Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Kenya is one of the most predatory states in Africa and has become a brigand economy where corruption pervades all levels of society. Paying bribes to the police and bureaucrats remains routine for ordinary Kenyans. This chapter takes a governance and development perspective to examine the causes and consequences of corruption in Kenya. It identifies the key drivers and synthesizes and analyzes available data, indicators, and other information in that regard. It then provides a brief summary of the more important measures that have been put in place to control the corruption epidemic in Kenya and then offers key lessons and policy recommendations for a more effective control of corruption in the country.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
AfriMAP (Africa Governance Monitoring and Advocacy Project). (2015). Effectiveness of anti-corruption agencies in East Africa: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Johannesburg, South Africa: Open Society Foundations. http://eaaaca.org/wpcontent/uploads/2015/12/AfriMAP-East-Africa-Anti-Corruption-Agencies-text-25Nov1245-WEB.pdf. Accessed 12 Apr 2016.
Akech, M. (2011). Abuse of power and corruption in Kenya: Will the new constitution enhance government accountability. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 18(1), 341–394. CrossRef
Anassi, P. (2004). Corruption in Africa: The Kenyan experience. Victoria: Trafford Publishing.
Andrews, M., Mc Connell, J., & Westcott, A. (2010). Development as leadership-Led change: A report for the global leadership initiative. Washington, DC: World Bank. CrossRef
Andvig, J. C., & Barasa, T. (2011). Cops and crime in Kenya: A research report. Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) Working Paper 794. Oslo: NUPI.
Annan, K. (2003). Statement on the Adoption by the General Assembly of the United Nations convention against corruption. http://www.un.org/webcast/merida/pdfs/0389343_Update_press.pdf. Accessed 12 May 2010.
APRM (African Peer Review Mechanism) Secretariat. (2006). Country review report of the republic of Kenya. Midrand: APRM Secretariat.
AU (African Union). (2016). List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the African union convention on preventing and combating corruption. https://www.au.int/en/sites/default/files/treaties/7786-slafrican_union_convention_on_preventing_and_combating_corruption_21.pdf. Accessed 12 May 2016.
Bach, D. C. (2011). Patrimonialism and neopatrimonialism: Comparative trajectories and readings. Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 49(3), 275–294. CrossRef
Baker, R., Clough, C., Kar, D., LeBlanc, B., & Simmons, J. (2014). Hiding in plain sight: Trade misinvoicing and the impact of revenue loss in Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Uganda: 2002–2011. Washington, DC: Global Financial Integrity.
Boswell, A. (2010). Kenya corruption scandal triggers halt to US education funds. http://www1.voanews.com/english/news/africa/Kenya-Corruption-Scandal-Triggers-Halt-to-US-Education-Funds-82802517.html. Accessed 24 June 2010.
British High Commission Nairobi. (2009). Towards a better future: Working with Kenya against corruption. Nairobi: British High Commission Nairobi.
British High Commission Nairobi. (2010). UK switches education funding away from government. http://ukinkenya.fco.gov.uk/en/news/?view=News&id=21894965. Accessed 17 June 2010.
Burbidge, D. (2015). The shadow of Kenyan democracy: Widespread expectations of widespread corruption. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.
Chebet, C. (2010, June 14). Corrupt ways of government officials. The Standard, p. 13.
Chiefs of Mission in Kenya. (2014). Corruption undermines Kenya’s efforts to fight terrorism. http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/?articleID=2000109288. Accessed 14 Apr 2014. The original title given to this piece by the Mission Chiefs is ‘Graft is Kenya’s Achilles’ heel’.
CHRI (Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative), & KHRC (Kenya Human Rights Commission). (2006). The police, the people, the politics: Police accountability in Kenya. London/Nairobi: CHRI/KHRC.
Clinton, H. (2009). Remarks at the 8th Forum of the African Growth and Opportunity Act. http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2009a/08/126902.htm. Accessed 14 June 2010.
de Feranti, D., Jacinto, J., Ody, A., & Ramshaw, G. (2009). How to improve governance: A framework for analysis and action. Washington, DC: Brookings institution Press.
Devas, N. (2005, June). The challenges of decentralization. Paper presented at the Global Forum on Fighting Corruption, Brasilia. http://www.cgu.gov.br/ivforumglobal/pdf/nickdevas-2.pdf. Accessed 4 May 2010.
DFID (Department for International Development). (2013). DFID’s anti-corruption strategy for Kenya. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/136636/anti-corruption-strategy-ke.pdf.pdf. Accessed 27 June 2013.
EAAACA (East African Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities). (n.d.-a). About us. http://eaaaca.org/?page_id=79. Accessed 18 July 2010.
EAAACA (East African Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities). (n.d.-b). Objectives. http://eaaaca.org/?page_id=92. Accessed 18 July 2010.
EABC (East Africa Business Council). (2010). Business leader perceptions of the investment climate in East Africa. Arusha: EABC.
EACC (Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission). (2013). National survey on corruption and ethics, 2012: Report. Nairobi: EACC.
EACC (Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission). (2014). A study on corruption and ethics in the judicial sector. Nairobi: EACC.
EACC (Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission). (2015). National ethics and corruption survey, 2015 report. Nairobi: EACC.
Enterprise Surveys. (2013). Kenya: Country profile 2013. https://www.enterprisesurveys.org/~/media/GIAWB/EnterpriseSurveys/Documents/Profiles/English/Kenya-2013.pdf. Accessed 24 Mar 2016.
ESAAMLG (Eastern and Southern Africa Anti-Money Laundering Group). (2008). Memorandum of understanding of the Eastern and Southern Africa anti-money laundering group (Amended August). http://www.esaamlg.org/documents_storage/2009-3-3-8-3123_esaamlg_mou_as_amended_by_council_of_ministers_mombasa_kenya_august_2008.pdf. Accessed 5 July 2010.
Fraser-Moleketi, G. (2007). Towards a common understanding of corruption in Africa. International Journal of African Renaissance Studies, 2(2), 239–249.
Gettleman, J. (2015, November 4). An anticorruption plea in Kenya: “Please, just steal a little”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/05/world/africa/kenya-government-corruption.html. Accessed 7 Apr 2016.
Ghani, A., & Lockhart, C. (2008). Fixing failed states: A framework for rebuilding a fractured world. New York: Oxford University Press.
Githongo, J. (2010). Fear and loathing in Nairobi: The challenge of reconciliation in Kenya. Foreign Affairs, 89(4), 2–9.
Githongo, J. (2015, August 6). Kenya’s Rampant corruption is eating away at the very fabric of democracy. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/aug/06/kenya-barack-obama-visit-anti-corruption-plan-democracy. Accessed 20 Feb 2016.
Githongo, J. (2016, March 26). How Kenya can break its cycle of corruption. Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/kenya-stuck-corruption-rut-439905. Accessed 6 June 2016.
Global Integrity. (2009). Global integrity scorecard: Kenya 2009. http://report.globalintegrity.org/reportPDFS/2009/Kenya.pdf. Accessed 17 June 2010.
Godec, R. F. (2016, April 20). Answering an urgent call on corruption. The Star. http://www.the-star.co.ke/news/2016/04/20/answering-an-urgent-call-on-corruption_c1334513?page=0%2C0. Accessed 21 Apr 2016.
Hassan, S. (2004). Corruption and the development challenge. Journal of Development Policy and Practice, 1(1), 25–41.
Hope, K. R. (1999). Corruption in Africa: A crisis in ethical leadership. Public Integrity, 1(3), 289–308.
Hope, K. R. (2000). Corruption and development in Africa. In K. R. Hope & B. C. Chikulo (Eds.), Corruption and development in Africa: Lessons from country case-studies (pp. 17–39). Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
Hope, K. R. (2002). From crisis to renewal: Towards a successful implementation of the new partnership for Africa’s development. African Affairs, 101(404), 387–402. CrossRef
Hope, K. R. (2005). Toward good governance and sustainable development: The African peer review mechanism. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 18(2), 283–311. CrossRef
Hope, K. R. (2008). Poverty, livelihoods, and governance in Africa: Fulfilling the development promise. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
Hope, K. R. (2011, June 17). Corruption and impunity can only be defeated by the new constitution. Daily Nation, p. 13.
Hope, K. R. (2012a). The political economy of development in Kenya. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Hope, K. R. (2012b). Performance contracting as a performance management tool for good governance: The Kenya case. PUBLIC, 26(June), 1–4.
Hope, K. R. (2013). Performance contracting as a performance management tool in the public sector in Kenya: Lessons of learning. Teaching Public Administration, 31(2), 204–217. CrossRef
Hope, K. R. (2014). Devolved government and local governance in Kenya: Implementing decentralization underpinned by the 2010 constitution. African and Asian Studies, 13(3), 338–358. CrossRef
Hope, K. R. (2015a). In pursuit of democratic policing: An analytical review and assessment of police reforms in Kenya. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 17(2), 91–97. CrossRef
Hope, K. R. (2015b). Bringing in the future in Kenya: Beyond the 2010 Constitution. Insight on Africa, 7(2), 91–107. CrossRef
Hope, K. R. (2016). Kenya: Police corruption and reforms to control it. In K. R. Hope (Ed.), Police corruption and police reforms in developing societies (pp. 85–107). Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor and Francis.
Hope, K. R., & Chikulo, B. C. (2000). Introduction. In K. R. Hope & B. C. Chikulo (Eds.), Corruption and development in Africa: Lessons from country case-studies (pp. 1–13). Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
Hussmann, K., Hechler, H., & Peñailillo, M. (2009). Institutional arrangements for corruption prevention: Considerations for the implementation of the United Nations convention against corruption Article 6, U4 Issue 2009: 4. Bergen: U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre.
Iarossi, G. (2009). An assessment of the investment climate in Kenya. Washington, DC: World Bank. CrossRef
IMLU (Independent Medico-Legal Unit). (2014). Guns: Our security, our dilemma!: Enhancing accountability for police use of firearms. Nairobi: IMLU.
IPOA (Independent Policing Oversight Authority). (2013). Baseline survey on policing standards and gaps in Kenya. Nairobi: IPOA.
IPOA (Independent Policing Oversight Authority). (2014a). Monitoring report on operation sanitization Eastleigh: Publicly known as ‘Usalama Watch’. Nairobi: IPOA.
IPOA (Independent Policing Oversight Authority). (2014b, August 5). The Independent Policing Oversight Authority (IPOA) files a case to nullify the just concluded police recruitment exercise. Press Release, Nairobi.
IPOA (Independent Policing Oversight Authority). (2014c). Police recruitment: A national shame and a Sham. http://www.ipoa.go.ke/images/press/POLICE%20RECRUITMENT%20JULY%202014.pdf. Accessed 10 Sept 2014.
IPOA (Independent Policing Oversight Authority). (2015). IPOA monitoring report on the recruitment of police constables: April 2015. Nairobi: IPOA.
Ivanyna, M., & Shah, A. (2010). Decentralization (localization) and corruption: New cross-country evidence. Policy research working paper 5299. Washington, DC: World Bank Institute.
Joaquin, E. T. (2004). Decentralization and corruption: The bumpy road to public sector integrity in developing countries. Public Integrity, 6(3), 207–219.
Kamau, M. (2009, December 4). MPs corrupt at expense of Kenyans, says Karua. East African Standard.http://www.marsgroupkenya.org/multimedia/?StoryID=274443. Accessed 21 June 2010.
Kar, D., & Cartwright-Smith, D. (2010). Illicit financial flows from Africa: Hidden resource for development. Washington, DC: Global Financial Integrity.
Kaufmann, D. (1997). Corruption: The facts. Foreign Policy, 107, 114–131. CrossRef
Kaufmann, D. (2004). Corruption matters: Evidence-based challenge to orthodoxy. Journal of Development Policy and Practice, 1(1), 1–24.
Kaufmann, D. (2006). Human rights, governance and development: An empirical perspective. Development Outreach, 8, 15–20.
Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., & Mastruzzi, M. (2009). Governance matters VIII: Aggregate and individual governance indicators 1996–2008. Policy Research Working Paper 4979. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Kavaludi, J. (2015, October 15). Speech by the Chairman of the National Police Service Commission, Johnston Kavuludi, During the Release of the Results of SSPS , SPS, ASPS and IAU Officers, Sky Park Plaza, Westlands. http://www.npsc.go.ke/index.php/latest-news/202-speech-by-the-chairman-of-the-national-police-service-commission-johnston-kavuludi-during-the-release-of-the-results-of-ssps-sps-asps-and-iau-officers-on-thursday-9th-october-2015-at-sky-park-plaza-westlands. Accessed 20 Jan 2016.
Kenyatta, U. (2014, March 18). Speech by His Excellency Hon. Uhuru Kenyatta, During the Official Launch of the Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission Strategic Plan 2013–2018, Kenyatta International Conference Centre, Nairobi. http://www.scribd.com/doc/213069109/President-Uhuru-Kenyatta-s-Speech-During-the-Official-Launch-of-the-Ethics-and-Anti-corruption-Commission-Strategic-Plan-2013-2018. Accessed 23 June 2014.
Kenyatta, U. (2015, November 23). Statement by His Excellency Hon. Uhuru Kenyatta, C. G. H., President and Commander in Chief of the Defence Forces of the Republic of Kenya on a National Call to Action Against Corruption, State House, Nairobi. http://www.president.go.ke/2015/11/23/statement-by-his-excellency-hon-uhuru-kenyatta-c-g-h-president-and-commander-in-chief-of-the-defence-forces-of-the-republic-of-kenya-on-a-national-call-to-action-against-corruption-state-house/. Accessed 20 Jan 2016.
Khadiagala, G. (2009). Transparency and accountability in Kenya’s budget process. In D. de Ferranti, J. Jacinto, A. Ody, & G. Ramshaw (Principal Authors), How to improve governance: A new framework for analysis and action (pp. 127–141). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Kiai, M. (2010). The Crisis in Kenya. In L. Diamond & M. F. Plattner (Eds.), Democratization in Africa: Progress and retreat (pp. 212–218). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Kinisu, P. K. B. (2015). ‘Foreword’ to Corruption and ethics in devolved services: County public officers’ experiences, 2015. Nairobi: EACC.
KNCHR (Kenya National Commission for Human Rights). (2016). Disservice to the service: Report of the Monitoring of the 2016 Recruitment of Police Constables to the National Police Service. Nairobi: KNCHR.
Kubania, J. (2016, April 4). Deputy CJ Rawal among high-profile Kenyans with firms in tax havens. Daily Nation. http://www.nation.co.ke/news/Rawal-among-high-profile-Kenyans-with-firms-in-tax-havens/-/1056/3144804/-/13ux1ad/-/index.html. Accessed 26 Apr 2016.
Lindijer, K. (2016, January 11). Kenya has become a “bandit economy” says Chief Justice Willy Mutunga. African Arguments. http://africanarguments.org/2016/01/11/kenya-has-become-a-bandit-economy-says-chief-justice-willy-mutunga/. Accessed 24 Feb 2016.
Lucheli, I., & Weru, J. (2014, November 1). High Court nullifies police recruitment. Standard Digital.http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2000140061/high-court-nullifies-police-recruitment. Accessed 9 Feb 2015.
Lumumba, P. L. O. (2011, February 24). Promoting ethics and integrity in the workplace, Public Lecture at the Kenya College of Accountancy University (KCAU), Nairobi.
Mageka, A. (2015, October 9). Police reform in Kenya: Challenges and opportunities. Center for Security Governance Insights. http://www.secgovcentre.org/files/www/CSG_Insights_-_No._9_-_Annie_Mageka.pdf. Accessed 20 June 2016.
Mars Group Kenya Media. (2004). Bribery a thriving vice in Parliament. http://www.marsgroupkenya.org/multimedia/?StoryID=80726&p=State+House&page=382. Accessed 21 June 2010.
MICNG (Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government). (2015). Revised police reforms program document 2015–2018: A strategy framework for implementation of reforms in the National Police Service. Nairobi: MICNG.
Mogeni, D. (2009, February 5). Why corruption persists in Kenya. Daily Nation. http://www.nation.co.ke/oped/Opinion/-/440808/525272/-/42v0lp/-/index.html. Accessed 12 May 2010.
Moulid, H. (2010, March 26). European Union warns Kenyan leaders over corruption. All Headline News. http://www.allheadlinenews.com/articles/7018224433?European%20Union%20Warns%20Kenyan%20Leaders%20Over%20Corruption. Accessed 23 June 2010.
Mueller, S. (2008). The political economy of Kenya’s crisis. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 2(2), 185–210. CrossRef
Murage, G. (2011, March 29). Speaker says 70% projects money stolen. The Star. http://www.nairobistar.com/national/national/18952-corruption-graft-linked-to-theft-of-70-state-cash. Accessed 30 Mar 2011.
Mutua, M. (2014, May 25). Why corruption and not terror is the country’s worst enemy. Standard on Sunday, p. 15.
Mwanzia, M., & Gichura, G. (2010, June 10). Report: Council has 4000 ‘ghost’ workers’. The Standard, p. 18.
NACCSC (National Anti-Corruption Campaign Steering Committee). (n.d.). NACCSC mandate. http://www.naccsc.go.ke/index2.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1&pop=1&page=0&Itemid=1. Accessed 7 July 2010.
NACP (National Anti-Corruption Plan) Secretariat. (n.d.). National anti-corruption plan. Nairobi: NACP Secretariat. http://www.kacc.go.ke/Docs/Ntional%20Anti-%20Corruption%20Plan.pdf. Accessed 3 July 2010.
Neild, R. (2007). USAID program brief: Anticorruption and police integrity: Security sector reform program. Washington, DC: USAID.
Ng’ulia, T. (2015, April 3). How police can redeem tainted image. Daily Nation. http://www.nation.co.ke/oped/Opinion/How-police-can-redeem-tainted-image/-/440808/2675318/-/p1dg8h/-/index.html. Accessed 30 Apr 2015.
Ngima, T. (2016, July 12). Corruption in Kenya has become a virtue. Standard Digital. http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2000208291/corruption-in-kenya-has-become-a-virtue/?pageNo=1. Accessed 18 July 2016.
NPSC (National Police Service Commission). (2014). Statement by The National Police Service Commission on the audit of the police constables recruitment exercise held on 14th July 2014. Nairobi: NPSC.
NTA (National Taxpayers Association). (2011). Launch of NTA citizens’ audit of CDF and LATF funds. http://www.nta.or.ke/events/277-nta-phase-iii-cdf-and-latf-ranking-2011. Accessed 31 Mar 2011.
NTFPR (National Task Force on Police Reforms). (2009). Report of the National Task Force on Police Reforms (The Ransley Report). Nairobi: Republic of Kenya
Ochami, D., & Njiraini, J. (2010, December 3). Sh270b: That’s what we lose to graft yearly. The Standard, p. 1 and 4.
Odinga, R. (2010). “Foreword” to Public sector transformation strategy: From reform to transformation 2010–14. Nairobi: Public Sector Transformation Department, Office of the Prime Minister.
Okanja, O. (2010). Kenya at forty-five: 1963–2008: Economic performance, problems and prospects. London: Athena Press.
Okoth, S. H. (2014). Prosecute and punish: Curbing political and administrative corruption in Kenya. In G. M. Mudacumura & G. Morçöl (Eds.), Challenges to democratic governance in developing countries (pp. 211–226). Heidelberg: Springer. CrossRef
Omollo, K. (2016, June 10). 302 trraffic police officers sacked for evading vetting. Standard Digital. http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2000204656/302-traffic-police-officers-sacked-for-evading-vetting. Accessed 12 Sept 2016.
Opiyo, D. (2010, June 23). Measures to dismantle corruption cartels. Daily Nation, p. 11.
Orowe, L. (2004). Corruption: The role of government in the anti-corruption fight as opposed to the role of individuals and organizations. http://www.c4idea.com/presentations/Eradicating_Corruption.pdf. Accessed 4 July 2010.
Osiro, W. (2016, February 9). Corruption in Kenya: Supreme Court judges accused of accepting millions in bribes. The World Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/washington-osiro/corruption-in-kenya-supreme-court_b_9154580.html. Accessed 7 Apr 2016.
Otieno, G. (2005). The NARC’s anti-corruption drive in Kenya: Somewhere over the rainbow? African Security Review, 14(4), 69–79. CrossRef
Otieno, J. (2009, December 11). UK withholds Kenya grant over corruption. Daily Nation. http://www.nation.co.ke/News/-/1056/820998/-/view/printVersion/-/ulotlx/-/index.html. Accessed 24 June 2010.
Patrick, A. (2016, June 10). Kenya tackles corruption by getting rid of 302 police officers. Answers Africa. http://answersafrica.com/kenya-rids-302-police-officers.html. Accessed 20 Sept 2016.
PwC (PricewaterhouseCoopers). (2016). 2016 Global economic crime survey: Kenya report. Nairobi: Kenya. http://www.pwc.com/ke/en/assets/pdf/gecs2016-report.pdf. Accessed 6 June 2016.
Ranneberger, M. (2010, January 26). Reform, partnership, and the future of Kenya, Speech to the American Chamber of Commerce, Nairobi. http://nairobi.usembassy.gov/speeches/2010-speeches/sp_20100126.html. Accessed 22 June 2010.
Republic of Kenya. (n.d.-a). Governance, Justice, Law and Order Sector (GJLOS). http://www.justice.go.ke/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=35&Itemid=52. Accessed 5 July 2010.
Republic of Kenya. (n.d.-b). Public Complaints Standing Committee (PCSC). http://www.justice.go.ke/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=22&Itemid=83. Accessed 7 July 2010.
Republic of Kenya. (2003a). The Anti-Corruption and Economic Crimes Act, 2003. Nairobi: Republic of Kenya.
Republic of Kenya. (2003b). The Public Officer Ethics Act, 2003. Nairobi: Republic of Kenya.
Republic of Kenya. (2003c). Kenya: Economic recovery strategy for wealth and employment creation 2003–2007. Nairobi: Ministry of Planning and National Development.
Republic of Kenya. (2004). The Government Financial Management Act, 2004. Nairobi: Republic of Kenya.
Republic of Kenya. (2005a). Report of the Judicial Commission of Inquiry into the Goldenberg Affair. Nairobi: Republic of Kenya.
Republic of Kenya. (2005b). The Public Procurement and Disposal Act, 2005, Kenya Gazette Supplement No. 77 (Acts No. 3). Nairobi: Republic of Kenya.
Republic of Kenya. (2009a). Quarterly economic and budgetary review: Third quarter 2008/2009. Nairobi: Office of the Deputy Prime Minister and Ministry of Finance.
Republic of Kenya. (2009b). The Proceeds of Crime and Anti-Money Laundering Act No. 9 of 2009. Nairobi: Republic of Kenya.
Republic of Kenya. (2009c, August 14). National Anti-Corruption Campaign Steering Committee, The Kenya Gazette. Nairobi: Republic of Kenya.
Republic of Kenya. (2010a). Review of performance contracting in the public sector: Report by the Panel of Experts. Nairobi: Office of the Prime Minister.
Republic of Kenya. (2010b). The Constitution of Kenya, 2010. Nairobi: Republic of Kenya.
Republic of Kenya. (2012). The public finance management act, 2012. Nairobi: Republic of Kenya.
Republic of Kenya. (2015a). Report of the task force on the review of the legal, policy and institutional framework for fighting corruption in Kenya, Nairobi. http://www.attorney-general.go.ke/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Republic-of-Kenya-Report-of-the-Task-Force-on-the-Review-of-the-Legal-Policy-and-Institutional-Framework-for-Fighting-Corruption-in-Kenya-2015.pdf. Accessed 12 May 2016.
Republic of Kenya. (2015b). Performance contracting guidelines for the FY 2015/16. Nairobi: Ministry of Devolution and Planning, The Presidency.
Republic of Kenya. (2016). Kenya country statement at the London Anti-Corruption Summit. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/522719/Kenya.pdf. Accessed 12 May 2016.
Reuters. (2016, March 10). Sh608 billion of Kenya budget lost to corruption every year – EACC chairman Kinisu. The Star. http://www.the-star.co.ke/news/2016/03/10/sh608-billion-of-kenya-budget-lost-to-corruption-every-year-eacc_c1310903. Accessed 7 Apr 2016.
Rose, R., & Peiffer, C. (2015). Paying bribes for public services: A global guide to grass-roots corruption. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
Rugene, N. (2009, May 16). Bribery in Kenya’s Parliament. Daily Nation. http://www.nation.co.ke/News/-/1056/599016/-/u6adu9/-/index.html. Accessed 12 May 2010.
Shiundu, A. (2010, January 26). US suspends Kenya education cash. Daily Nation. http://www.nation.co.ke/News/-/1056/849984/-/vpg3t6/-/index.html. Accessed 24 June 2010.
Sichei, M. M. (2010). Impact of corruption on the national economy. In J. Kivuva & M. Odhiambo (Eds.), Integrity in Kenya’s public service: Illustrations from the Goldenberg and Anglo-Leasing scandals (pp. 123–151). Nairobi: CLARION (Center for Law and Research International).
Starkey, J. (2016, March 8). Moi: Kenya corruption is out of control. The Times. http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/world/africa/article4707526.ece. Accessed 2 May 2016.
Stone, C., & Ward, H. (2000). Democratic policing: A framework for action. Policing and Society, 10(1), 11–45. CrossRef
Teyie, A., & Menya, W. (2014, August 17). GSU officers accuse seniors of harassment and corruption. Sunday Nation, p. 28.
The Business Advocacy Fund. (2008). Business leader perceptions of the investment climate in Kenya. Nairobi: The Business Advocacy Fund.
Thiankolu, M. (2006). The Anti-Corruption and Economic Crimes Act, 2003: Has Kenya discharged her obligations to her peoples and the world? http://www.kenyalaw.org/Downloads_Other/Muthomi%20Thiankolu%20%20AntiCorruption%20And%20Economic%20Crimes%20Act%202003.pdf. Accessed 6 July 2010.
TI (Transparency International). (2009). Global corruption report 2009. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
TI (Transparency International). (2010). The anti-corruption catalyst: Realizing the MDGs by 2015. Berlin: TI.
TI (Transparency International). (2013). Global corruption barometer 2013. Berlin: TI.
TI-Kenya (Transparency International – Kenya). (2008). The Kenya bribery index 2008. Nairobi: TI-Kenya.
TI-Kenya (Transparency International – Kenya). (2009). Corruption trends analysis: Tracing corruption trends in Kenya’s public sector. Nairobi: TI-Kenya.
TI-Kenya (Transparency International – Kenya). (2010a). The East African bribery index 2010. Nairobi: TI-Kenya.
TI-Kenya (Transparency International – Kenya). (2010b). Corruption and the new order: National opinion poll on Kenyan’ expectations of corruption trends under the new constitution. Nairobi: TI-Kenya.
TI-Kenya (Transparency International – Kenya). (2012a). The East African bribery index 2012. Nairobi: TI-Kenya.
TI-Kenya (Transparency International – Kenya). (2012b). Bribery as a non-tariff barrier to trade: A case study of East African trade corridors. Nairobi: TI-Kenya.
TI-Kenya (Transparency International – Kenya). (2014). The East African bribery index 2014. Nairobi: TI-Kenya.
TJRC (Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission) Kenya. (2013). Report of the truth, justice and reconciliation commission: Volume IIB. Nairobi: TJRC Kenya.
UN-HRC (United Nations Human Rights Committee). (2012). Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 40 of the covenant: Concluding observations adopted by the Human Rights Committee at its 105th session, 9–27 July 2012: Kenya. New York: UN-HRC.
UNCAT (United Nations Committee Against Torture). (2009). Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 19 of the convention: Concluding observations of the Committee Against Torture: Kenya. New York: United Nations.
UNHRC (United Nations Human Rights Council). (2009). Promotion and protection of all human rights, civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to development: Report of the special rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions: Addendum: Mission to Kenya. New York: United Nations General Assembly.
UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime). (n.d.). United Nations Convention against Corruption signature and ratification status. Vienna: UNODC. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories.html. Accessed 6 July 2010.
U.S. Department of State. (2015a). Kenya 2015 human rights report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/252905.pdf. Accessed 19 Apr 2016.
U.S. Department of State. (2015b). Kenya investment climate statement 2015. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of State.
Wagner, D. (2014, June 18). Kenya, corruption, and terrorism. The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/daniel-wagner/kenya-corruption-and-terr_b_5505869.html. Accessed 28 July 2014.
Wamwere, K. (2010). Top leadership must be in the forefront if the battle on corruption is to be won. http://www.nation.co.ke/oped/Opinion/-/440808/1046170/-/nw15ccz/-/index.html. Accessed 5 Nov 2010.
Wangai, K. (2011, August). Canada demands donation refund from Kenya due to corruption. Christian Courier, No. 2918, pp. 1–2.
Warah, R. (2014, August 4). Corruption, politics and tribalism have neutered our security services. Daily Nation, p. 12.
Warren, M. E. (2004). What does corruption mean in a democracy? American Journal of Political Science, 48(2), 328–343. CrossRef
Wikipedia. (2010). Corruption in Kenya. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corruption_in_Kenya#Corruption. Accessed 17 June 2010.
Wikipedia. (2016). List of people named in the Panama Papers. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_people_named_in_the_Panama_Papers. Accessed 7 Apr 2016.
World Bank. (2009a). Kenya: Economic development, police oversight, and accountability: Linkages and reforms. Washington, DC: World Bank.
World Bank. (2009b). Kenya poverty and inequality assessment: Executive summary and synthesis report. Report No. 44190-KE. Washington, DC: World Bank.
World Economic Forum. (2015). The global competitiveness report 2015–2016. Geneva: World Economic Forum.
Wrong, M. (2009). It’s our turn to eat: The story of a Kenyan whistle-blower. New York: Harper Collins.
Wrong, M. (2014, May 6). Everyone is corrupt in Kenya, even grandmothers. Foreign Policy. . http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2014/05/06/everyone_is_corrupt_in_kenya_even_grandmothers. Accessed 8 July 2014.
- Corruption in Kenya
Kempe Ronald Hope Sr.
- Chapter 3
Die Corporate Supply Strategy bei Phoenix Contact GmbH & Co. KG/© [M] michalchm89 | Fotolia