Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
National Institute of Mental Health Grant 33881 supported this research. Mario Laborda was supported by the Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT-Chile) and the Department of Psychology of the Universidad de Chile. The authors would like to thank Bridget McConnell, Gonzalo Miguez, and Cody Polack for their comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. Inquiries concerning this research should be addressed to Ralph R. Miller, Department of Psychology, SUNY-–Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000, USA; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Rats were used in a lick suppression preparation to assess the contribution of conditioned-stimulus (CS)–context and context–unconditioned-stimulus (US) associations to experimental extinction. Experiment 1 investigated whether strengthening the CS–acquisition context association enhances extinction by determining whether stronger extinction is observed when CS-alone trials (i.e., extinction treatment) are administered in the acquisition context (AAC renewal), relative to a context that is neutral with respect to the US (ABC renewal). Less recovery of responding to the CS was observed in the former than in the latter case, extending the finding that AAC renewal is weaker than ABC renewal to our lick suppression preparation. Experiment 2 assessed the contribution of the acquisition context–US association to extinction of a CS by examining the effect of postextinction exposure to the acquisition context on responding to the extinguished CS. This manipulation enhanced responding to the extinguished CS in AAC, but not ABC, renewal. Experiment 3 addressed the contribution of the CS–acquisition context association by examining the potential of a neutral stimulus, presented in compound with the target CS during extinction treatment, to overshadow the CS–acquisition context association. This manipulation enhanced responding to the extinguished CS in AAC, but not ABC, renewal. The results stress the important role of contextual association in extinction and renewal.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Bouton, M. E. (1984). Differential control by context in the inflation and reinstatement paradigms. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 10, 56–74. CrossRef
Bouton, M. E. (2004). Context and behavioral processes in extinction. Learning & Memory, 11, 485–494. CrossRef
Bouton, M. E., & Bolles, R. C. (1979a). Contextual control of the extinction of conditioned fear. Learning and Motivation, 10, 445–466. CrossRef
Bouton, M. E., & Nelson, J. B. (1998). The role of context in classical conditioning: Some implications for cognitive behavior therapy. In W. O’Donohue (Ed.), Learning and behavior therapy (pp. 59–84). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Bouton, M. E., & Ricker, S. T. (1994). Renewal of extinguished responding in a second context. Animal Learning & Behavior, 22, 317–324. CrossRef
Cuevas, K., Rovee-Collier, C., & Learmonth, A. (2008). The renewal effect in 3-month-old infants: A dissociation on recognition and priming tests. Paper presented at the meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Boston, MA.
Delamater, A. R. (2004). Experimental extinction in Pavlovian conditioning: Behavioural and neuroscience perspectives. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57B, 97–132.
Denniston, J. C., & Miller, R. R. (2003). The role of temporal variables in inhibition produced through extinction. Learning & Behavior, 31, 35–48. CrossRef
Denniston, J. C., Savastano, H. I., & Miller, R. R. (2001). The extended comparator hypothesis: Learning by contiguity, responding by relative strength. In R. R. Mowrer & S. B. Klein (Eds.), Handbook of contemporary learning theories (pp. 65–117). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Laborda, M. A., & Miller, R. R. (in press). S–R associations, their extinction, and recovery in an animal model of anxiety: A new associative account of phobias without recall of original trauma. Behavior Therapy.
Laborda, M. A., McConnell, B. L., & Miller, R. R. (in press). Behavioral techniques to reduce relapse after exposure therapy: Applications of studies of experimental extinction. In T. R. Schachtman & S. Reilly (Eds.), Associative learning and conditioning theory: Human and non-human applications. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Massad, P. M., & Hulsey, T. L. (2006). Exposure therapy renewed. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 16, 417–428. CrossRef
Miller, R. R., & Matzel, L. D. (1988). The comparator hypothesis: A response rule for the expression of associations. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 22, pp. 51–88). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Myers, J. M., & Wells, A. D. (2003). Research design and statistical analysis (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Nakajima, S., Tanaka, S., Urushihara, K., & Imada, H. (2000). Renewal of extinguished lever-press responses upon return to the training context. Learning and Motivation, 31, 416–431. CrossRef
Oberling, P., Gunther, L. M., & Miller, R. R. (1999). Latent inhibition and learned irrelevance of occasion setting. Learning and Motivation, 30, 157–182. CrossRef
Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes (G.V. Anrep, Trans.). London: Oxford University Press.
Rescorla, R. A. (2001). Experimental extinction. In R. R. Mowrer & S. B. Klein (Eds.), Handbook of contemporary learning theories (pp. 119–154). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Rescorla, R. A. (2003). Protection from extinction. Learning & Behavior, 31, 124–132. CrossRef
Rescorla, R. A. (2008). Within-subject renewal in sign tracking. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 1793–1802. CrossRef
Rescorla, R. A., & Wagner, A. R. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and non-reinforcement. In A. H. Black & W. F. Prokasy (Eds.), Classical conditioning II: Current theory and research (pp. 64–99). New York: Appleton-Century Crofts.
Ricker, S. T., & Bouton, M. E. (1996). Reacquisition following extinction in appetitive conditioning. Animal Learning & Behavior, 24, 423–436. CrossRef
Robbins, S. J. (1990). Mechanisms underlying spontaneous recovery in autoshaping. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 16, 235–249. CrossRef
Tamai, N., & Nakajima, S. (2000). Renewal of formerly conditioned fear in rats after extensive extinction training. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 13, 137–147.
Tamai, N., Nakajima, S., Kitaguchi, K., & Imada, H. (2001). Renewal of extinguished fear by context-shifting in rats conditioned lick suppression. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 71, 493–497.
Thomas, B. L., Larsen, N., & Ayres, J. J. B. (2003). Role of context similarity in ABA, ABC, and AAB renewal paradigms: Implications for theories of renewal and for treating human phobias. Learning and Motivation, 34, 410–436. CrossRef
Üngör, M., & Lachnit, H. (2008). Dissociations among ABA, ABC, and AAB recovery effects. Learning and Motivation, 39, 181–195. CrossRef
Van Hamme, L. J., & Wasserman, E. A. (1994). Cue competition in causality judgment: The role of nonrepresentation of compound stimulus elements. Learning and Motivation, 25, 127–151. CrossRef
Vogel, E. H., Díaz, C. A., Ramírez, J. A., Jarur, M. C., Pérez-Acosta, A. M., & Wagner, A. R. (2007). Desarrollo de un programa computacional para simular las predicciones del modelo de elementos reemplazados (REM) de condicionamiento Pavloviano. Psicothema, 19, 506–514. PubMed
Wagner, A. R. (1981). SOP: A model of automatic memory processing in animal behavior. In N. E. Spear & R. R. Miller (Eds.), Information processing in animals: Memory mechanisms (pp. 5–47). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Wagner, A. R. (2003). Context-sensitive elemental theory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 56B, 7–29.
- Contrasting AAC and ABC renewal: the role of context associations
Mario A. Laborda
James E. Witnauer
Ralph R. Miller
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta