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Über dieses Buch

This edited collection collates the most up-to-date and important research within the area of operations and logistics management. Boasting the combined expertise of one of the largest logistics and operations management academic teams in Europe, it provides both depth and diversity in a balanced portfolio. The first two sections are concerned with key contemporary issues in the subject area, providing a current and up-to-date overview of the field. Section three presents a selection of important cross-cutting themes that impinge upon and inform teaching, research and practice, while the final section includes a celebration of research highlights and showcases cutting-edge applications from leaders in the field. Invaluable to students, researchers and academics alike, this book is compulsory reading for those active within operations and logistics research.



Chapter 1. Introduction

This original purpose of this book was to produce a celebration of the multiplicity of talents held within the Logistics and Operations Management (LOM) Section of Cardiff Business School. The expertise within this group of 40 or so scholars ranges across logistics, operations management, supply chain management, procurement, transport, port management, and related disciplines. It is therefore testimony to individual and collective endeavour, to unity and diversity, and to the unending quest for insight and understanding.
Peter Wells

Chapter 2. Project Management for Effective Operations Management

Whilst much of operations research and management is about refining and improving the day-to-day activities of a business or organization, this chapter has a focus on the very different set of challenges and responses around the creation, deployment, and conclusion of specific change projects. With these concerns in mind, this chapter presents a simplified methodology and ready-to-use project management techniques for the delivery of successful projects. The chapter goes on to contextualize these tools and techniques using a practical example, highlighting their effectiveness and important practical considerations.
Daniel Eyers, Mohamed Naim

Chapter 3. The Foundations of Sustainability and the Implications for Transport Modes

In this chapter there is presented a radical interpretation of sustainability that pushes at the boundaries of the conventional approaches contained by sustainable supply chain management. The chapter is grounded in the historical development of the policy treatment of transportation and sustainability, in which it is argued that there is a complex interplay between the technically possible and the politically acceptable. The sustainability agenda is shown to be an emergent property of an evolving discourse, traced back here to key milestone events such as the Club of Rome reports in the 1970s. The chapter argues that we have neglected the cultural basis of sustainability as it is currently defined, and illustrates this view by reference to the treatment of this issue by other cultures in other times and places. Indeed, the continuity of concern over environmental matters is the predominant feature, rather than a recent ‘new’ emergence. The chapter concludes with an awkward question: Have the achievements of the past 50 years made transport or supply chains more ‘sustainable’?
Paul Nieuwenhuis

Chapter 4. Business Model Innovation at the Interface Between Global Production Systems and Local Demand

In this chapter, the evolving role of transport and logistics as the crucial intermediary processes between supply and demand is shown to be in tension. That is, the quest for least-cost manufacturing, in part enabled by the financial efficiency of mass transport via container ships, has resulted in the spatial dispersal of production and, inevitably, long lead times in supply. Simultaneously, the growth in the on-demand economy with instant gratification, again enabled by the financial efficiency of local delivery systems, has resulted in a growing ‘separation’ of demand from supply. The chapter argues that the entire production–consumption nexus may morph in unpredictable yet important ways, and that business model innovation is one mechanism by which organisations may seek to manage these tectonic shifts. The chapter highlights that further disruptive change is likely, in part arising from further technological innovations but more profoundly because dispersed production and concentrated consumption in the form of rampant urbanisation is not sustainable in a fundamental sense.
Peter Wells

Chapter 5. 3D Printing for Supply Chain Service Companies

The collection of advanced manufacturing technologies known as ‘3D Printing’ (3DP) or ‘Additive Manufacturing’ (AM) are increasingly gaining commercial acceptance through their ability to radically change the way products are made. Extensive research in the engineering domain has already detailed the technical challenges surrounding the adoption of these emergent technologies, highlighting their ability to readily produce complex geometries in a range of materials. By comparison, the implications of 3DP for business are far less clearly explored, with a general dearth of empirical research that exploits real-world data. Nevertheless, there is a general consensus in the business literature that 3DP can theoretically improve supplier responsiveness whilst simultaneously increasing product customization. Additionally, disintermediation of the supply chain and a localization of production may strengthen the relationship between the manufacturer and its customer, reducing the need for the transportation and warehousing. This vision for 3DP emphasises the role of manufacturers in value creation, and assumes that service companies will relinquish their roles within the supply chain. Given the top 50 Logistics Service Providers (LSPs) alone have revenues of over 250Bn USD it is unlikely they would retreat voluntarily. Instead several LSPs have started to explore other ways of maintaining their presence within the 3DP industry, and in this chapter, we explore the potential implications of 3DP on both production and supply chain service firms. We consider 3DP from both the traditional manufacturing-engineering domain (product orientated), and the supply chain domain (service orientated), and extend the existing concept of Product Service Systems (PSS) within the 3DP context. We develop a conceptual framework to encompass the unique opportunities that 3DP can bring to PSS, and through a detailed case study explore the implications that have arisen for a Global LSP that provides 3DP services. We provide a first insight into the barriers and opportunities for supply chain service firms to add 3DP capabilities to their service offering to create PSS business models, and highlight pertinent directions for further exploration.
Daniel Eyers, Andrew Lahy, Mike Wilson, Aris Syntetos

Chapter 6. Zero-Carbon Logistics

This is a chapter concerned with the impossibility of zero-carbon logistics. The logistics industry faces a dilemma: not only to achieve continued cost reductions in the service provided, but also to manage the (rapid) transition to (near) zero-carbon logistics. The chapter reviews the issue of why logistics operations (transport and storage) need to achieve zero-carbon status, and do so quickly, by reference to both the underlying science of climate change and the predominant (but not universal) adoption of carbon reduction policy targets. In shipping and air freight the chapter argues that there are no readily available, low-cost, technological solutions to reduce carbon emissions and to offset the anticipated increase in trade. Put another way, in global logistics systems as currently constituted, the prospects of end-to-end zero-carbon transport are slim.
Peter Wells

Chapter 7. Vehicle Routing Problem: Past and Future

Freight transportation is a critical part of any supply chain and has many facets, particularly when viewed from the multiple levels of decision-making. The most known problem at the operational level planning is the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), which is one of the most interesting and challenging optimization problems in the operations research literature. By definition, it consists of designing optimal collection or delivery routes for a set of vehicles from a depot to a set of geographically scattered customers, subject to various side constraints, such as vehicle capacity, time windows, precedence relations between customers, and, etc. This chapter discusses the basic principles of vehicle routing to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. More specifically, knowing the past of vehicle routing will help readers to understand the present and to prepare for the future of road freight transportation.
Emrah Demir, Katy Huckle, Aris Syntetos, Andrew Lahy, Mike Wilson

Chapter 8. Dynamical Modelling in Operations Management

In dynamic models, in contrast to static models, change is the most important topic. Variables are seen not as static, but changing over time. This chapter introduces the application of the technique of dynamical modelling approach in operations management, with highlights in the issues of demand management, forecasting, and production control. These issues, typically lying in the core of operations management, are shown to be promising for the application of dynamical modelling.
Xun Wang

Chapter 9. Systems Thinking, Engineering and Dynamics in Modern Supply Chain Management

In this chapter, we revisit the systems movement and outline its influences on supply chain management. Systems theory advocates a holistic approach to supply chains, bringing together qualitative and quantitative approaches that may be summarised as systems thinking, system dynamics and systems engineering. Such approaches are commonly argued to be useful in illuminating our understanding of complex and dynamic problem situations. The chapter begins with a historical account of the development of systems thinking and synthesis of key systems concepts. Then, using applied examples from different branches of systems thinking, namely soft systems, systems engineering and system dynamics, we show how the different tools and techniques can be applied to different supply chain problems. We also give examples from studies in different industrial sectors. The chapter concludes with a discussion of key issues and current concerns in applied systems research.
Mohamed Naim, Jonathan Gosling, Junyi Lin, Matthias Holweg

Chapter 10. Green Supply Chain Management in Asian Emerging Economies: A State-of-the-Art Review

In recent decades, rapid industrial modernization and economic growth have brought substantial environmental problems such as air pollution, hazardous waste and water pollution for the Asian emerging economies (AEE). These countries have started to adopt green supply chain management (GSCM) as a strategy to reduce the environmental impact. Based on a systematic literature review, the author identified 59 articles that surveyed manufacturing companies in the AEE and were published between 2002 and 2014.
Ruoqi Geng

Chapter 11. Effective Supply Chain Collaboration

Collaboration is a commonly used term in business today, but few managers understand how to implement collaboration effectively, nor do they appreciate the potential value that may be unlocked by collaborating internally within the organisation and externally across the supply chain. Focusing on an individual’s or a team’s behaviour (e.g. cooperation, trust, commitment and communication) often gets neglected, but communication and trust are all too frequently linked with partnership failure. Recognising and managing behaviour in collaborative partnerships becomes essential when managing more strategic and higher risk partnerships. This chapter explores different interpretations and approaches adopted within organisations to manage collaborative working. Case study examples provide important insights in understanding some of the key challenges, benefits and lessons that may be learned and transferred in ensuring future best practices in collaborative working.
Jane Lynch

Chapter 12. Strategic Choices in Creating Resilient Supply Networks

Since the 2009 global financial crisis, and significant more local supply chain disruptions due to natural events such as earthquakes, there has been a growing interest in mitigating the disruption to supply chains whatever the original cause is. In this chapter we chart the emergence of supply chain resilience as a response to the potential catastrophic failures that may occur due to a disturbance. However, disruption can occur from the demand side as well as the supply side. The chapter explores the theme of resilience through the use of the robustness, agility, leanness and flexibility (RALF) approach. We ascertain its potential utility in assessing the likelihood of a suite of supply networks to be resilient in the clothing sector. We focus on capabilities required to deal with volatility in the marketplace, and then highlight aspects in need of further research.
Laura Purvis

Chapter 13. Horizontal Logistics Collaboration—An International Retail Supply Chain Case Study

The practice of horizontal logistics is an established mode of operation in some transport modes such as shipping and air-freight, but thus far a neglected area with great potential with respect to land transport. Crucially, horizontal logistics requires collaboration potentially with competitors but also potentially with those acting in entirely different supply chain settings. With a focus on the Fast-Moving Consumer Goods sector, this chapter illustrates the establishment of a new horizontal logistics initiative with regards to four key phases: Outset consideration factors, ideal synergies, assisting enablers and output metrics. For horizontal collaboration to work, many factors need to be considered as present: A robust legal framework, common suppliers, capable and neutral logistics service providers, supportive operating model, fair sharing of benefits and supportive attitude of supply chain champions, and the ability to demonstrate a strong business case. The research discussed in this chapter shows that there is a crucial role for a neutral third-party company in a horizontal logistics initiative precisely because of the collaborative nature of such an initiative.
Vasco Sanchez Rodrigues

Chapter 14. Shipping Economics: Status and Future Prospects

In this chapter, we examine the status and future prospects of the shipping industry, from macroeconomic and microeconomic perspectives, to explore the challenges facing shipping stakeholders. First, shipping economic theory is discussed and a comparison between shipping classic theory and shipping rational theory is presented to identify practical applications. Second, for better understanding of shipping economics fundamentals, the drivers for the demand and supply for seaborne trade are defined. Third, the efficiency of shipping markets is discussed and linked to strategic decision-making in the shipping industry. Finally, contemporary topics in sipping economics such as the challenges of low carbon shipping in a changing climate change, the importance of sustainability in shipping, technology and innovation in shipping and the concept of smart shipping are discussed and analysed.
Wessam Abouarghoub, Jane Haider

Chapter 15. A Contextual History of Port Research at Cardiff University

In this chapter, we demonstrate the ways in which the Transport and Shipping Research Group in the Logistics and Operations Management Section of Cardiff Business School has contributed to academic research, management practice, and government policy with respect to ports around the world. Ports are often the vital link between transport modes and have become of increased significance as global trade has grown. While early research was often concerned with labour relations issues associated with the decline in mass employment in such locations, more recent concerns have been with logistical efficiency and environmental sustainability. As importantly, the chapter presents a case study on how an area of research is constructed and expanded over a long period, gravitating around key individuals and projects, leading to an embedded domain expertise.
Anthony Beresford, Stephen Pettit

Chapter 16. Retail Clothing Returns: A Review of Key Issues

Global online shopping has been increasing over the past decade, as new shopping formats, technology and consumer behaviour continuously interact. Return rates in this sector range from around 20–60% depending on specific product characteristics. There is very little literature (particularly of an academic nature) on either the logistics or the environmental consequences of the logistics associated with these returns. This paper addresses this gap by analysing reverse logistics in the clothing industry, the challenges it faces and its environmental consequences and suggests some policy implications.
Sharon Cullinane, Michael Browne, Elisabeth Karlsson, Yingli Wang

Chapter 17. Lean Readiness Index: Assessing Organization Preparedness to Implement Lean

In this chapter, we present the case that the practices of organizational excellence broadly known as ‘lean management’ are established methodologies with a recognized ability to offer superior performance and competitive advantage for companies and other organizations. In contrast, we focus on the precursor stage, to understand how far and in what ways an organization can be said to be ready to implement lean management practices. In this way, we argue that the potential for or limits on organizational transformation may be better understood, thereby making the implementation of lean management practices more successful. The robustness of the lean readiness index was tested by conducting a pilot survey study of three manufacturing businesses in India. The relative maturity of the organization in terms of key variables, such as leadership, organizational culture, communication, involvement of employees and process management systems are shown to be key in determining how well lean management practices will be established.
Maneesh Kumar, Vignesh Murugan

Chapter 18. Humanitarian Aid Supply Chain Management

This chapter gives an account of Humanitarian Aid Logistics research at Cardiff Business School, under the aegis of the Transport and Shipping Research Group (TSRG), since the mid-1990s. Humanitarian aid is shown to be a special case of logistics operations, albeit one with some similarity with the military antecedents of the science of this discipline. The chapter shows that just as there are many kinds of humanitarian disaster, so there are many forms of response in terms of logistics and supply chain management. Compared with commercial practices, it is argued that humanitarian aid emergencies generate unpredictable demands and, equally important, unpredictable supply responses. As this chapter demonstrates, academic research has been crucial in identifying, assessing, and resolving key problems in humanitarian aid logistics and supply chain relationships, thereby making a powerful contribution to the reduction of the human cost of disasters.
Anthony Beresford, Stephen Pettit

Chapter 19. Developing a Profitable Online Grocery Logistics Business: Exploring Innovations in Ordering, Fulfilment, and Distribution at Ocado

In this chapter, I seek the answer to a single question: is it possible to set up and operate a successful, profitable, online grocery business? The answer is sought and illustrated by reference to a single case study methodology to analyse the UK company, Ocado. It is recognised that the grocery retail sector is unusual in that customers invariably purchase multiple items at one time, that the product mix contains multiple items that are perishable within a defined time period, that the products demanded fluctuate widely according to seasonal factors, and that Ocado has a unique place within the UK retail sector. Nevertheless, the detailed examination of the practices of Ocado offered in this chapter illustrates a model whereby the focal point company proceeds via disintermediation of several of the conventional stages of the supply chain. Key is the allocation of time to the three main remaining processes: order taking, order picking or fulfilment, and order delivery. In so doing, Ocado has established a unique first-mover advantage in online grocery retail that will be difficult to supplant.
Robert Mason


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