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Stem cell engineering has enormous potential to study developmental processes, disease progression, drug screening, and to provide new therapeutics. The interaction of stem cells with their microenvironment plays an important role in determining the stem cell fate. One of the most important environmental factors is the extracellular matrix, which defines the biochemical and biophysical niche from which the stem cells receive various regulatory signals. Artificial matrices based on natural and synthetic materials have been developed to direct stem cell fate such as proliferation and differentiation. Some of these approaches are being currently explored clinically and other more sophisticated multi-functional biomimetic materials with defined properties are currently under development. In this chapter we discuss some of the recent trends in the development of biomaterials and their applications in directing self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells.
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