The waste heat from cooling water may be used to rise the wastewater temperature in treatment facilities. Based on full scale treatment plant data, the beneficial effect of high wastewater temperatures on plant performance and effluent quality is shown. To control the wastewater temperature, the required warm water discharge is determined. The disposal of the reused cooling water into rivers and canals may cause density stratification. The stratified stream is studied on the basis of Schijf and Schoenfeld’s  one-dimensional model. The derived equations contain easily measured gross flow and density parameters, as well as, the interfacial friction coefficient fi. When, fi cannot be estimated, approximated forms of the derived equation are given. Moreover, the complicated equations and forms are given in graphic forms suitable for practical applications.
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- Cooling Water Reuse and Disposal into Streams
- Springer Netherlands