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2023 | Buch

Conservation of Built Heritage in India

Heritage Mapping and Spatializing Values


Über dieses Buch

This book focuses on the Heritage Conservation of Architecture, Historic Districts of a City and Conservation strategies with specific case studies from India, in order to highlight the need for conserving the rich piece of history through research, education, advocacy, and practice. The historic significance and the condition mapping of the subjects are carried out through primary field studies by the authors at School of Planning and Architecture, Vijayawada, India. The cases are analysed, and appropriate solutions and sustainable strategies are evolved for the conservation of the buildings facing contemporary challenges. The contents align with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 11), Target 11.4 which aims to “strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world's cultural and natural heritage'. This would ensure that a rich piece of history is documented and analysed to ensure that it is not erased and forgotten. This book serves as a bountiful data base of literature as well as conservation strategies for heritage conservationists, students of architectural conservation and researchers.


Conservation of Heritage in India-Challenges, Issues, Agencies, Technological Advancements
Conservation of heritage is important as it entails protecting the cultural resources that define the very essence and character of a civilization. The various aspects of heritage which needs to be conserved are the arts and crafts of a place, the buildings of heritage importance and the cities, towns and places of heritage value. Arts and crafts include traditional textiles (handloom weaves and patterns and the method of weaving), Carpets and embroidery making, Handicrafts made with vernacular materials such as bamboo, cane, grass, wood. Paintings and murals such as Warli and Madhubani on fabric as well as on Canvas, Brassware and Earthenware along with various finishes, Unique jewellery such as Minakairi, Chettinadu jewellery and leather products tell tales of historic times. It is easier to preserve these products, but the significance lies in conserving the process too. It is utmost difficult to conserve buildings and cities of historic importance due to the urbanization and also the cost involved. Architectural conservation is the preservation of important buildings or architectural values. Ever since it first appeared, the preservation and repair of architecture has been seen as an essential virtue. With the intention of safeguarding the heritage so that it has an embodied reality for its interpretation, efforts have been made to understand and interpret it in order to show how the world was before us. This Chapter deals with the various bodies in India that work towards preservation and conservation. Efforts at conserving various religious art, folk art and commercial art by various Governmental bodies, NGOs and private players have been assessed. The conservation strategies have been discussed too.
Vijayalaxmi J.
Heritage Significance of the Historic Town of Padmanabhapuram, India, and Its Tourism Potential
Padmanabhapuram, originally known as Kalkulam, is an important historic town in the southern state of Tamil Nadu in India. Currently, the heritage significance of the town is primarily due to its palace complex dating back to the sixteenth century. However, this town was a part of the ancient Travancore kingdom ruled predominantly by the Pandya dynasty and Ay dynasty since the Sangam period (third century BC) and rose to prominence after it became the capital city of the Venad kingdom in the year 1553 CE. The town evolved as a capital over the period 1553 to 1795 and as a result, has a significant heritage of historic, natural, and cultural value. Today, the impact of urbanization and changing lifestyles is seen to have detrimental effects on the resources of heritage value at Padmanabhapuram. As suggested by SD11, protecting cultural heritage can foster policy coherence, driven by local and regional governments, involving increased citizen, and civil society participation. Therefore, tourism can be considered as one of the ways to raise awareness about the town to preserve its heritage. Primary field studies through listing, documentation, value assessment, and questionnaires are carried out to establish the heritage significance and assess the tourism potential. Sustainable tourism is deliberated to be the most appropriate model to raise awareness and preserve the rich heritage of Padmanabhapuram.
Vidhya Joseph
The Lost Heritage of Bengaluru City—The Case of Chikkajala Fort
The metropolitan city of Bengaluru has been undergoing rapid urbanization for the past two decades. The influx of Information Technology has taken over in the form of an IT hub. As a result, the essence of heritage has been taken aback. This study pertains to the heritage structure, Chikkajala Fort, located on the outskirts of Bengaluru Urban. The city has undergone the consequences of urbanization. Chikkajala Fort is a temple complex with a history dating from the Iron Age (1,000BCE), Hoyasalas (eleventh to fourteenth century), Vijayanagara (fourteenth to seventeenth century), Tipu Sultan and Hyder Ali (seventeenth to eighteenth century), to Chettiyars during the nineteenth century. Its significance is also weighed by the values it possesses such as historical, architectural, socio-economical, and cultural values. Considering its values, there is a need to strategize its conservation since it is in danger of succumbing to urbanization. This paper aims to establish the associative values and their significance to arrive at conservation strategies for its protection. The study is mainly conducted based on qualitative research techniques: documentation on the field, primary field survey, interviewing the locals to understand the socio-cultural structure and practices, etc., which helps in interpreting and analysing the area to arrive at a conservation strategy.
Hrudya Seemala
Study of the Planning and Architectural Significance of the Chitnavis Wada in Nagpur, India
The traditional dwellings in Maharashtra are called Wadas. The royal families in Maharashtra during the period of Bhosalas in Nagpur planned and designed these Wadas as their residences back in the seventeenth century. Chitnavis Wada in Nagpur is one of them which served as a residence for the ministers of Bhosale in the eighteenth century. Since the descendants of these Wadas have moved out for better prospects, the physical structure is in danger of dilapidation. This historic structure is either getting vandalized or they are being reused as a museum or gallery to increase the economic graph. Due to this, a loss of historicity can be observed in the Wadas, which are originally meant to serve as residences for the royal families. There is a need to conserve this piece of history, which reflects the socio-cultural and economic times of 18th-century dwellings of the royal families. The aim of this paper is to understand the planning and architectural significance of the Chitnavis Wada complex in Nagpur. The study is based on the on-field documentation of the Chitnavis Wada in Nagpur. The identified factors will further be identified to understand its architectural significance.
Shreya S. Kalbhor
A Study on Defense Planning Strategies of Gwalior Fort
During the reign of the Tomar Rajputs in the twelfth century, the surrounding kingdoms were trying to expand themselves by strengthening their defense systems. The biggest threat which the kings were facing was from the Mughal invasions. Kings were trying to build forts with in-built defense techniques. At that time, one of the forts flourished amongst the most impenetrable mountain forts in India, Gwalior fort located in the Madhya Pradesh state of India. In order to appreciate the planning of Gwalior fort there is a need to understand their defense technique and its implication in the planning of Gwalior fort. This study aims to assess the defense architecture technique of Gwalior fort through archival records supported by field studies and primary information from government agencies and historians. The study shows that the northeast part of the Gwalior fort has been planned primarily to prevent the fort from the Mughals because the maximum attacks that happened in the fort were from the northeast gate. This study will help in appreciating the planning of defense-based forts which account for around 3/4th of total existing forts in India.
Muskan Tiwari
Holistic Study to Comprehend Influence of Orissa and West Bengal on Temple Styles in Nagpur
The temple architecture of the Nagpur region in Maharashtra, India followed a very peculiar style as compared to the other regions of Maharashtra. The architectural character of the temples of the Nagpur region was greatly influenced by the Orissa and West Bengal styles of temple architecture. This is because temples of Nagpur during the eighteenth century in India have been supported by the Craftsman of the neighbouring states of Orissa and Bengal. Nagpur was predominantly ruled by the royal lineage of Bhonsale of the Kolhapur region. Their feudatories also called Bhonsales were from the Kolhapur region of Maharashtra. The research paper aims to assess and analyse the influence of Orissa and West Bengal temple architecture styles on the Bhonsale-ruled temple architecture of Nagpur. A comparative study of the planning features and architectural characteristics of the temples of Nagpur region and other parts of Maharashtra is carried out to assess the influence of Orissa and West Bengal temple styles. To understand how the Nagpur temple style is similar and collect data on Bhonsales of Nagpur and their expeditions, meetings with the officials from Orissa and West Bengal. This study is important to assess the contribution of Craftsmen from Orissa and West Bengal which has resulted in a unique style of temple architecture in Nagpur since such studies are limited.
Yogini Moreshwar Damle
Human Perception Analysis of Adapting Vernacular Architectural Solutions in Urban Single Residences
Vernacular buildings and traditional knowledge about sustainability are getting extinct due to the global paradigm shift towards energy intensive building materials and design practices. The study focuses to identify and overcome shortcomings of traditional dwellings as it is so that it can be adopted as a sustainable housing solution for urban dwellers. Primary survey was conducted on urban residents through discussions and structured questionnaires which identified requirements from their houses in the context of modern lifestyle. This paper tries to provide solutions to overcome the limitations as perceived by the urban residents in order to increase the acceptability of vernacular considerations. The survey results indicate a lack of awareness about contemporary vernacular architecture among urban dwellers. It further explains the possibilities of adopting vernacular materials and techniques for a modern sustainable house while sufficing the requirements of urban lifestyle. Based on this study, design guidelines can be formulated for the new building constructions under various government housing schemes. The uniqueness of this study is that the bridge between existing neo-vernacular buildings and human perception has been proposed with sustainable solutions which will satisfy the client and the designer. This study will also bring an awareness among people about vernacular architecture and as they slowly start adapting the same we as a society, can regain the lost, knowledge, craftsmanship and identity of a place and head towards a sustainable society.
Vijayalaxmi J., Sayak Banerjee
Public Perception of the Significance of Cultural Heritage Conservation for Promoting Community Wellbeing
Target 11.4 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) addresses the fact that efforts should be made to protect and safeguard the cultural and natural heritage of the world. Cultural heritage needs to be protected and conserved as it helps in preserving the unique identity and character of a place. In order to achieve this, assessing the perceptions of the local community about the conservation of built heritage becomes an important aspect, as a positive perception means that the conservation efforts will be a success. The research is conducted to assess the public perception of conserving the cultural heritage of a place and its role in promoting community wellbeing. Purposive sampling method through informed interviews is used on the participants. Also, a questionnaire prepared by using the Semantic Differential Scale (SDS) and Likert Scale was used to conduct the survey. The data is collected with the help of a questionnaire survey which is carried out by taking a sample consisting of 106 teachers from the schools and colleges in Amaravati and Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India. The results are analysed using MS Excel software. The results show a positive perception and awareness among both the male and the female teachers regarding their local cultural heritage and they want to take part in the conservation process by promoting their cultural heritage throughout the world. Conserving the heritage by balancing it with other sustainability goals in community planning can help in developing cities that are sustainable with respect to the three pillars of sustainability.
Manali Basu
Evaluating the Adaptive Reuse Potential of Chettinad Houses for Heritage Conservation
The Chettinad region is known for its rich residential architecture. The grandeur mansions bear testimony to the successful banking and trading community of the Nattukottai Nagarathars. However, in recent times, a good lot of buildings have become dilapidated due to the migration of residents to other places in search of better opportunities. This paper aims to analyze the adaptive reuse potential of the region to conserve the palatial houses for the development of culture, heritage, and way of life for future generations. It involves a brief historical research on the evolution and principles of the community and a combination of models such as the ARP model and the Delphi method to analyze its potential. After due consideration of the physical obsolescence, economic obsolescence, functional obsolescence, technological obsolescence, social obsolescence, and legal obsolescence, the ARP was found to be 31.3, which shows that the building has a moderate value for adaptive reuse. Hence, adaptive reuse is an apt choice to sustain the life of the building in this context. Besides, the Delphi Model that is based on people’s perceptions also showed the need to strategize the adaptive reuse of Chettinad houses.
Palaniappan Alamu Priya
Holistic Study, Analysis of Adaptive Reuse of Historic Structure
Adaptive reuse is the modification of function in heritage structures without compromising on cultural, aesthetic, and traditional values. This study aims to evaluate the obsolescence of a historic building to determine the time for a change in its function. The Victoria Hall in Chennai is assessed for its qualitative and quantitative life. The Adaptive Reuse Potential (ARP) model is used to evaluate the physical life, useful life, and building’s age to assess the potential for reuse. The results show that an Adaptive Reuse Potential (ARP) Score of 67.74% indicates the increased need for the adaptive reuse of Victoria Public Hall, Chennai, which will eventually result in sustenance as a heritage building for a longer time period. Findings indicate that the adaptive reuse technique can be carried out within the stipulated timeline for improved building life. This study is important to understand the conservation potential and process of adaptive reuse of historical buildings to improve the economic, social, and functional aspects.
Vijayalaxmi J., Mothi Krishna, Harshitha Sahu
Conservation of Built Heritage in India
herausgegeben von
Vijayalaxmi J.
Springer Nature Singapore
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