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03.06.2016 | Original Paper | Ausgabe 9/2016

Biodiversity and Conservation 9/2016

Contributions of the mammal community, habitat structure, and spatial distance to dung beetle community structure

Biodiversity and Conservation > Ausgabe 9/2016
Juliano André Bogoni, Maurício Eduardo Graipel, Pedro Volkmer de Castilho, Felipe Moreli Fantacini, Vanessa Villanova Kuhnen, Micheli Ribeiro Luiz, Thiago Bernardes Maccarini, Cássio Batista Marcon, Christiane de Souza Pimentel Teixeira, Marcos Adriano Tortato, Fernando Z. Vaz-de-Mello, Malva Isabel Medina Hernández
Wichtige Hinweise
Communicated by Eckehard G. Brockerhoff.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s10531-016-1147-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.


Dung beetles feed and nest in mammal feces, are influenced by habitat quality and have limited dispersal ability. We hypothesized that dung beetle community structure is affected by mammal composition, habitat structure, and spatial distance, and that these predictors vary among the functional groups in communities. Dung beetles and mammals were sampled using pitfall traps and camera traps, respectively, at 15 Atlantic Forest sites between 2005 and 2013. Habitat structure was described using the point-quadrant method. We utilized descriptive ecological values and used variation partitioning to identify predictors of dung beetle community composition both as a whole, and after organizing the community into functional groups. We recorded 43 dung beetle species and 28 mammal species. Mammal and dung beetle species richness were positively correlated. Mammals and habitat explained the majority of the variation among dung beetle communities, and explanatory values varied substantially when using the functional group approach. Our results indicate that mammals are, indeed, important drivers of dung beetle community structure. Individually, or in combination with habitat structure, mammal composition explained 40 % of the total variation in dung beetle data, i.e., the abundance and species composition of dung beetles and mammals covary. However, herbivorous mammals, medium-sized mammals and omnivorous mammals numerically contributed more than did other groups to the explanation of variation in dung beetle guilds. Habitat structure was an important determinant for dung beetle functional group abundance, and spatial distance influenced covariation between dung beetles and mammals. Thus, the integrity and maintenance of ecological processes in the Atlantic Forest may be dependent on these groups, and further fragmentation, habitat loss and defaunation may increase the sensitivity of this already reduced and threatened biome.

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Supplementary material 1 (DOC 45 kb) Supplementary Material 1. Geographic locations of sites distributed among protected areas in subtropical Atlantic Forest, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Supplementary material 2 (JPEG 155 kb) Supplementary Material 2. Experimental design for sampling medium to large-bodied mammals and dung beetles in 15 subtropical Atlantic Forest sites, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Supplementary material 3 (XLS 48 kb) Supplementary Material 3. Number and species of dung beetles (collected via pitfall-trap) per site in subtropical Atlantic Forest areas, Santa Catarina, Brazil. S1, S2 and S3: Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural (RPPN) Chácara Edith (RCE); sites S4 and S5: RPPN Caraguatá (RCA); S6: RPPN Rio das Lontras (RRL); S7, S8 and S9: Parque Estadual da Serra do Tabuleiro (PEST; Area A) in the municipality of Santo Amaro da Imperatriz (PTA); S10 and S11: PEST (Area B) in the municipality of São Bonifácio (PTB); S12 and S13: RPPN Leão da Montanha (RLM); and S14 and S15: Reserva Biológica Estadual do Aguaí (REA)
Supplementary material 4 (JPEG 1306 kb) Supplementary Material 4. Rarefaction curves (with 95 % C.I.) of dung beetle species from 15 Brazilian subtropical Atlantic Forest sites. Site abbreviations are listed in Supplementary Materials 3
Supplementary material 5 (XLS 43 kb) Supplementary Material 5. Mammal species recorded via camera-trap in 15 subtropical Atlantic Forest sites in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Site and area abbreviations are listed in Supplementary Materials 3
Supplementary material 6 (DOC 52 kb) Supplementary Material 6. Forward selection results and variation partitioning for communities as a whole (predictors: mammals, habitat and distance; responses: dung beetles) in 15 Brazilian subtropical Atlantic Forest sites
Supplementary material 7 (DOC 100 kb) Supplementary Material 7. Variation partitioning values for functional groups (statistically significant data only are shown in Fig. 4). Dung beetle trophic guilds are denoted as follows: C = coprophagous; N = necrophagous; and G = generalist. Dung beetle body size is denoted as: L = large; M = medium; and S = small. Dung beetle relocation resource behavior is denoted as: P = paracoprid; T = telecoprid; and E = endocoprid
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