The results of a project are typically presented in three formats: posters, talks, and papers. A
is collection of graphics, photos, and text printed on a large sheet of paper that is presented on a poster-board in a large hall in a conference building. Before the actual presentation of a poster, the scientist submits an
summarizing the key findings of the research project. Abstracts are typically limited to between 100 and 200 words although exceptions are sometimes made, e.g., for extended abstracts which, in some cases, may reach the length of a journal article. Abstracts are also required to be submitted for a conference
. A talk is an oral presentation, typically 15 to 20 minutes long and supported by a series of pages or slides projected by a video projector. The slides generally contain graphics and photos, but only a relatively small amount of text. Talks are organized into theme sessions that are chaired by a session convener. The convener introduces the presenter of the talk, takes care of the time management of the session, and moderates the discussion with questions and answers after the talk. This chapter deals with the planning of a talk and the design of presentation slides, as well as offering a few suggestions for practicing and presenting a talk.