In their well-known article Victor and Cullen (1988) reported empirical findings on what they called “ethical work climates”. They had send out a questionnaire to 1183 people of 4 companies in 4 different branches and found the following five types of work climates:
CARING TYPE: “The most important concern here is the good of all people in the company”.
LAW AND CODE: “In this company, the first consideration is whether a decision violates any law”.
RULE-TYPE: “It is very important to follow strictly the company procedures here”.
INSTRUMENTAL: “People are expected to do anything to further the company’s interests, regardless of the consequences”.
INDEPENDENCE-TYPE: “In this company, people are expected to follow their own personal moral and ethical beliefs”.