the list of universal heritage, mistress of the Mediterranean since 1992. Unfortunately, given the development of the peripheries, we are now witnessing a marginalization and devaluation of historic cities. The modern city becomes a machine that produces urban voids in the historic centers; Spaces, as if left to their fate, are the negative of the built space and pose the problem of discontinuity and break with urban dynamics. Through this article, we try to go a way to understand the functional and spatial organization of the traditional house and the ancient way of life of the occupants, through a survey that has analyzed the current situation of the house and all the changes that have taken place. They produced. We can reuse the old architectural housing conservation project of the Algiers Casbah, but with a fundamental one.

Med Boudiaf Saouane, Ghellab Bachir
A Model of Functional-Spatial Transformation of Medieval Urban Structure. The Example of Krosno in the Subcarpathia in Poland

Cities of historical origin are a key element of European cultural heritage. Currently, they face a socio-economic crisis and spatial degradation. The subject of this study is the historical spatial layout of a medium-sized provincial town that obtained its municipal privileges in the late Middle Ages. It was a royal town founded under Magdeburg Law in the fourteenth century as a part of an important initiative of Casimir the Great for the urbanization of old Małopolska. The research problem was to find an answer to the question of how to make use of this valuable material historical heritage in the development processes of medium-sized towns in the context of contemporary threats such as unfavorable demographic, climatic, and economic changes. The main objective was to determine the potential of historical spatial structures in the process of regaining lost identity and distinctiveness, while the application objective was to create design and programming guidelines that would be useful in conducting potentially effective spatial policy. The research procedure was conducted in several stages, from the perspective of an architect-urbanist. It began with an outline of the historical urban structure and was followed by its morphological analysis and urban planning analysis. The analyses took into account aspects such as compactness, clarity of separation from the surrounding landscape, topography-dependent morphology, clarity of separation between public spaces, and mobility. It was concluded that the form of the historic urban fabric can largely determine the character of the city and its functional surroundings, can also be its brand and a symbol of cultural continuity, but at the same time can be a friendly place to live.

Anna Maria Martyka

The Value and the Significant of the Conservation of Heritage Sites

Knowing is Saving: Italian Architecture in Libya and the Case of Benghazi Cathedral

This paper presents the first results of research carried out under a Memorandum of Understanding signed in 2021 by the University of Brescia and the Berenice University of Architecture and Urbanism of Benghazi that is focused on the conservation, reuse, and accessibility of Libya’s Italian building heritage. In Benghazi, this colonial heritage has become an integral part of the community. The analysis phase that has already been concluded concerned preliminary study of Benghazi Cathedral, currently in a poor state of preservation. The first part of the essay describes the characteristics of Italian colonial architecture in Libya in the early twentieth century, with particular emphasis on the works of architects to whom we owe the cathedral’s construction. The history of the building is studied, together with the design and construction techniques. The main building-related deterioration present in the cathedral is examined and the most probable causes hypothesized. The aim is to define guidelines for a future project for the building’s restoration and reuse, with an emphasis on accessibility. This first study should be used to promote the Italian architectural heritage in Benghazi, which, as a common cultural heritage, can encourage cooperation to preserve it and pass it on to future generations.

Carlotta Coccoli, Alberto Arenghi, Francesca Tanghetti, Ahmed El-Rida
Hebron’s Old Markets Among Past and Present

The Islamic State has concerned with market planning to achieve economic, social, and environmental sustainability features. The traditional markets in the old city of Hebron are a sample of the Islamic markets, which were full of life due to their famous crafts. This study aims to document Hebron’s traditional markets and their locations in both Mameluke and Ottoman eras. The study also aims to outline the Khans and the public squares associated with these markets and to illustrate examples of these markets. The study further evaluates the sustainability measures of the planning and design of the old city’s traditional markets in Hebron in the past and present. Furthermore, the need for conserving the cultural heritage has led to an explanation of the existing political, economic, and social situation in the old city, which has been reflected in the market’s typologies. The study has mentioned the expected results of stating laws and regulations and supporting business investments in the old city markets. This contributed to increasing the level of sustainability required, by enhancing social and economic factors to preserve the cultural heritage for markets.

Haya S. Nasereddin, Ghassan J. Dweik, Sara T. Tamimi
The Preservation of the Heritage Value of Territories Related to Production Landscapes. The Case of Sancti Petri, Cádiz (Spain)

The fishing village of Sancti Petri in Chiclana de la Frontera (Cádiz, Spain) is located in a territorial enclave that acquires a certain singularity due to the combination of factors that make it up. This fact is reinforced by the synchronic and diachronic relationship established between the village and its surroundings. The result is a place of considerable heritage interest, but at the same time of great complexity, formed by a wide range of activities, interests, and objectives developed by the societies that have settled there. The historical survival of a productive environment (fishing and salt flats) has been detected, together with strong defensive and strategic importance, along with realities framed by a mythological component present in the collective memory of the place. More recently, the environment has been shaped by the development of leisure activities and the infrastructures linked to them. Added to this is a geographical reality with a very specific character. Therefore, the proposal of this research is to identify, from several approaches and scales, the different heritage elements that characterize the fishing village of Sancti Petri and the territory in which it is located, being aware of the landscape approach that demands in-depth knowledge of a territorial enclave of these characteristics. The results reveal not only the diversity of layers and heritage meanings offered by the elements that make up the site, both individually and collectively, but also their fragile state of conservation and the complexity of their management and administrative protection. The main conclusion is that the amount of information generated from a methodology that has explored the territorial, urban, architectural, and intangible components invites us to synthesize the information obtained and systematize it in terms of heritage values and attributes. Only from this perspective will it be possible to design strategies for the active protection of a place of this conceptual complexity.

Julia Rey-Pérez, Benito Sánchez-Montañés
Approaching Heritage Preservation for Future Generations

It has been proposed that Outstanding Universal Values (OUV) define the concept of cultural heritage. Yet, statements of OUV are often inadequately informative because they are unable to fully reflect the value and meanings that heritage holds for its respective communities. Thus, these official statements often leave the public struggling to understand and connect with their heritage. This difficulty causes the ethical question ‘Who and what is involved in heritage preservation?’ to become increasingly complicated and difficult to answer. To approach this question, it is fundamental to understand the relationship between a community and its heritage. It is proposed here that the concepts of ‘we’ and ‘others’ suggest five distinct incentives that can foster the building of connections between members of a community and their heritage and thereby motivate the preservation of that heritage. Building these connections allows a sense of belonging to develop and encourages feelings of responsibility towards heritage. I argue that such developments on part of community members can do more to raise public awareness of the value and meanings of heritage than can institutional commitment to their definitions of cultural heritage and statements of OUV. Moreover, consensus, which ultimately could benefit preservation initiatives is more likely to arise from public commitment rather than from statements or definitions. Examples from both tangible and intangible cultural heritage are used to substantiate the argument.

Teng Wai Lao
Mapping the Role of Jordan’s Governmental Institutions and NGOs in the Inscription of As-Salt City on the UNESCO World Heritage

As-Salt City in Jordan has undergone four nomination attempts in the last 30 years before its successful inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List (WHL) in July 2021. The first attempt was initiated in the 1990s by a local NGO which was deferred. This was followed by an international NGO in 1994, which did not reach further than putting the city on the tentative list. In 2016, local authorities took the lead in submitting another nomination which was also deferred. It wasn’t until 2020 that the last nomination was successful with the city’s inscription on the WHL. This paper provides new insights into how the concept of the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) for As-Salt City has evolved during the subsequent nomination attempts and negotiated between different actors and with UNESCO. The roles of different actors in the nomination attempts are chronologically mapped to understand the conflicting priorities of different stakeholders and how these triggered various urban regeneration processes in the city. The results of semi-structured interviews conducted in 2020 with key stakeholders (including the nomination files’ coordinators) are also presented to provide an understanding of the different actors’ positions regarding the OUV and how this latter shifted over time.

Bayan F. El Faouri, Magda Sibley
Governmental and Non-governmental Organizations and the Management Process of Historic Cities in Algeria

Classified Protected Areas, the historic towns in Algeria constitute the focus of the efforts of the state, civil society, and international organizations. The involvement of the various stakeholders in the heritage policy in Algeria is today supported and regulated, but also encounters some difficulties. The objective of this study is to analyze the degree of involvement of the various stakeholders. It aims to develop an observation of the role of governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations in the process of planning and enhancement of cities and historic centers in Algeria. This work contributes to the enrichment of the current debate governing the involvement of stakeholders in the conservation of historic cities. It falls within the guidelines of the various charters and recommendations, in this case the approach to the historic urban landscape. This research is based on a qualitative approach, by studying the legislative process and the institutional framework governing the historic cities in Algeria, and by addressing the case study of “the old town of Sidi El Houari” in Oran. However, this research demonstrates the important role of heritage associations and intergovernmental NGOs in the preservation and conservation of historic centers and towns, alongside the administrative role of governmental organizations. This study affirms the importance of encouraging the integration of non-governmental organizations in the management process of these historic cities. It proposes the creation of a direct coordination between the two models of organizations (governmental and non-governmental), and to give a formal status for the various intergovernmental organizations. It also suggests the creation of a National Urban Forum of NGOs, and to ensure better involvement and collaboration between public and private actors in the conservation of historic cities, while complying with international guidelines.

Hassina H. Sidi Mammar
Conservation of Architectural Heritage (CAH)
herausgegeben von
Maria Luisa Germanà
Natsuko Akagawa
Antonella Versaci
Nicola Cavalagli
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