Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
To alleviate the performance degradation of conventional TCP in wireless networks, many schemes have been proposed so far. One category of such schemes is the Explicit Loss Notification (ELN) scheme in which TCP senders are notified of wireless losses so as to avoid congestion control against those losses. Thus the key design factor of the ELN scheme is how to detect wireless losses accurately and rapidly. This paper proposes a new ELN scheme, in which wireless losses are detected by monitoring the operation of the wireless link layer. By exploiting such cross-layer design, the proposed scheme can detect wireless losses without additional transmission over the wireless link and thus achieves accurate detection with minimum delay. The proposed scheme additionally sends new information, that is, Explicit Retransmission Start Notification, in order to prevent spurious timeouts of the TCP senders. Furthermore, in order to handle packet reordering and avoid successive shrinking of a congestion window due to multiple packet drops, a new TCP modification is proposed. Through intensive simulations, it is demonstrated that the proposed scheme outperforms the other ELN schemes, and yields the throughput performance of more than 400% of TCP-Reno and 150% of Snoop in the considered environments.
Postel J: Transmission Control Protocol. IETF RFC 793, September 1981 CrossRef
Allman M, et al.: TCP Congestion Control. IETF RFC 2581, April 1999 CrossRef
Caceres R, Iftode L: Improving the performance of reliable transport protocols in mobile computing environments. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 1995, 13(5):850-857. 10.1109/49.391749 CrossRef
Balakrishnan H, Padmanabhan VN, Seshan S, Katz RH: A comparison of mechanisms for improving TCP performance over wireless links. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 1997, 5(6):756-769. 10.1109/90.650137 CrossRef
Mathis M, et al.: TCP Selective Acknowledgment Options. IETF RFC 2018, October 1996 CrossRef
Balakrishnan H, Katz RH: Explicit loss notification and wireless web performance. Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM '98), November 1998, Sydney, Australia
Balan RK, Lee BP, Kumar KRR, Jacob L, Seah WKG, Ananda AL: TCP HACK: TCP header checksum option to improve performance over lossy links. Proceedings of the 20th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM '01), April 2001, Anchorage, Alaska, USA 1: 309-318.
Zhang B, Shirazi MN: Implementation of explicit wireless loss notification using MAC-layer information. Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking (WCNC '03), March 2003, New Orleans, La, USA 2: 1339 -1343.
Buchholcz G, Ziegler T, Van Do T: TCP-ELN: on the protocol aspects and performance of explicit loss notification for TCP over wireless networks. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Wireless Internet (WICON '05), July 2005, Budapest 172-179. CrossRef
Gao X, Diggavi SN, Muthukrishnan S: LHP: an end-to-end reliable transport protocol over wireless data networks. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC '03), May 2003, Anchorage, Alaska, USA 1: 66-70.
Mascolo S, Casetti C, Gerla M, Sanadidi MY, Wang R: TCP Westwood: bandwidth estimation for enhanced transport over wireless links. Proceedings of the 7th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM '01), July 2001, Rome, Italy 287-297. CrossRef
Fu CP, Liew SC: TCP veno: TCP enhancement for transmission over wireless access networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2003, 21(2):216-228. 10.1109/JSAC.2002.807336 CrossRef
Xu K, Tian Y, Ansari N: TCP-Jersey for wireless IP communications. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2004, 22(4):747-756. 10.1109/JSAC.2004.825989 CrossRef
Wu EH-K, Chen M-Z: JTCP: jitter-based TCP for heterogeneous wireless networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2004, 22(4):757-766. 10.1109/JSAC.2004.825999 CrossRef
Capone A, Fratta L, Martignon F: Bandwidth estimation schemes for TCP over wireless networks. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing 2004, 3(2):129-143. 10.1109/TMC.2004.5 CrossRef
Nortel Networks : HSDPA and Beyond. white paper, 2005
The Network Simulator-ns-2, http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns
Balakrishnan H, Seshan S, Katz RH: Improving reliable transport and handoff performance in cellular wireless networks. ACM Wireless Networks 1995, 1(4):469-481. 10.1007/BF01985757 CrossRef
Bhandarkar S, Narasimha Reddy AL, Allman M, Blanton E: Improving the robustness of TCP to Non-Congestion Events. IETF RFC 4653, August 2006
Keshav S, Morgan SP: SMART retransmission: performance with overload and random losses. Proceedings of the 16th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM '97), April 1997, Kobe, Japan 3: 1131-1138.
Qiao D, Choi S: Goodput enhancement of IEEE 802.11a wireless LAN via link adaptation. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC '01), June 2001, Helsinki, Finland 7: 1995-2000.
Brakmo LS, Peterson LL: TCP Vegas: end to end congestion avoidance on a global internet. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 1995, 13(8):1465-1480. 10.1109/49.464716 CrossRef
Parsa C, Garcia-Luna-Aceves JJ: Differentiating congestion vs. random loss: a method for improving TCP performance over wireless links. Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking (WCNC '00), September 2000, Chicago, Ill, USA 90-93.
Ramakrishnan K, et al.: The Addition of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP. IETF RFC 3168, September 2001 CrossRef
Schulzrinne H, et al.: RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications. IETF RFC 3550, July 2003
Barman D, Matta I: Effectiveness of loss labeling in improving TCP performance in wired/wireless networks. Proceedings of the 10th IEEE International Conference Network Protocols (ICNP '02), November 2002, Paris, France 2-11.
Kim M, Noble B: Mobile network estimation. Proceedings of the 7th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM '01), July 2001, Rome, Italy 298-309. CrossRef
Biaz S, Vaidya NH: "De-randomizing" congestion losses to improve TCP performance over wired-wireless networks. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 2005, 13(3):596-608. CrossRef
IEEE Std. 802.11-1999 Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications, Reference number ISO/IEC 8802-11:1999(E), 1999
3rd Generation Partnership Project Technical Specification Group Radio Core Network; Radio Link Protocol (RLP) for circuit switched bearer and teleservices. Release 6. 3GPP TS 24.022 (V.6.0.0), December 2004
3rd Generation Partnership Project Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network; HSDPA Overall Description. Release 7. 3GPP TS 25.308 (V.7.0.0), March 2006
Lin X, Shroff NB, Srikant R: A tutorial on cross-layer optimization in wireless networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2006, 24(8):1452-1463. CrossRef
Jiang H, et al.: Cross-layer design for resource allocation in 3G wireless networks and beyond. IEEE Communications Magazine 2005, 43(12):120-126. CrossRef
Blanton E, et al.: A Conservative Selective Acknowledgment (SACK)-based Loss Recovery Algorithm for TCP. IETF RFC 3517, April 2003 CrossRef
Floyd S, et al.: The NewReno Modification to TCP's Fast Recovery Algorithm. IETF RFC 2582, April 1999
TCP Westwood modules for ns-2, http://www.cs.ucla.edu/NRL/hpi/tcpw
TCP-DCR modules for ns-2, http://students.cs.tamu.edu/sumitha
IEEE Std. 802.11b Supplement to Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications: Higherspeed Physical Layer Extension in the 2.4 GHz Band, IEEE Std. 802.11b-1999, 1999
Padhye J, Firoiu V, Towsley D, Kurose J: Modeling TCP throughput: a simple model and its empirical validation. Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communication (ACM SIGCOMM '89), October 1998, Vancouver, Canada 303-314.
Jain R, et al.: A quantitative measure of fairness and discrimination for resource allocation in shared computer systems. In DEC Research Report. Digital Equipment Corporation, Littleton, Mass, USA; 1984.
Pahdye J, Floyd S: On inferring TCP behavior. Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communication (ACM SIGCOMM '01), August 2001, San Diego, Calif, USA 287-298.
Barman D, Matta I, Altman E, El Azouzi R: TCP optimization through FEC, ARQ, and transmission power tradeoffs. In Proceedings of the Wired/Wireless Internet Communications (WWIC '04), 2004, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Volume 2957. Springer; 87-98. CrossRef
Tan CC, Beaulieu NC: On first-order Markov modeling for the rayleigh fading channel. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2000, 48(12):2032-2040. 10.1109/26.891214 CrossRef
Fulvio B, Lombardi G: On verifying a first-order Markovian model for the multi-threshold success/failure process for Rayleigh channel. Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC '97), September 1997, Helsinki, Finland 1: 12-16. CrossRef
Zorzi M, Rao RR, Milstein LB: On the accuracy of a first-order Markov model for data transmission on fading channels. Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Universal Personal Communications Record, November 1995, Tokyo, Japan 211-215. CrossRef
Pham PP: Comprehensive analysis of the IEEE 802.11. Mobile Networks and Applications 2005, 10(5):691-703. 10.1007/s11036-005-3363-x CrossRef
Portoles M, et al.: IEEE 802.11 downlink traffic shaping scheme for multi-user service enhancement. Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC '03), September 2003, Beijing, China 2: 1712-1716.
- Cross-Layer Explicit Link Status Notification to Improve TCP Performance in Wireless Networks
- Springer International Publishing
- EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking
Elektronische ISSN: 1687-1499
Neuer Inhalt/© ITandMEDIA, Product Lifecycle Management/© Eisenhans | vege | Fotolia