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The properties of constituent materials and variation of the mix ingredients mostly affect the quality of concrete produced. This chapter describes constituent materials of concrete and provides information about composition and types of Portland cement (as described in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom) including supplementary cementitious materials and various types of blended cements, such as slag cements, pozzolanic type IP, P, I (PM) cements, high-alumina cements, coloured Portland cement, waterproofed or water-repellent cement, hydrophobic cement, low-alkali cement, shrinkage-compensating or expansive cements, masonry and mortar cements, plastic cements, finely ground cements (ultrafine cements), oil well cements, magnesium phosphate cements, and sulphur cements.
The chapter further describes properties and classification of aggregates covering natural mineral aggregates, synthetic aggregates, and recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) and their influence on concrete produced. This chapter also addresses mixing and curing water requirements, and types and uses of admixtures; about ten types of admixtures are discussed.
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ASTM C150/C150M—17, Standard Specification for Portland Cement.
CSA A3001 Cementitious Materials for Use in Concrete.
ASTM C1157/C1157M—17, Standard Performance Specification for Hydraulic Cement.
CEMEX Mortars UK, Educational Guide to Cementitious Materials.
ASTM C595 (Revised 2017)- Standard Specification for Blended Hydraulic Cements.
Canadian Standards Association (CSA) A23.1–14 - Concrete materials and methods of concrete construction/Test methods and standard practices for concrete.
The Cement Association of Canada- Brief on Contempra (Portland-Limestone Cement): A New Lower Carbon Cement.
ACI 207.lR-87 (Revised 2005), Mass Concrete.
ACI 223–90/98 (Revised 2010), Standard Practice for the Use of Shrinkage-compensating Concrete.
ASTM C91–05 (Revised 2012) - Standard Specification for Masonry Cement.
CAN/CSA-A179–04 (R2014) - Mortar and Grout for Unit Masonry.
University of Saskatchewan Class Notes- Chapter 2- Portland, Blended and Other Hydraulic Cements.
St Marys Cement Toronto- Specification for Masonry Cement Type-S.
ASTM C1328 (Revised 2012)—Standard Specification for Plastic (Stucco) Cement.
API (American Petroleum Institute) Spec 10A (R2015)- Specification for Cements and Materials for Well Cementing.
Dr. Mark A. Shand; Premier Magnesia North Carolina—A Brief on Magnesia Cements North Carolina.
BS 4550-78 (Amended 1984), Part-3, Methods of Testing Cement-strength Tests.
ASTM C151-89 (Revised 2016), Standard Test Method for Autoclave Expansion of Portland Cement.
ASTM Cl86-86 (Revised 2005), Standard Test Method for Heat of Hydration of Hydraulic Cement.
Portland Cement Association (PCA)-Concrete Technology Today- Portland Cement, Concrete, and Heat of Hydration, Volume 18/Number 2, July 1997.
ASTM C109/C109M—16a, Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-in. or [50-mm] Cube Specimens).
Ontario Provincial Standard Specification-OPSS.PROV 1002-Material Specification For Aggregates-Concrete, April 2013.
Portland Cement Association USA, Recycled Aggregates.
BS 882–92, Specification for Aggregates from Natural Sources of Concrete.
ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) C33–86 (Revised 2016), Specifications for Concrete Aggregates.
ACI Education Bulletin E1-99-Aggregates for Concrete-Developed by Committee E-701-Materials for Concrete Construction.
Canadian Standards Association- CSA- A23.2-14, Test methods and standard practices for concrete.
A.M. Neville, Properties of Concrete, Longman, London, 1997.
University of Saskatchewan Class Notes- Chapter 6- Admixtures of Concrete.
ACI 212.3R-91 (Revised 2016), Chemical Admixture for Concrete.
Road Research Laboratory, Ministry of Transport, Concrete Roads Design and Construction, published by Her Majesty's Stationary Office, printed by Lowe and Brydone Ltd, London, 1966.
Concrete Alberta- Concrete Tech Tip # 27- Supplementary Cementing Materials (SCM’s).
Iowa State University- Institute for Transportation- Best Practices Workshop, Supplementary Cementitious Materials.
Lawrence L. Sutter, Professor Michigan Technological University USA- Tech Brief SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS, Best Practices for Concrete Pavements- This Tech Brief was developed under Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Washington, DC USA, http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement.
Concrete Alberta- Concrete Tech Tip # 27, Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs).
Ontario Provincial Standard Specification- OPSS.PROV 1350, Material Specifications for Concrete— Materials and Production- November 2013.
Iain Christie and Margaret Hatfield of Roy Hatfield Ltd, Colour Technology for Concrete, Concrete Society Journal, CONCRETE, Vol. 31, No. 4, April 1997.
Cathy Higgins and Jimmy Crawford- Colouring Concrete Using Integral Pigments- East Texas Precast.
- Constituent Materials
- Chapter 2