For years, web developers complained about the inability to create sophisticated, responsive interfaces resembling anything like those found within desktop applications. That all began to change in 2005, when user experience guru Jesse James Garrett coined the term
while describing advances cutting-edge websites such as Flickr and Google had been making that closed the gap between web interfaces and their client-based brethren. These advances involved taking advantage of the browser’s ability to asynchronously communicate with a server—without requiring the web page to reload. Used in conjunction with Java Script’s ability to inspect and manipulate practically every aspect of a web page (thanks to the language’s ability to interact with the page’s Document Object Model, also known as the DOM), it became possible to create interfaces capable of performing a variety of tasks without requiring the page to reload.
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