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Über dieses Buch

This book positions script analysis as a useful and pragmatic tool, which can guide the selection and implementation of preventive measures in business environments. It illustrates how the concept aligns with the crime-specific orientation found in environmental criminology, and particularly explores the theoretical foundations of situational crime prevention, the approach to which it is deemed most relevant and supportive.
The volume provides clear guidance on how to apply script analysis in daily practice, covering its main building blocks and key features. These are illustrated by a series of case studies into various crime types. Moving beyond the use of script analysis with the intent to disrupt the crime-commission process, the author further explores the wider benefits of the approach to both academics and practitioners. He identifies what is needed most if we want to embrace the full potential of script analysis for preventive purposes. <



1. Introduction

This book is about the application of script analysis in the interest of situational crime prevention. The standard methodology applied for designing situational projects, according to Clarke (1997b: 15), is ‘a version of the action research model in which researchers and practitioners work together to analyse and define the problem, to identify and try out possible solutions, to evaluate the result and, if necessary, to repeat the cycle until success is achieved’. Accordingly, a generic situational crime prevention project comprises five stages: a collection of data about the nature and dimensions of the problem; an analysis of the situational conditions that permit or facilitate the commission of the crimes in question; a systematic study of possible means of blocking opportunities for these particular crimes; the implementation of the most promising, feasible, and economic measures; and a (constant) monitoring of results and dissemination of experience (Gladstone 1980, cited in Clarke 1997a, b: 15).
Harald Haelterman

2. Crimes as Scripts

Although crimes may be considered events with a specific location in time and place, the crime event itself is only one among many events that occur within the crime-commission process (Cornish 1994: 155). The unfolding of a crime involves a series of sequential decisions and actions (or units of behaviour), and is exposed to a variety of influencing and interrupting factors. As Wortley (2012): 186) puts it, the crime event is considered a multistaged, dynamic process that involves a connected chain of decisions based on an ongoing evaluation of the available options in a given situation, and that may take different paths depending upon the nature of the environmental feedback.
Harald Haelterman

3. Crime and Criminality

As this book is about preventing crime against business, it is important to understand what is meant by crime and how this phenomenon relates to criminality, as both terms are often used interchangeably. This chapter aims to clarify the distinction between the two. It further aims to illustrate that this distinction has implications for the scope and objectives of preventive interventions. While the main focus of preventing criminality is on trying to avoid individuals from becoming or remaining engaged in criminal conduct, preventing crime is about preventing criminal acts or events from occurring. It should become clear from this chapter that script analysis is introduced as a tool to support the latter objective.
Harald Haelterman

4. Scripting Crime Against Business

In this fourth chapter, it is argued that crime script analysis can prove to be a useful tool to assist management and crime prevention practitioners in assuring that the required controls to mitigate crime are in place and fit for purpose. It links the scripting exercise to (enterprise) risk management and goes on to explore the main building blocks and key features of a somewhat simplified scripting methodology tailored to those tasked with designing or redesigning controls in a workplace environment. Using a step-by-step approach, it further shows how to develop and visualize a proper crime script, how to identify potential intervention points and what to take into consideration when selecting or (re)designing the most adequate preventive controls. Prior to touching upon each of these topics, this chapter will first position script analysis in the wider context of (crime) risk management.
Harald Haelterman

5. Case Studies

This chapter presents a number of case studies that illustrate the use of script analysis in a business environment. All cases are to some extent based on real-life examples reported upon in the press or shared by practitioners in the field. Where relevant and required, names of individuals and locations have been changed or removed to ensure strict confidentiality. The main purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate the potential of script analysis for preventive purposes. The crime types that were selected have deliberately been kept simple and straightforward as to allow the reader to gain sufficient understanding of the approach itself rather than to become distracted by the complexity of the incidents that are described. From gaining such initial understanding it will become evident that the value of script analysis becomes even more obvious when dealing with more complex crime types.
Harald Haelterman

6. Wider Benefits and Future Development Needs

In the previous chapters, the script concept was primarily positioned as a pragmatic means to break down the crime-commission process with the aim to identify potential intervention points, to strengthen existing controls, or to introduce additional ones. In this final chapter, it is argued that script analysis may also serve wider purposes, both to an academic as to a practitioner audience. In order to embrace its full potential, however, some further developments are deemed required.
Harald Haelterman

7. Conclusions

Crime prevention efforts and strategies can take many forms, including early interventions to improve the life chances of children and prevent them from embarking on a life of antisocial conduct and crime (often referred to as ‘developmental prevention’), the design of programs and policies to improve the social conditions and institutions that influence offending (i.e. ‘community prevention’) and strategies to intervene in the immediate (physical) environment in which crime takes place (Welsh and Farrington 2012b: ix). This book is about the application of script analysis in the interest of the latter type of interventions.
Harald Haelterman


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