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Drawing on the research presented throughout the previous parts of the book, this chapter shows essential differences between East and West Africa which need to be noted in discussions about maritime security. At the same time, both regions share some key characteristics, for example the impact of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing throughout territorial waters and the exclusive economic zones (EEZ) on coastal communities and a focus of outside actors that is often limited to piracy and armed robbery at sea. These similar traits create opportunities to draw on lessons learned, both on the national and on the regional level. The chapter also explains that neither East nor West Africa are likely to develop into a genuine maritime security complex or even a maritime security community. Nevertheless, maritime challenges may provide an impetus for enhanced cooperation within existing regional security complexes in both regions. Finally, the chapter provides recommendations that would help to secure sustainable improvements of maritime security. These are aimed at four specific sets of actors: governments in East and West Africa, their international partners, non-governmental organisations and the private sector.
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