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Über dieses Buch

This textbook offers a comprehensive introduction to the control of marine vehicles, from fundamental to advanced concepts, including robust control techniques for handling model uncertainty, environmental disturbances, and actuator limitations. Starting with an introductory chapter that extensively reviews automatic control and dynamic modeling techniques for ocean vehicles, the first part of the book presents in-depth information on the analysis and control of linear time invariant systems.

The concepts discussed are developed progressively, providing a basis for understanding more complex techniques and stimulating readers’ intuition. In addition, selected examples illustrating the main concepts, the corresponding MATLAB® code, and problems are included in each chapter.

In turn, the second part of the book offers comprehensive coverage on the stability and control of nonlinear systems. Following the same intuitive approach, it guides readers from the fundamentals to more advanced techniques, which culminate in integrator backstepping, adaptive and sliding mode control. Leveraging the author’s considerable teaching and research experience, the book offers a good balance of theory and stimulating questions. Not only does it provide a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students; it will also benefit practitioners who want to review the foundational concepts underpinning some of the latest advanced marine vehicle control techniques, for use in their own applications.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
An overview of automatic control techniques is provided. The concepts of closed loop feedback, stabilization and regulation are introduced. The architecture of a typical guidance, navigation and control system for marine vehicle systems is discussed. Conventional notations and approaches to the dynamic modeling of marine vehicle systems are presented.
Karl Dietrich von Ellenrieder

Linear Methods

Frontmatter

Chapter 2. Stability: Basic Concepts and Linear Stability

Abstract
Basic stability concepts and methods for characterizing the stability of linear time invariant dynamical systems are presented, including phase plane analysis, bounded input bounded output stability and Routh’s Stability Criterion.
Karl Dietrich von Ellenrieder

Chapter 3. Time Response and Basic Feedback Control

Abstract
This chapter provides an introduction to the dynamic and steady state response of (primarily) second order systems, some fundamental concepts in block diagram algebra and the basics of proportional, derivative and integral feedback control are presented, including the effects of actuator saturation. Performance measures of a controlled systems dynamic and steady state responses are defined.
Karl Dietrich von Ellenrieder

Chapter 4. Root Locus Methods

Abstract
The root locus of a system is the locus of its closed loop roots in the s-plane, parameterized using the variable K, which can represent either an open loop gain or an unknown plant parameter. Since the closed loop roots determine the time response characteristics of a controlled system, the root locus can be used as a graphical means of exploring the systems stability and response as K varies. It can also be used to design a controller capable of achieving a desired response. Here root locus analysis and design techniques are presented.
Karl Dietrich von Ellenrieder

Chapter 5. Frequency Response Methods

Abstract
This chapter introduces the basic concepts involved with frequency response analysis and design, including the construction of Bode magnitude and phase plots, gain and phase stability margins, the correspondence between the time response of a system and its closed loop frequency response and lastly how to design lag, lead, and lead-lag controllers using frequency response techniques.
Karl Dietrich von Ellenrieder

Chapter 6. Linear State Space Control Methods

Abstract
Here we explore the control of marine vehicles when their dynamics can be modeled in state space as linear time invariant systems. With this approach one can determine if the vehicle is controllable and whether it is possible to estimate the full system state using available measurements of its output. Techniques for designing state feedback controllers, state observers (estimators) and compensators, which combine a state feedback controller and an observer, are introduced. The concept of the two degree of freedom control architecture is presented. This architecture can provide greater control design flexibility by permitting one to separate tracking requirements from stability or disturbance rejection requirements. Lastly, the use of linear disturbance observer based control design, which can provide robustness to both disturbances and model uncertainty is examined.
Karl Dietrich von Ellenrieder

Nonlinear Methods

Frontmatter

Chapter 7. Nonlinear Stability for Marine Vehicles

Abstract
Here we examine techniques for analyzing the stability of both time-invariant and time-varying nonlinear systems. Lyapunov’s Direct (Second) Method and LaSalle’s Invariant Set Theorem are introduced, together with some common approaches for the determination of candidate Lyapunov functions. The concepts of ultimate boundedness and practical stability are introduced for the analysis of time-varying systems with exogenous disturbances. Lastly, the use of Barbalat’s Lemma for analyzing the stability of systems with time-varying parameters is discussed.
Karl Dietrich von Ellenrieder

Chapter 8. Feedback Linearization

Abstract
Several feedback linearization methods are presented, including the use of inverse dynamics, coordinate transformations, input-state linearization and input-output linearization. Several important related concepts are discussed, such as the basic features the structure of a dynamic system must possess in order for it to be feedback-linearizeable, the relative degree of a system and the stability of the zero dynamics of a system.
Karl Dietrich von Ellenrieder

Chapter 9. Control of Underactuated Marine Vehicles

Abstract
The kinematics and dynamics of underactuated marine vehicles must be taken into account during control design, significantly more so than when developing controllers for fully-actuated vehicles. Here, we first present some of the specialized terminology used to define the main features of underactuated systems, the types of constraints (e.g. velocity and acceleration constraints) that make a vehicle underactuated, and the dynamics of underactuated marine vehicles. Then techniques for the stabilization, path following control and trajectory tracking control of nonholonomic surface vessels are introduced.
Karl Dietrich von Ellenrieder

Chapter 10. Integrator Backstepping and Related Techniques

Abstract
The concepts involved in the use of integrator backstepping techniques are introduced one-at-a-time, starting with simple single input, single output systems, then moving to systems in strict feedback nonlinear system form, and gradually building up to multiple input multiple output vectorial integrator backstepping for marine systems. Related concepts, such as the use of stabilizing functions and the use of added nonlinear damping to counter unmodeled nonlinear dynamics are examined along the way. Backstepping methods are fairly complex and there are several related implementation issues, such as the required smoothness of desired trajectories and how to perform the real-time differentiation of stabilizing functions. Several methods for handling these issues are reviewed. The use of dynamic surface control, in which the real-time differentiation of terms in the control law are computed in real time using first order linear filtering is presented. Techniques for including the effects of actuator rate- and magnitude-limits are discussed. Lastly, the use of nonlinear disturbance observer based control, which can make a backstepping controller more robust to exogenous disturbances, is illustrated.
Karl Dietrich von Ellenrieder

Chapter 11. Adaptive Control

Abstract
The basic principles of adaptive control are presented, including model reference adaptive control, adaptive feedback linearization of single input, single output systems and adaptive feedback linearization for multiple input, multiple out systems.
Karl Dietrich von Ellenrieder

Chapter 12. Sliding Mode Control

Abstract
The fundamental principles of first and second order sliding mode control are presented. It is shown that first order sliding mode control is robust to exogenous disturbances, but involves the use of a discontinuous control signal that may lead to a chattering effect in which the control input rapidly fluctuates. Chattering is generally undesirable, as it can damage actuators, but in some cases it is possible to alleviate it by approximating the discontinuous term with a continuous function. It is shown that the control input generated when using second order sliding mode control is smooth, but still robust to exogenous disturbances and model uncertainty. The use of higher order sliding mode techniques is introduced for the real-time differentiation of signals and the observation of system states and disturbances. Lastly, a multiple input multiple output super twisting controller-observer system suitable for the control of marine vehicles is presented.
Karl Dietrich von Ellenrieder

Backmatter

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