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Open Access 2022 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

6. Consulting Concept to Develop New Systems

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Abstract

The survey in the development departments shows a great need for structured advice during the development process including a strong interest in supporting consulting services. A competent supervision from an independent consultant from outside the respective area is recommended for achieving continuous documentation throughout the development process according to the duty of care. Most respondents would like to have a point of contact or personal contact person, who will always be on hand with competent technical or legal advice and assistance for any questions or problems that arise. In the case of a developer, guidance, sense and purpose for the benefit of the individual developer are primary motivations. This means that a structured guideline will only be used with conviction if it is perceived as an advantage. The author’s experience in connection with the processing of product liability cases lead to the following general questions as a consultant to the development process: 1. How carefully are the tasks of development, production and marketing implemented? 2. What is expected beyond the legal requirements? 3. Will possible damage be avoided or its effect reduced if another design is used? 4. How does the system behave in comparison to the competitors (other car manufacturers)? 5. Were preventive and comprehensible warnings made available to prevent possible damage? A final consulting concept (a checklist of 101 questions in Appendix B) provides guidelines and requirements.
The above-mentioned interview outcomes and the resulting strong interest in supporting consulting-services point to a great need for structured advice during the development process of new systems. The following questions supplement some requirements for duty of care which are exemplary listed in sections 3.​2.​2 and 6.2 from the first idea until marketing.

6.1 Intrinsic Motivation

From the engineer's perspective time and effort are the basis for the acceptance, which is necessary for the successful use of a guideline or checklists. In general, the developers must be convinced of the advantages of a guideline. Only if checklists can be integrated into the daily development routine with little loss of time is there a motivation for their use. For this purpose, user-friendly solutions for editing as well as clear, quickly recognizable questions with little scope for interpretation are required. The results of the interviews clearly show that the value of complete documentation within the product development in the event of a customer complaint was largely recognized. Some developers do not see any added value in completing the provided Excel lists in their daily work. Therefore, complete documentation is only possible through increased motivation or more pressure from the outside. It is revealed that a positive attitude towards encompassing process documentation is linked to responsibility. According to these developers with a high sense of responsibility, consistent documentation leads to an experience-based work process and therefore less expenditure of time.
An obligation to produce documentation based on additional pressure from the hierarchy above will discourage both the developers and the managers. This would lead to simple checking-off relating to all the items on the checklist rather than responsible and reflective processing of all work tasks.
Therefore, competent supervision from an independent consultant from outside the respective area is recommended for achieving continuous documentation throughout the development process according to the duty of care. Most of the respondents want a point of contact or personal contact person, who will always be on hand with competent technical or legal advice and assistance for any questions or problems that arise. In the case of a developer, guidance, sense and purpose for the benefit of the individual developer are primary motivations. This means that a structured guideline will only be used with conviction if it is perceived as an advantage.
Thus, the demonstration of the potential for optimization and increase of safety by means of a guide-supported development process represents a significant step.
In addition, the survey found that the employees in the development departments are satisfied with their work and tasks. In particular, the variety of the day-to-day work is perceived as particularly enjoyable and motivating by many developers. The work on the development of innovative driver assistance and automated systems requires innovation processes, which, in addition to the administrative tasks of the employees, require corresponding open space for creativity (Schleuter W, von Stosch, J, 2009). As well Ekkehard D. Schulz, also a member of the Supervisory Board of MAN SE, writes in his book (55 reasons to become an engineer) as follows: “Creativity and courage are the characteristics that every engineer needs” (Schulz, E-D, 2012).
According to the statements of the surveyed developers, they are also given plenty of freedom to develop new ideas and exploit their creativity. This gives the interviewed developers an intrinsic motivation for their work. A particularly pronounced motivation is developing the best possible new systems, something which occurs when developers accompany the entire development process right up to the start of production.
This is also shown by the example of Carl Benz: current developments without a passion for technology are unimaginably. Despite all negation, rejection and mockery in response to his work for days and nights – with the support of his wife – Carl Benz bravely believed in the future of his patent car. After further optimizations and due to the increased public interest, countless press articles subsequently dealt with the industrial success of the automobile in the first decades of the twentieth century. They show that these initial forecasts have been more than exceeded (Benz, Carl Friedrich, 2014).

6.2 Consulting Questions to Fulfill Duty of Care

An overview of all generated consulting questions to comply with duty of care is attached. In the manufacture of vehicles with innovative systems, general consideration must be given to the strict liability, that the manufacturer or distributor of a product is liable for its proper functioning without any faults (see Ch. 4). Liability also exists for individual defective systems. The author’s experience in connection with the processing of product liability cases lead to the following general questions as a consultant to the development process:
  • How carefully are the tasks of development, production, sustainability and marketing implemented?
  • What is expected beyond the legal requirements?
  • Will possible damage be avoided or its effect reduced if another design is used?
  • How does the system behave in comparison to the competitors (other car manufacturers)?
  • Were preventive and comprehensible warnings made available to prevent possible damage?
As well as these questions, most of the quality standards are formulated relatively generally. For vehicle manufacturers, this means that concrete measures for product safety must be developed on their own. Furthermore, it should be noted that the comprehensive measures extend to several areas of responsibility within the company. These relate to design, production, technical documentation, purchasing, sales and service. In this respect, the management is centrally responsible for the overall process.
Many different systems exist on the market that are based on different technologies and assume different functions. The challenge is that the current safety level of development in respect of automated driving systems is difficult to characterize. The developer has to check the duty of care, the current standards or the state of knowledge as a general state of the art. He has to decide “how safe is safe enough”.
Other accompanying development guides like a code of practice also relate to elements of safety enhancement (see Fig. 6.1). In particular, the ADAS Code of Practice proposes methods for verifying the controllability of new systems. The application of appropriate confirmation paths for system approval is included in chapter 4.
In addition, numerous other checklists and design recommendations must be considered for the system-specific applicability of the system that will be developed. These include for instance: the ESoP-specifications for In Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS), internal company checklists or lists such as the “Safety guidelines for mobile services in automotive use from the Mobile Automotive Cooperative Service (MACS-) MyNews-Services”.
While ISO 26262 addresses the potential threats of a system with regard to functional safety as malfunctions, the specification of the safe target function is not considered. This is the basis of functional safety (Kriso, 2014). Nevertheless, the question arises as to how the target function is to be specified or developed so that it can be regarded as sufficiently safe. Additionally, for this purpose the ISO/PAS 21448 Road vehicles: Safety of the Intended Functionality (SOTIF) was developed. The consideration of this question in ISO 26262 has so far been limited to the topic of controllability with reference to the ADAS Code of Practice. These Guidelines can be structured in three primary driving tasks (see Fig. 6.1).
A topic to be discussed is to what extent predictable or unforeseeable manipulations can lead to safety-critical effects: especially with regard to automotive functional safety (Kriso, 2014).
In addition to systematic errors and random hardware errors, the enemy image of conscious manipulation must also be considered. With regard to automotive security the guideline SAE J3061 “Cybersecurity Guidebook for Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems” was published in 2016 which among other things deals with the interaction between safety and security.
Volume 2 of the updated standard (ISO 26262, 2018) already includes a loose coupling to security:
“The organization shall institute and maintain effective communication channels between functional safety, cybersecurity and other disciplines that are related to functional safety, if applicable.” (ISO 26262, 2018) Ch. 5.4.2.3.
Therefore, the main purpose is about combining organizational communication channels with neighboring disciplines. In particular, the link to security is taken up again in the informative ISO 26262 Annex F (Guidance on potential interaction of functional safety with cybersecurity). However, the indications given here are at a quite general level.

6.3 Conclusion: Structured Guidelines Support a Safe System

The survey in the development departments shows a great need for structured advice during the development process including a strong interest in supporting consulting services. Additional suggestions from established standardized processes such as the Toyota Production System (TPS) can be used. In order to maintain the general quality, the TPS describes the prevention of hazards. Failures due to information deficiencies and product designs that do not meet customer requirements can be considered as defects. Product quality should be monitored constantly and not only by random sampling. To achieve this, all employees in production and logistics must be appropriately trained and sensitized. This approach is also taken into account when applying the method Total Quality Management (TQM). Another method is called Poka Yoke, which means “avoiding unintentional errors”.
Only when employees in organizations register that sustainable management is interested in their daily problems in the process and actively supports them in solving these problems do they realize that continuous process improvement is indeed desired. An exclusive result orientation causes demotivation. On the other hand, a supportive and flexible process-oriented sustainable management will motivate employees and achieve organizational sustainability. Additional investment in employee qualification is the decisive competitive advantage for safe products in successful corporations during changing requirements within the fight for quality and costs along the supply chain management (Benn S et. al., 2014; Hahn T et. al., 2014; Chopra S et. al., 2007).
Within this consulting concept carried out to develop new innovative systems, the author conveys the values of the Inner Development Goals (IDG), considering the Corporate Social Responsibility and sustainability principles of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) for globally sustainable development.
The 17 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals are further guidelines within this consulting concept to achieve better and more sustainable new systems for everyone. They focus on the global challenges we are confronted with, including poverty, inequality, climate change, environmental degradation, peace and justice. As a support, the Inner Development Goals (IDG) serve as a guide to the skills, qualities and capabilities people need to achieve the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). In doing so, they aim to educate, inspire and empower people to be a positive force for change in society and to take a more purposeful view of our lives and the lives of those around us. These are compatible with the questionnaire in Annex B (see Annex B questions 103 to 303, see also Fig. A.19).
Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://​creativecommons.​org/​licenses/​by/​4.​0/​), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.
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Titel
Consulting Concept to Develop New Systems
verfasst von
Thomas Winkle
Copyright-Jahr
2022
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-34293-7_6

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