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Über dieses Buch

This book explores how professional and organisational cultures influence global public-private partnerships, which form a key element of global governance. Using case studies, the partnerships of three international government organisations – the International Telecommunication Union, Interpol and the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property – illustrate how partnerships are formed and operate in accordance with the accepted cultural beliefs and values associated with both profession and organisation. In brief, engineers create partnerships they are comfortable with, which are different in form and operation to those of police, which also differ from those of the conservator. This book will appeal to scholars of international relations, global governance, organisational studies and public administration. It also conveys lessons for professionals at the international level in international government organisations, business and civil society who engage in, or want to engage in global public-private partnerships.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Across the Public-Private Divide in the International Sphere

Global public-private partnerships influence our daily lives. They are part of the global governance framework – yet our understanding of them is incomplete. Past research has attributed the existence of these partnerships between state, market and civil society actors variously to the influence of leaders, new management ideas, resource deficits and the proliferation of issues beyond the ability of any single sector to manage. Yet researchers generally focus on the United Nations, and overlook the technical organizations that facilitate a multitude of policy areas between nation-states, their agencies and administrations. This chapter outlines the puzzle drawn from personal experience with such an organization – Interpol, and then briefly outlines the methods employed to analyse the influence of professional culture and organizational culture in technical organizations.

Adam B. Masters

Chapter 2. Global Public-Private Partnerships: Theoretical Perspectives

Masters defines global public-private partnerships, international government organizations, professional culture and organizational culture to unpack how these concepts interact in global governance. Each case organization – the International Telecommunication Union, Interpol and the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property – frame their approach to partnerships through cultural lenses, and use such perspectives to interpret the drivers of new public management (NPM) that have emerged from Anglo-American governance practices. Yet despite these powerful influences, engineering culture, police culture and conservation culture do far more to shape partnerships than do member-states.

Adam B. Masters

Chapter 3. Introducing the Case Study Organizations

The historical background, administrative structures and partnerships of the International Telecommunication Union, Interpol and the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property have certain path dependency. As technical organizations, diplomatic practices take the back seat as engineers, police and conservators create networks among their peers and partners. Each network has resulted in globalized telecommunications; international police-to-police cooperation; and a multi-national appreciation for the patrimony of humanity. For each organization, Masters undertakes a case-within-a-case of a sample partnership to illustrate how global public-private partnerships form and operate.

Adam B. Masters

Chapter 4. Cultures

Taking a peek through the cultural lens, Masters demonstrates the importance culture has to a shared understanding and achievement of common goals. Values, language, norms, beliefs and assumptions unique to each organization and profession facilitate – or hinder – communication among partners. Here we see that culture plays an important role in shaping global public–private partnerships. Engineers strive for certainty and structure; police crave autonomy and control, guided by a mistrust of outsiders; and conservators ignore the false divide between public and private in their quest to preserve cultural heritage. If potential partners cannot fit these moulds, the likelihood of success is undermined.

Adam B. Masters

Chapter 5. Leaders

Leadership sets the tone for an organization and is typically linked to the professional culture affiliated with an IGO. More often than not, the leaders of the ITU, Interpol and ICCROM are experienced telecommunication engineers, police or conservators. Masters assesses leadership from three time periods in each organizations – founding leaders; change agents; and 21st century leaders. The founders in each case spent decades at their respective helms, imprinting their organizations with strong professional links, despite the necessities of international civil service. At times of change, professional and organizational cultures influenced the interpretation and implementation of new public management (NPM). In the modern era, leaders steer their organizations through the demands of globalization, but in a way they professionally perceive as the correct course.

Adam B. Masters

Chapter 6. Ideology, Ideas and Implementation

Ideas frame three questionable factors claimed to motivate global public-private partnerships – have technical organizations shifted their ideology from a neo-Marxist to a neo-liberal; has new public management shifted the posture of international government organizations; and have market-like ideas become attractive for IGOs? While these ideas have salience in some instances, they do not always ring true – with pushback from professional and organizational cultures, which have proven sticky. While such ideas have not been rejected out of hand, they have all passed through the cultural lenses of engineers, police and conservators. None of whom hold with the idea that their technical organizations have a political ideology of any colour.

Adam B. Masters

Chapter 7. Resources and Private Interests

It is not always about money. To achieve the goals set by member-states and those generated within international government organizations, partners often bring far more to the table than cash. While financial pressure is a constant, partnerships often succeed because of partner expertise; physical resources ranging from things as simple as fuel, to as complex as bio-metric identification software and equipment. To tap such resources the International Telecommunication Union, Interpol and the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property have innovated to get the best from their networks, which often reflect their own cultural perspectives. From reverse auctions to classrooms, Masters shines the light on how partnerships operate, and what partners bring to the table.

Adam B. Masters

Chapter 8. Perspectives on Global Issues

Global issues are often beyond the ability of international government organization to deal with alone. They emerge unexpectedly – the controls of the internet; violently and rapidly – the threat of bio-terrorism; or they are cyclical – the privatization of cultural heritage. These examples Masters has chosen have commonalities – they are global, they require action; member-states are not necessarily in concordance on their importance; and they all require global public-private partnerships by way of response.

Adam B. Masters

Chapter 9. Conclusion: Comparing Cultural Influences

Comparing the case studies along the lines of cultures, leadership, resources, ideas and global issues reveals how culture motivates, maintains and even inhibits partnerships. The engineering and the organizational culture at the ITU has created a regime of maintenance for their public-private partnerships, their long relationship with the telecommunication industry settled into what works, obviating a need for change. Historically, police culture inhibited Interpol’s partnerships. Even today, this cultural trait still plays a hand in partnering with outsiders. Conservation culture – which grew out of ICCROM – remains oriented toward cooperation and collaboration. These cases provide some theoretical insights into technical organizations – a largely overlooked – but critical – element of global governance.

Adam B. Masters

Backmatter

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