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Über dieses Buch

This book addresses two main questions: under what conditions does reciprocity fail to produce cooperation?; and when do reciprocal dynamics lead to negative, instead of positive, cycles? Answering these questions is important for both scholars and practitioners of international negotiations and politics. The main argument of this project is that positive tit-for-tat (TFT) and negative reciprocal cycles are two possible outcomes originating from the same basic process of reciprocity. It is important to acknowledge both possibilities and understand when a situation is going to develop into one or the other outcome. The study then calls for a broader discussion of reciprocity in international relations (IR). Specifically, IR should include the negative and more problematic side of reciprocity. To exemplify this, the book provides a detailed analysis of two case studies: border and maritime disputes between China and Vietnam; and Mexico and Guatemala.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. When Reciprocity Sometimes Fails

Abstract
Studies in international relations point to the utility and importance of the concept of reciprocity allowing actors to mitigate and overcome some of the inherent difficulties in international interactions, including mistrust and uncertainty. Through the process of tit-for-tat (TFT) actors learn to trust and engage in a positive reciprocal cycle. Yet reciprocity could as easily evolve into a negative cycle. The concept of reciprocity and the two options of positive and negative cycles are examined here. Critical junctures, or key decision points, and the processes occurring during these times become crucial for understanding the direction of the reciprocal cycle. The questions of why such critical junctures are important and how to identify and define these are addressed and discussed
Anat Niv-Solomon

2. Inside the Critical Juncture

Abstract
Like a “black box” the critical juncture holds in it the explanation for the relations between countries and the evolving positive or negative reciprocal cycle. There are four important variables to account for during the critical juncture including power symmetry, issue saliency, images, and prospect theory’s domain of operation. Each of these variables is thoroughly examined and a framework combing all four variables and their relevant measurements is presented in preparation for a qualitative analysis.
Anat Niv-Solomon

3. Equal Friends or Equal Enemies: Power Asymmetry and the Impact on Reciprocal Cycles

Abstract
This chapter reviews and analyzes the roots and buildup to the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese war and examines how the accumulation of tensions and then the war resulted in a long-lasting negative reciprocal cycle between the two countries. The case accounts for the operation and importance of all four variables, yet highlights the importance of power symmetry. Power symmetry is always an important element in any study of international crises or conflict management, and it is also important for understanding the impact of the other variables such as images and domain of operation on the direction of the evolving reciprocal cycle. The case reviewed here is an illustration of how power asymmetry coupled with negative images and a bigger appetite for risk-taking operate as an obstacle for the development of a positive tit-For-tat (TFT) reciprocal cycle.
Anat Niv-Solomon

4. The Power of Context: Prospect Theory, Domains of Operation, and Reciprocity

Abstract
On December 31, 1958, a crisis developed between Guatemala and Mexico. At issue were fishing rights and control over territorial waters. What started as a small incident quickly evolved into a conflict between the two countries that brought them to the brink of war. And while it seemed that all the ingredients were in place for a full scale war, the crisis was resolved peacefully shifting the two countries toward a positive reciprocal path. The four variables of power asymmetry, issue saliency, images, and particularly prospect theory domain of operation are used to help us understand the evolution of this case. The case illustrates the utility of prospect theory when evaluating the possibility of a positive or a negative reciprocal cycle, stressing that a positive cycle is possible even under conditions of an escalating dispute if the actors operate from the domain of gains.
Anat Niv-Solomon

5. Reciprocal Cycles in International Politics: Summary and Conclusions

Abstract
Using the framework utilizing the variables of power symmetry, issue saliency, images, and domain of operation, some policy relevant observations are examined including conditions required for shifting the interaction from a negative to a positive cycle and vice versa. The framework analyzing conditions for the development of positive and negative reciprocal cycles is then used to evaluate present-day cases. Applying the framework to the contemporary case of US-China relations over the South China Sea (SCS) illustrates how difficult this case really is in more levels than usually presented. Then an analysis of US-Iran relations after the Iran nuclear deal suggests possibilities for nudging interactions into a positive reciprocal cycle.
Anat Niv-Solomon

Backmatter

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