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The series Advances in Polymer Science presents critical reviews of the present and future trends in polymer and biopolymer science. It covers all areas of research in polymer and biopolymer science including chemistry, physical chemistry, physics, material science. The thematic volumes are addressed to scientists, whether at universities or in industry, who wish to keep abreast of the important advances in the covered topics. Advances in Polymer Science enjoys a longstanding tradition and good reputation in its community. Each volume is dedicated to a current topic, and each review critically surveys one aspect of that topic, to place it within the context of the volume. The volumes typically summarize the significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years and discuss them critically, presenting selected examples, explaining and illustrating the important principles, and bringing together many important references of primary literature. On that basis, future research directions in the area can be discussed. Advances in Polymer Science volumes thus are important references for every polymer scientist, as well as for other scientists interested in polymer science - as an introduction to a neighboring field, or as a compilation of detailed information for the specialist. Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors. Single contributions can be specially commissioned. Readership: Polymer scientists, or scientists in related fields interested in polymer and biopolymer science, at universities or in industry, graduate students

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerization from Surfaces

Abstract
The current chapter gives a general overview on surface-initiated nitroxide-mediated polymerization (SI-NMP). More particularly, the developed strategies to perform an SI-NMP process, the various type of substrates including inorganic and organic supports, and the potential of SI-NMP to prepared advanced materials are discussed. Based on a selected number of literature examples it appears that SI-NMP is a versatile and powerful approach to introduce polymer brushes on surfaces and/or tune polymer surface properties.
Trang N. T. Phan, Jacques Jestin, Didier Gigmes

Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

Abstract
This review covers the basic principles of surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). SI-ATRP is a robust and versatile method for preparation of various hybrid materials with controlled molecular characteristics of the tethered polymer chains, such as polymer composition and architecture. Various aspects of SI-ATRP, such as polymer brush grafting density, surface geometry, and reaction conditions, including structure of initiator, ligand, and catalyst, are important for engineering the structure and properties of the hybrid polymer materials. Elementary reactions, such as initiation, propagation, termination, transfer, and activation/deactivation equilibria as well as factors affecting these processes are discussed. The properties of materials prepared by SI-ATRP are illustrated through several selected examples.
Amir Khabibullin, Erlita Mastan, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, Shiping Zhu

Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization from Surfaces

Abstract
Reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization-based surface modification has emerged as a powerful tool for preparation of well-defined polymers grafted solid substrates. Combination of the RAFT process with highly efficient ligation reactions involving click chemistry can further extend its application in controlled synthesis of functional hybrid and composite materials. This review highlights some basic features of this method and describes synthesis of polymer-grafted solid surfaces such as silica particles, metal oxide, gold nanoparticles, cellulose, and graphene oxide. Applications of such functional materials, including their use in functional additives, bioactive surfaces and biomaterials, stationary phases for chromatographic applications, and preparation of hollow capsules and molecularly imprinted polymer films, are also summarized.
Youliang Zhao, Sébastien Perrier

Surface-Initiated Living Radical Polymerizations Using Iodine, Organotellurium, and Organic Catalysts

Abstract
This chapter reviews surface-initiated living radical polymerizations via iodine transfer polymerization (ITP), organotellurium-mediated radical polymerization (TERP), and reversible chain-transfer catalyzed polymerization (RTCP) using organic catalysts. The successful application of these polymerizations made it possible to graft various polymers with well-defined structures onto flat substrates and nanoparticles. Living radical polymerizations, including ITP, TERP, and RTCP, also lead to a striking increase in the graft density. Because of their unique advantages as synthetic tools, ITP, TERP, and RTCP can be used to expand the scope of controlled surface modification.
Atsushi Goto, Yoshinobu Tsujii

Synthesis of Nanocapsules and Polymer/Inorganic Nanoparticles Through Controlled Radical Polymerization At and Near Interfaces in Heterogeneous Media

Abstract
This review describes recent advances in the synthesis of polymeric nanocapsules and polymer/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles where controlled radical polymerization (CRP) has been used in (mini)emulsion systems to restrict the location of polymerization to an interface. For the synthesis of nanocapsules, CRP polymers stabilize the initial miniemulsion droplet interface and are chain-extended mainly towards the center of the droplets, which contain an inert liquid core. For encapsulation of inorganic particles, CRP polymers adsorbed on their surface are chain-extended to form a polymer shell around the inorganic core. Precise control over the structure and composition of the polymers allows their location to be restricted to these interfaces. Polymerization in the subsequent (mini)emulsion system then commences from these specific locations, courtesy of the reactivatable functions. The developed strategies retain the advantages of traditional emulsion or miniemulsion systems, while greatly expanding their potential to generate novel nanostructured functional materials.
Elodie Bourgeat-Lami, Franck D’Agosto, Muriel Lansalot

Post-polymerization Modification of Surface-Bound Polymers

Abstract
Surfaces that have been intricately functionalized with reactive polymers have attracted scientific attention recently because of their potential use in a broad range of applications. Polymers containing chemically reactive functional groups can be utilized for subsequent modification of various surfaces. Reactive polymeric surfaces can be produced by surface-initiated polymerization, such as atom transfer radical polymerization, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, and ring-opening metathesis polymerization. Such surfaces can subsequently undergo post-polymerization modification to alter their physicochemical properties. Post-polymerization modification has a number of advantages, including the fact that diverse polymer structures are rapidly accessible without individual synthesis; polymerization of new functional monomers can produce a variety of surfaces and interfaces; and other materials can be easily modified, which would be difficult using conventional direct polymerization. In addition, the libraries of chemical reactions and materials that can be used in post-polymerization modifications are abundant. Therefore, post-polymerization modification opens up new platforms for the facile and versatile modification of various surfaces. This chapter focuses on a discussion of post-polymerization modification of various surface-bound polymers, from planar surfaces to three-dimensional objects, and on the extended applications of the reactive surfaces.
Hanju Jo, Patrick Theato

Nanocomposites and Self-Assembled Structures via Controlled Radical Polymerization

Abstract
We report recent findings on the formation of nanocomposites and self-assembled hybrid nanoarchitectures, in which controlled radical polymerization plays a key role. Specifically, we address how macromolecular design via these controlled methods can be used to flexibly guide the formation of hybrid nanoarchitectures in a rational and predetermined fashion. To this end, the role of polymeric architecture in tuning polymer/inorganic nanocomposite structures is examined.
Christian Rossner, Philipp Vana

Backmatter

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