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Über dieses Buch

This volume is the proceedings of a symposium entitled "Creating the Competitive Edge Through Human Resource Applications" which was held at Salve Regina College, Newport, Rhode Island on Jtm.e 16-19, 1987. The meeting was sponsored by the Research Coomi ttee of the Human Resource Plarming Society (HRPS). In developing the agenda, the Research Committee built upon the format of the first HRPS research symposium on "Strategic Human Resource Plarming Applications" held at the University of Pennsylvania in 1985. The intent in both meetings was on the linkage of the state-of-practice with the state-of­ the-art. Particular attention was placed on research studies which were application oriented so that member organizations can see examples of ways to extend current practices with the knowledge presented by the applications • The meeting has sessions on: (1) Reshaping the Organization for the Twenty-first Century, (2) Coping with Major Organizational Change, (3) Organization Downsizing, (4) Evaluating the Human Resource Function and (5) The Impact of Corporate Culture on Future Human Resource Practices. Thirty papers were presented with discussion sessions at appropriate points in the meeting. This volume contains twenty one of these papers along with an introductory paper. A short summary is also provided at the begirming of each major subdivision into which the papers are arranged.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction

Frontmatter

Introduction

Abstract
On June 16–19, 1986, the Research Committee of the Human Resource Planning Society sponsored a symposium held at the Salve Regina College in Newport, RI. This symposium, the second sponsored by the Human Resource Planning Society, was titled “Creating The Competitive Edge Through Human Resource Applications” and consisted of the presentation of thirty papers with appropriate follow-on discussion. This introduction provides an executive overview of the symposium and a brief review of the individual papers included in the book.
Normand W. Green

Reshaping the Organization for the Twenty First Century

Frontmatter

Environmental Scanning: Strategic and Functional Approaches

Abstract
Environmental scanning specialists can perform two very different functions. One major function is to become aware of possible problems or opportunities for the organization resulting from changes in technology, the economy, among competitors, in governmental regulation or legislation, or in general social patterns. To carry out this function environmental scanners must have a good grasp of current organizational strategies, since such strategies generally focus the direction of scanners’ attention. Problem opportunity awareness scanners are in fact, usually attached to units responsible for strategy development. Units of this type are typically at the corporate staff level, and may be attached directly to the CEO’s office.
Charles H. Fay, Richard W. Beatty

Baby Boom and Baby Bust: Corporate Response to the Demographic Challenge of 1990–2010

Abstract
Discussions of America’s changing demographics have given little consideration to the impact of the baby boom and baby bust in terms of career stages and development. Older workers cannot simply be “recycled” through earlier career stages, nor will corporate cultures go unchanged as their employee’ move into more mature career stages. The potential problems will not go away by themselves. The traditional safety valves (i.e., bringing more women into the workforce) are already being applied or are infeasible.
Martin M. Greller, David M. Nee

Work Place Challenges for Managers in the Twenty-First Century

Abstract
Clearly, corporations in the United States must prepare now for the twenty-first century. To do this, managers must understand the changing demographic, social, and business environments affecting how U.S. corporations are run. Changes occurring from now until the end of the century will create challenges to all companies regardless of size.
Valerie B. Bowles, Arthur R. Riles

Forces Reshaping the Future Organization and Management of Work: A Perspective from a Canadian Integrated Oil Company

Abstract
We live in stirring and dramatic times in which we see both the death of an old order and the emergence of a new one. A paradigm shift is undoubtedly occurring. Fundamental changes are reshaping the future organization and management of work. The changes are happening in the global, business, internal and human resource domains or environments of large organizations indicated on Figure 1.
Matthew Baerveldt, Gillian Hobbs

Designing the Adaptive Organization

Abstract
Organizational design has recently emerged as a field of inquiry in its own right. It has a rapidly developing foundation in theory, method, empirical research, and application. Research and practice in the design of organizations has prescriptive objectives building upon the generalizations from research in both the micro and macro domains of organizational behavior. Organizational design implies the prescription of organizational characteristics presumed to be related to improving the effectiveness of organizations and thereby contributing to the viability and strength of the organization. Organizational design is in contrast to the purely descriptive research that characterizes conventional research in the study of organizations.
Kenneth D. Mackenzie

Coping with Major Organizational Change

Frontmatter

Managerial Careers and Organization-Wide Transformations

Abstract
Organizations grow and perpetuate themselves not only because of their products, but also because of their people. Large organizations generally create career patterns through which people move, become committed to the organization, and become capable of managing larger parts of the business. Indeed, career patterns often reflect an organization’s human resource solutions to critical business problems -- a reflection of business strategy and organizational culture as well as a resource for creating new strategy.
Karen N. Gaertner

The Role of Human Resources in Organizational Consolidation and Relocation

Abstract
Managers often must make decisions concerning structural changes, implementing information systems or developing human resource programs. A decision to make such a change requires both an initial and recurring investment by the company. Not only might capital equipment or new space be required, human resource requirements must be met. Rather than implementing the program first and evaluating its cost and benefits later, it is possible to forecast the initial and recurring costs prior to making the investment. One such change is the decision to consolidate and/or relocate facilities.
Jo Ann Verdin, Anthony M. Pagano

Innovative Working Relationships in a Traditional Organization

Abstract
In September of 1985, the senior management of Westinghouse Canada flew in the face of the currently widespread management philosophy that you “stick to the knitting” and approved the establishment of a brand new business called The Westinghouse Consulting and Development Group. This new consulting business meant a change in mission for the once corporate based, Staff Organization Development Department that had supplied service on demand within Westinghouse Canada, a change in mission to a line department profit centre that marketed and sold its consulting services on effectively managing change, both within and outside of Westinghouse Canada.
James A. Rankin

Analyzing Organizational Strategic Change Using Proactive Labor Market Forecasts

Abstract
The major premise of this article is that the introduction and effective use of proactive human resource planning information provides an opportunity to improve the success of strategic planning. All strategic organizational changes have resource implications. Controlling such changes to achieve a competitive market advantage is a major challenge for managers. Actions that establish competitive advantages within existing internal and external labor markets are difficult to identify without proactive resource planning information. Strategic efforts that focus on cost reduction actions and increased productivity performance programs within the current or proposed alternative organizations, are not generic events and processes.
D. M. Atwater, E. S. Bres, R. J. Niehaus

Coping with Occupational Structure Issues at Large Public Industrial Organizations

Abstract
Any large industrial organization is confronted with problems of the appropriate occupational structure and size of its work force: appropriate mix of skill groups and skill levels. The case study provided in this paper is concerned with the occupational structure problem as it related to the changing workload at a large U.S. Navy shipyard. The focus of the study is an examination of the methods to obtain a workforce mix consistent with the shipyard workload, particularly in the craft and trades areas where the production workers are located.
E. S. Bres, R. J. Niehaus, F. J. Sharkey, C. L. Weber

Organizational Downsizing

Frontmatter

Organizational Downsizing in a Company Comitted to Workforce Continuity and People Involvement

Abstract
When you are caught like many others in an industry-wide stagnation it is difficult to uphold the convictions about workforce continuity that are established in boom times. This article reviews a workforce rebalancing process that one high-tech company used to try to avoid layoffs. When layoffs were inevitable, the experience gained in the rebalancing process proved very valuable in handling the layoff procedure.
Janice M. Druian

Downsizing as a Positive Experience

Abstract
If you asked your managers whether they could fulfill their responsibilities with fewer people, would they volunteer eleven percent of their workforce?
John R. Marshall, Rodney B. Plimpton

Layoffs: What Does Flexibility Really Cost?

Abstract
Layoffs are a commonly accepted practice in most industrialized nations. Employers use temporary or long-term layoffs as a means to adjust costs when there is a decline in the demand for products or services. It has been estimated that over twelve million Americans were laid off during the earlier eighties. At least two million of these were due to the permanent elimination of positions because of technological displacement.
Dan L. Ward

Evaluating the Human Resource Function

Frontmatter

Process Management vs. Problem Solving: Choosing an Appropriate Perspective for Evaluating Human Resource Systems

Abstract
Professionals in the HR field have been saying for some time that human resources are a “strategic” resource in business today, and have argued that they should be included in the strategic management activities of their firms. While the former is true, the latter must be earned through demonstration that they are prepared to make a meaningful contribution to corporate strategy and overall organizational goals. This demonstration must begin with evidence that the HR functions, and its programs, are addressing and meeting critical corporate needs. Such evidence is, in turn, dependent on the existence of an effective comprehensive system evaluation process focusing on the strategic contribution of human resource policies and practices.
James D. Portwood

Appropriate Staffing Levels for the Human Resource Function: Is There a Magic Ratio?

Abstract
Corporations generally are seeking to reduce staff costs and improve effectiveness of staff operations. The human resource function, in particular, is a focus of attention in many companies. Management of human resources is acknowledged to be an important and growing concern among top executives, yet the function is considered one of the most difficult to measure and manage (Walker, 1986).
James W. Walker, Karl F. Price

Using Human Resource Data to Select Merger/Acquisition Candidates

Abstract
According to the literature and reports by practitioners (e.g. Marks, 1982; Robine and DeMeuse, 1985; Manzini and Gridley, 1986; and Gridley, 1986), human resource managers are becoming increasingly involved in mergers and acquisitions. This involvement, however, is usually greatest after the merger process is well under way. Some human resource managers are becoming involved at an early “due diligence” stage where a merger/acquisition prospect has been identified and the two parties investigate the details of the potential match.
Michael D. Hawkins

Personnel Policy Analysis Using Entity Level Network Simulation

Abstract
Exploring policy alternatives in the human resources arena has traditionally centered on the use of deterministic, rate-driven models, which simply age the workforce. Such models lack the individual employee level of detail and flexibility necessary to investigate options in areas such as career development and assignment policy. This paper outlines a prototypical methodology developed by the Air Force Personnel Analysis Center to address such issues. The following paragraphs detail the background and model development, and are followed by a summary description of an actual study that used the model.
Stanley B. Polk, Paul F. Guzowski, Carol I. Weaver

Impact of Corporate Culture on Future Human Resource Practices

Frontmatter

International Human Resource Planning and Development: (The Emerging Profession)

Abstract
We are part of the world community. That fact is self evident. One need only look in a daily newspaper, turn on a television news broadcast, or read a weekly magazine. Whether we like or not we are now an integral part of the global network and will remain that way from this point on.
Ronald S. Koster

Corporate Culture and the Concept of Competition

Abstract
The role and importance of competition for business strategy has recently been identified and documented by Henderson (1984). While the emphasis of his analysis is on the emergence of explicit business strategies, particularly the advantages of being the low cost producer with a dominant market share position, there is an underlying assumption that the concept of competition is lawful and is a part of natural law. Within this broad framework the superiority of biological models of competition are recognized while economic models of competition are rejected.
James H. Reynierse

Implementing Cultural Change in the National Health Service of the UK: Implications for Staff & Resourcing Policy

Abstract
A background of economic stringency and constraint upon public spending led to the government initiating the Griffiths inquiry into the operation of the National Health Service (NHS) (Griffiths Report, 1983). This report highlighted several major concerns about the management of the NHS. In particular, aspects such as the appropriateness of financial control Systems, sensitivity to the consumer viewpoint and a lack of individual accountability were identified.
Peter Spurgeon

Identifying Future Management Development Needs

Abstract
To respond the Travelers Corporation emerging management development needs, the Corporate Training and Development Division established a research project to:
  • Analyze the management process at Travelers;
  • Identify current and likely-future management practices of the organization’s top performers at all levels, function and location;
  • Identify current and future management development needs throughout the organization; and
  • Create and introduce an updated management development system that is continous and uses a variety of development processes.
Richard E. Wise, Robert S. Fenn

Backmatter

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