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Über dieses Buch

This book identifies the main challenges to confronting global health (in)securities at three levels. First, at the level of zoonosis, to which HIV and Ebola, as well as H1Nn, MERS-CoV, and SARS belong, and which promise to continue to emerge. Second, at the level of the spread of these across bio-, ecological and political boundaries and borders, particularly nationally. These present challenges not only in terms of immunities, but also in terms of rights – who is eligible for treatment under whose responsibility? Finally, at the international level of global administration, presenting a challenge in terms of coordinated public health, legal, political, and economic response. The book develops coordinated policy recommendations for meeting these challenges in a globalized world, and examines the unique opportunities and challenges associated with the co-administration of the good of public health by both nation states and non-state actors. This book will be valuable read for students of Public Policy, Health Policy and Management, International Relations and Global Governance.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. Reintroduction

Abstract
The introduction presents the concepts of health in relation to order, disorder, and re-ordering. It defines health and the right to health along with the concomitant responsibilities for its realization ascribed to nation-state and non-state actors. It discusses the remit of health security as the provision and protection of health rights through responsibilities at the local, national, and global levels of community and governance. Finally, it argues that health risks and threats cannot be completely eliminated, but rather must be identified and responded to in a coordinated manner involving individuals, communities, national states, international organizations, and the global (conceptual) community.
Annamarie Bindenagel Šehović

2. Measles

Abstract
Chapter 2 delves into the politics and policy surrounding measles. It explores the impact of this old but recurring disease, dispelling myths around its description as a ‘childhood disease’. It tallies its costs, both in terms of disease toll on the infected individual as well as of the financial burden of care at the familial and national levels. This chapter uses this relationship between individual infection and broader transactional costs, to explore more broadly the relationship between individual rights and state (international) requirements, notably of immunizations.
Annamarie Bindenagel Šehović

3. HIV and AIDS

Abstract
Chapter 3 is dedicated to the politics of HIV and AIDS. The spread of and response to this epidemic played perhaps the most significant role in connecting the politics of human rights to the policies of health rights and responsibilities. By tracing the trajectory of the HIV and AIDS epidemic and the debates surrounding it – from its incited moral imperative to fatigue over its persistence – this chapter focuses on the rights/responsibilities dichotomies introduced in the previous chapter. Going further, it highlights the rise of health – including of treatment(s) – as a human right, and the parallel emergence of non-state actors as realizers of health rights. In doing so, this chapter anticipates both the emergence of other zoonoses – emerging infectious diseases (EIDS) – as well as the immersion of non-state actors into the health realm, which has re-ordered the relationship between individual health rights and state guarantors of health (care).
Annamarie Bindenagel Šehović

4. Introducing Ebola (EVD): An Unnecessary Surprise

Abstract
Chapter 4 tackles the Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease, EVD) pandemic of 2014/2015. It notes that coming in the wake of the ongoing HIV pandemic, the rights of those infected with Ebola to be identified and treated were largely uncontested. The questions of who would be treated, by whom, with what, remained however extremely contentious. The international response to the pandemic also saw, for the first time, not only non-state actors involved in mediating and mitigating a health crisis, but also military intervention. This chapter lays out both the uses and the dilemmas of military response. It explores the impact of these interventions in this Ebola pandemic, with a view towards possible future military deployments against health threats, and offers an initial analysis of the consequences thereof on the relationship between individual and state rights and responsibilities.
Annamarie Bindenagel Šehović

5. SARS and H5N1

Abstract
Chapter 5 looks at bird flu (H5N1) pandemics and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). This chapter shifts the focus from the relationship between individual health rights and state requirements, notably immunization, and responsibilities, particularly in providing security against health threats, to international requirements and responsibilities for health. Through the lens of the SARS and the H5N1, it traces the newest evolution of the International Health Regulations (IHRs). It analyses the positions and compromises of states, notably with regard to their sovereignty, in reaching the final compromise: to share responsibility in safeguarding global health. It takes to task the regulations’ lack of ‘teeth’: the fact that despite international treaty status, the IHRs operate on a voluntary basis without an enforcement mechanism.
Annamarie Bindenagel Šehović

6. Mers-CoV and Zika Virus

Abstract
Chapter 6 analyses the recent emergence of Mers-CoV and the spread of Zika virus around the globe. With a glace into the future, especially with regard to emerging infectious diseases (EID), it explores the most important indicators of such emergence and spread, asking which local, national, and international characteristics come to the fore to heighten or mitigate such threats. It further initially evaluates how these might interact with accelerators such as climate change and migration, exploring in particular the allocation of health rights and responsibilities across borders. Between the timelines of response and the anticipation of new outbreaks, the chapter offers some pointers on what decision-makers need to take into account to prepare for EIDs.
Annamarie Bindenagel Šehović

7. Decision-Making

Abstract
Chapter 7 focuses on decision-making. It introduces and discusses the relevant actors and agents responsible for identifying health risks, and developing and ordering responses at the local, national, and international levels. Then it delves into the functions of trust and history in disordering (and potentially re-ordering) health: such as the role of reactance and the ostensible reclaiming of rights by refusing vaccination(s). The latter has been the case in the former East Germany for example, which experienced a large measles outbreak in 2015, as well as in California. The chapter explores ways and means for overcoming such political and policy gaps to promote health rights and responsibilities. Finally, the chapter explores ways in which decision-makers and decision-making respond to health threats that can(not) be contained.
Annamarie Bindenagel Šehović

8. Lessons Learned and Reordering Policy Prescriptions

Abstract
The final Chapter 8 offers practical policy suggestions towards (re)ordering health. It takes into account that not all health rights and threats are of the same caliber, that prioritization is a necessity. It also acknowledges that not all risks and threats can be anticipated or annulled. Bearing these limitations in mind, the chapter re-frames health risks in terms of a re-ordering of health security at the level of local, national, and global policy. It also offers theoretical as well as concrete suggestions on how it might be possible to conceptualize, communicate, and confront health risks and threats with states, non-state actors and other agents to facilitate health rights responsibility within and across borders.
Annamarie Bindenagel Šehović

Backmatter

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