Pakistan occupies the basin of the eastern-most of the three great rivers that traverse the steppe desert of the old world, the Nile, the Tigris-Euphrates and the Indus. That these basins were the cradles of early civilisation gives to the Indus a distinctiveness that is lacking in other river basins in South Asia (Johnson, 1979). It lies between latitudes 24 and 37° N and between 61 and 75° E longitudes. On its east lies India; to the north and north west is Afghanistan; to the west is Iran; and in the south is the Arabian Sea. It has a common frontier in the north with China on the border of Gilgit Agency. Tajikistan is separated from Pakistan by a narrow strip of Afghan territory called Wakhan.
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