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This volume includes the full proceedings from the 2010 Cultural Perspectives in Marketing Conference held in Lille, France with the theme Cultural Perspectives in a Global Marketplace. This volume presents papers on various topics including marketing management, marketing strategy, and consumer behavior.

Founded in 1971, the Academy of Marketing Science is an international organization dedicated to promoting timely explorations of phenomena related to the science of marketing in theory, research, and practice. Among its services to members and the community at large, the Academy offers conferences, congresses and symposia that attract delegates from around the world. Presentations from these events are published in this Proceedings series, which offers a comprehensive archive of volumes reflecting the evolution of the field. Volumes deliver cutting-edge research and insights, complimenting the Academy’s flagship journals, the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science (JAMS) and AMS Review. Volumes are edited by leading scholars and practitioners across a wide range of subject areas in marketing science.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Cultures, Regions, and Identity

Frontmatter

Of Universal and Regional Cultural Values in Multicultural Markets: Implications for Marketers

Identification of the ubiquitous and regional cultural values in large countries like India can help in formulating nation wide and region specific marketing strategies. This paper unfolds the universal and unique regional cultural values across multicultural India, which would augment marketing strategies in this emerging market.

Devinder PalSingh Sidhu

Testing the Association of Ethnic Identity and Acculturation

Early research proposed that ethnic identity and acculturation were separate constructs. More recently, researchers have argued that the two constructs measured the same construct of acculturation. Based on a survey of international students in Australia, this research finds that acculturation may have six or more factors that make up the construct.

Mahestu N Krisjanti, Dick Mizerski, Fang Liu

How Bonding are Latin America’s Cultural and Economic Bonds? The Case of International Advertising Standardization in the Mercosur

The theory of regionalization (Rugman and Verbeke 2004) poses that multinational enterprises (MNEs) operate successfully at a regional rather than global level, hence making the study of regional strategies both topical and imperative. This paper contributes to the limited research on regional advertising standardization by studying the influence of culture and economic integration on advertising standardization at the regional vs. the broader international level. It does so using data gathered from subsidiary managers in the Latin American trading bloc Mercosur and, by taking a novel, process oriented perspective to standardization measurement based on how standardization is implemented rather than planned.

Fernando Fastoso, Jeryl Whitelock

Cross-Cultural Ethics and Social Responsibility

Frontmatter

Articulating the Meanings Attached to Collective Experiences of Ethical Consumption: A View from Spain

In consumer research there has been traditionally a preference for individualistic approaches and ethical consumer behavior literature does not constitute an exception. Researchers tend to employ the individual ethical consumer as unit of observation of their studies, ignoring that consumer decisions can often be projects carried out by groups, instead of single individuals.

Eleni Papaoikonomou, Gerard Ryan, Matias Ginieis

Development of a Short and Valid Scale to Assess Consumers’ Cognitive Justifications for Not Behaving Ethically: A Canada-China Study

This paper reports the results of a study aimed at validating a shortened version of a scale purported to assess consumers’ reasons for not behaving ethically. The original scale (d’Astous and Legendre 2009) is a 28-item multidimensional instrument assessing the degree to which consumers invoke different justifications for not behaving ethically in the context of their consumption activities. The three dimensions covered by the scale are organized around reasons based on (1) economic development (ED), i.e., the tendency to believe that the economic development of countries justifies the adoption of consumption behaviors that are not socially responsible, (2) government dependency (GD), i.e., the degree to which consumers believe that when there are no laws regulating the unethical actions of social actors, these actions are legal and they cannot be blamed for them, and (3) economic rationalization (ER), i.e., the degree to which consumers think that ethical consumption is costly and, consequently, justify their behaviors based on the argument that in ethical consumption, prices are higher and quality is lower (see Eckhardt et al. 2006). The scale reduction responds to the need of applied researchers and to expectations of organizations for the construction of efficient measuring instruments (Richins 2004; Smith et al. 2001). The 28-item scale has been reduced to 9 items (3 per dimension) following a scale reduction methodological procedure proposed by Stanton et al. (2002), as well as scale reduction and validation recommendations put forward by Marsh et al. (2005), Netemeyer et al. (2002) and Smith et al. (2001).

Jean-Mathieu Fallu, Alain d’Astous

Marketing Strategy and Performance

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Learning Orientation and Radical Innovation as Antecedents of Business Performance

In changing contexts, innovation is increasingly considered to be one of the key drivers of the long-term success of a firm. The main reason for this is that companies with the capacity to innovate will be able to respond to environmental challenges faster and to exploit new products and market opportunities better than non-innovative companies. In this context, entrepreneurial organizations show specific abilities of the organization for recognizing and exploiting opportunities by reconfiguring existing and new resources in ways that create advantage. As a consequence, entrepreneurial firms have been characterized by their commitment to innovation. Using data from 361 companies and through structural equation models, we examine empirically the effects of entrepreneurial orientation, learning orientation, and radical innovation on business performance. The research population included Brazilian organizations with more than one hundred employees located all around of this country. Our research was designed to cover a wide range of industries. The structured questionnaire was sent to CEOs of 3,000 companies by mail. All items used to operationalize the constructs were developed based on the extant literature. In terms of results, our study contributes to the comprehension of the antecedents of business performance in the context of a developing country. Specifically, the results reveal that product innovation has a positive effect on organizational performance, but also that an entrepreneurial orientation fosters product innovations as literature suggests. One of the findings of this study is that entrepreneurial-oriented firms, characterized by introducing in new or developing markets new activities, promote the generation of radical innovations for developing their activities. These innovations allow companies to increase their performance in the marketplace. Their activities require that these organizations look for new sources for generating ideas. Additionally, our findings suggest that learning orientation mediates the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and radical innovation, revealing that entrepreneurial companies should be committed to learning to develop new products. The findings are presented along with the implications of the study, its limitations and recommendations for future research. Specially, firms should foster commitment to learning, shared vision and open-mindedness among their workers. In this respect, organizational members should be encouraged to think “outside the box” to find different perspectives about the business. Also, those actions may allow firms to improve their ability to thoroughly comprehend the environment which is crucial to achieve better results. Furthermore, a radical innovation approach should be fostered by companies since we found a positive effect of that construct on firms’ performance. Thereby, we suggest that companies engage their employees on research projects which may provide new ideas for existing products and new ones that may arise from “think tanks” within different departments.

Jorge Francisco Bertinetti Lengler, Daniel Jimenez Jimenez, Marcelo Gattermann Perin Pontifícia, Juan-Gabriel Cegarra-Navarro, Cláudio Hoffmann Sampaio

The Effect of Perceived Corporate Competencies on Onsumer Based Brand Equity: A Comparison between Domestic and Foreign Markets

In this paper, the authors develop a model to explain the cross-cultural influence of perceived corporate competencies on attitude formation towards the brand’s product categories and its impact on consumer based brand equity. Results indicate that some competencies have a transnational effect in several product categories, whereas several corporate competencies are identified to influence perception of product categories depending on the market.

Frank Huber, Frederik Meyer, Johannes Vogel, Julia Zimmermann

Consumer Behavior across Cultures (I)

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Measuring Brand Stress and Identifying Consumers’ Coping Strategies: An Exploratory Study in Germany

The majority of studies in branding research emphasize the relevance of brands and their benefits for both companies and consumers (e.g., Muniz and O’Guinn 2001). Although brand consumption involves many positive effects, negative influences should not be denied. However, only few scholars (e.g., Aaker, Fournier, and Brasel 2004) have engaged in research on such “dark” sides of brands.

Carmen-Maria Albrecht, Hans H. Bauer

Twenty Years after Reunification: Consumer Decision-Making Process for Electronic Products in Former East and West Germany

The current study compared influences on young East and West German consumer purchasing decisions for electronic products. We found that the former West Germans are more likely to be influenced by opinions of others than East Germans. The influence of brand loyalty and negative attitudes toward advertising were the same for the two German groups.

Eunyoung (Christine) Sung, Patricia Huddleston, Sebastian Uhrich

Engagement with Travel Web Sites and the Influence of Online Comparative Behaviour

We propose a Web site engagement measurement, and study the influence of potential antecedents and consequences. Utilising partial least squares path modeling, we contrast a model with data obtained from respondents choosing a holiday in the Seychelles, on a Web site capable of tracing online within-page and within-site behaviour.

Enrique Bigné, Joaquin Aldás, Antonio Hyder

Business-to-Business Marketing across Cultures

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References in Industrial Marketing: A Qualitative Analysis of the Utilization of References in Mechanical Engineering Firms

Even though the mechanical engineering industry in Germany suffers severely from the current global economic crisis, it is still a very important part of the German economy. Goods like manufacturing machines or power plants that are manufactured by mechanical engineering firms are complex, mostly individually planned and assembled for individual customers. Given that those machines in most cases are not standardized, their quality can not be evaluated before the actual purchase. Therefore, potential customers need to trust in the reliability and capabilites of their supplier.

Thomas Kilian, Nadine Hennigs, Inga Seeberg

Cross-Cultural Research Methodology

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The Determinants of Consumer Multi-Media Kiosk (Mmk) Adoption Behavior in Taiwan: The Dyadic Perspectives

The technology-based self-service is increasingly changing the way customers interact with retailers to create new service outcomes. Retailers employ it to increase productivity and efficiency, and better meeting customer demand. This study, therefore, develops a Multi-Media Kiosk (MMK) adoption model to explain technology adoption behavior at retailer stores from the customer’s and employee’s perspectives. To support the conceptualization, the authors provide some propositions to explain MMK adoption behavior through exploring two antecedents of customer/employee readiness- customer differences and employee service orientation. From consumer perspective, perception of insecurity reduces consumer readiness, but past experience enhances consumer readiness furthermore MMK adoption consequently. From employee perspective, service reward and training increase employee readiness and employee readiness enhances consumers’ MMK adoption through indirect effect through consumer readiness.

Kuan-Yin Lee, Shu-Tzu Huang, Yin-Chiech Hsu

Capturing the Home Country Conditions for Exporting SMEs: Scale Development and Implications

A prevalent premise in the international strategic management literature is that country-specific institutional settings encode firms’ behavior and actions. Nonetheless, in international business research, the national settings in which companies act are typically operationalized on the basis of cultural conceptualization. Institutional theory claims that various aspects of a national environment are reflections of the institutional settings in a given country and thus provide a promising basis for the explanation of cross-national differences. Based on this approach, this research proposes a measure for institutional country profile relevant to exporting SMEs. The scale includes regulatory, cognitive, and normative dimensions and was developed based on an emic oriented study, namely 24 semi-directive interviews with French and Romanian SME managers, as well as on a complementary literature review. By means of an etic study, the scale was furthermore tested on a sample of 107 French export managers, and respectively 106 Chinese exporting SMEs from various industries.

Raluca Mogos Descotes, Bjorn Walliser, Hartmut H. Holzmüller, Xiaoling Guo

The Internet as a Context for the Generation and Dissemination of the Future’s Transnational/Global Culture: A Cultural Constructivist-Based Analysis

This paper analyzes the enhancing role that the Internet may have in the rapprochement of the values’ structures from those countries whose individuals make regular use of it in their communication and commercial exchanges. To do that, we propose a value transfer process from the online to the physical contexts. It is theoretically demonstrated that our main premises are plausible, if dynamic approaches to culture are considered. The Internet enhances the generation and dissemination of a worldwide transnational (consumer) culture. Our analysis and projections are based on the prism adopted by recent constructivist approaches to the study of culture; i.e., the Dynamic Constructivist Approach and the Social Constructivist Theory. This is the kind of approximation to the study of the cultural factor which recent international marketing reviews consider more adequate nowadays. So, the questions we discuss, our proposals, as well as the modern views of culture we base ourselves on, should be of interest to interest to international marketing specialists.

Francisco J. Martínez-López, Juan C. Gázquez-Abad, Carlos M. P. Sousa, Jorge Lengler

Marketing of Services across Cultures

Frontmatter

Communication in Service Contexts

This paper analyzes how the influence of native language use in service encounters varies among speakers of different languages. Studying speakers of four different languages for perceived importance of native language use in services, the results confirm that native language use influences consumers, but that its reasons differ between countries

Jonas Holmqvist

Vegas-Style Casinos in China: The Role of Customer Type and Gender on Casino Service Perceptions

This paper explores service perception differences in the casino setting among Chinese players. Based on a sample of casino leisure and hardcore players, the results show significant differences between the two types of patrons as well as significant gender-by-customer interaction. The findings extend the customer contact model and further our understanding in regard to the service quality perception.

IpKin Anthony Wong

Understanding Cross-Racial Consumer-to-Consumer Interaction Through Interracial Anxiety and Cross-Group Contact

Managing Consumer-to-Consumer Interaction (CCI) is an essential task for any service provider since the presence of other consumers within the same service setting may spoil or enhance one’s service experience. CCI becomes even more critical in multiracial societies as it implies the integration of consumers from different racial backgrounds. This study, through an experiment ran amongst South African white subjects, demonstrates the fundamental impact of perceived homophily, anxiety and cross-group contact on CCI and consumers’ experience. Specifically, this study confirms, within the field of marketing, Allport’s (1954) contact hypothesis and highlights its key influence on consumer behavior in a racially diverse marketplace.

Guillaume D. Johnson, Claudia H. Tiako Tchocothe, Sonya A. Grier

Business-to-Business Marketing across Cultures

Frontmatter

Emotions in Troubled Business-to-Business Relationships – A Finnish Perspective

Although b-to-b relationships have been studied for a number of years, the view has mostly been on the economic and social side of business, leaving the influence of emotions in the business life understudied. The situation in the area of consumer behaviour, services marketing, or advertising is completely different. Hence, it seems strange to think that emotional consumers could leave their emotions behind when working as managers or boundary spanners, although the ethos very much is that managers behave rationally and not emotionally.

Jaana Tähtinen

Product Management across Cultures: Selected Issues

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We Products Versus me Products: The Interdependt Self in the Adoption and use of Products

Understanding the effects of culture on the adoption and diffusion of new products is important for managers. Large multinational corporations such as Proctor and Gamble, Sony, and Nestle make a large percentage of their profits from overseas markets for their products. Many smaller firms also derive a large part of their income from international sales as well. The question of what types of products will be adopted by consumers in other cultures is of concern to these firms.

David Ackerman, Christina Chung

The Effect of Nonmusical Sound for Corporate Branding and Consumer Behavior

The effect of music has been the significant issue for marketing area. The topics include how music relates to sales and advertising in terms of tempo, pitch, and texture. However, little literature focuses on nonmusical sounds. Marketers need to appreciate sound as part of branding. The reason is that sound affects the way that consumers think and behave. Unlike many other human senses, sound is processed throughout the whole brain. For example, Intel is a good example for nonmusical sound which provides 3-seconds sound with every advertisement since 12 years ago. In addition, Fraedrich and King (1998) indicate the significance of nonmusical sounds for marketing implications with respect to sound elements, perception and interpretation. Audio signatures have the similar brand recognition and convey equal brand attributes as the visual brand identity alone (Cheskin Research). Thus, music and sound can help make or break a brand’s quest for authenticity and relevance (Lindstrom, 2005).

Wei-Lun Chang, Yen-Ting Chang

Pedagogical Topics (I)

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Model Based Marketing Teaching Framework using Web Technologies

In this paper we suggest that models are fast track vehicles for acquiring knowledge and should be central to developing a comprehensive teaching scheme. It uses models, largely accepted marketing metaphors. It also integrates model based decision support systems in order to reinforce learning and improve practice. A progressive, modular and object oriented simulation model building approach using up to date web technologies is presented. The impact of information and decision support use on students’ performance is experimentally tested.

Mihai Calciu

Relationship Quality: Illustrations of ‘Best’ and ‘Worst’

Research on RELQUAL-subjects have to a large extent applied ideas and frameworks provided by previous investigations without questioning or exploring the core of a relationship to develop an understanding of characteristics that describe well-functioning or deficient relationships. Still there is no consensus on how to define or measure relationship quality (Huntley, 2006; Skarmeas, Katsikeas, Spyropoulou and Salehi-Sangari, 2008; Athanasopoulou, 2009). The ‘relationship quality concept itself is still rather under-explored’ (Holmlund, 2008, p. 33), and more research is advocated that should focus on retail relationships, dyadic and qualitative studies ‘in order to get more detailed insights into the variables that affect the relationship quality in each context’ (Athanasopoulou, 2009, p. 604). Previous investigations have focused on the perceptions of one part of the business relationships, and mostly how the buyers conceive certain presumed relationship characteristics. On the one hand, this may provide an interesting and useful view of which factors are important to establish and develop a business relationship, since the buyer is in many cases the one that decides if he wishes or not to continue the relationship (Lages, Lancastre and Lages, 2008, p. 694). On the other hand, acquiring data based upon responses from only one part in a business relationship can lead to too narrow and biased a description of a well-functioning and/or deficient relationship, because both buyers and suppliers may have different opinions on what constitutes best and worst relationship quality.

Nils Høgevold, Tore Mysen, Göran Svensson

Consumer Behavior across Cultures (II)

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Cross Cultural Differences in Health Literacy and Consumers’ Empowered Engagement in the Management of Health

Perhaps no other area of human consumption offers more promise for transformative consumer welfare and, at the same time, presents more challenges for achieving it than consumers’ engagement in medical decisions that directly affect their health (Herzlinger 2006; Berenson 2005; Enthoven 2004). Consumers, even those who are literate by conventional standards of education and communication, are often functionally illiterate as they generally lack sufficient specialized knowledge to autonomously select medical professionals or evaluate medical advice (McCray 2005).

Rama K. Jayanti, Michael Wachter

Special Session: trust in exchange dyads

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Ethical Judgments by Salespeople and the Impact on between Salespersons and Sales Managers in the Modern Sales Environment

Trust is a core requirement in any successful relationship between salespeople and their supervisors. Trust in a supervisor has found as an antecedent of job satisfaction and turnover intention. It enables cooperative behavior, reduces conflict, and trust in a supervisor is positively related to perceptions of fairness. When salespersons have trust in a supervisor, it has been found to be a mediating factor in the impact of an ethical climate on salespersons attitudes. In times of change, salespeople with a greater trust in the sales manager are generally more accepting of anticipated changes.

G. David Shows, Kevin James

Pedagogical Topics (II)

Frontmatter

Internationalising the French Education Paradigm

A major and relatively recent concern for French business schools is how they are perceived in an increasingly competitive global education market and how to attract more foreign students into their classrooms. The internationalisation of these schools has become a priority that requires careful planning and strategisation.

Jennifer Takhar, Sylvie Lacoste

Global Brands and Brand Equity

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Rock on! Factors Influencing the Brand Equity of the International Comeback Rock Groups

The global industry of popular music has generated more than $ 18 billion in 2008 (IPI, 2008). These revenues come primarily from the sale of music (on physical media and digital) and show tickets. Artists are at the heart of this activity. If the technology leads to adverse effects (e.g. illegal downloading), it can also propel almost anybody to international stardom. The recent cases of Paul Potts and Susan Boyle, contestants of the TV show Britain’s Got Talent and internationally mediated through social media, are clear examples. Conversely, the leading bands and performers of previous decades continue to be a part of everyday audiophile. This applies, for example to dead stars (eg, Elvis Presley, James Brown, John Lennon) and to those who have decided to withdraw from the spotlight (e.g. Tina Turner, Simon and Garfunkel, ABBA). Although the place of marketing in music is debated (Kubacki & Croft, 2004), it is clear that major music bands of international fame such as The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Pink Floyd, are SMEs generating millions in revenues each year. These bands are commercial brands. These groups, and others, have a presumed strong brand equity. The Rockband phenomenon (e.g. video games) for instance, thrives on these brands and help them expand promoting these groups towards younger fans who would have otherwise ignored the existence of these groups.

François Marticotte, Damien Hallegatte

H. Stern: Becoming an International Luxury Brand

The objective of this study is to analyze the internationalization process and the branding practices of global multinational company (MNs) that has operations in the luxury goods field, specifically those with origins in developing countries like Brasil. Branding is understood to mean the process by which an organization constantly questions itself with regards to its identity, so that it can develop in a competitive and innovative manner. Branding can also be defined, according to Schultz (2005), as the relation between the origin of the organization and the daily practices of its members (culture in organization); where top management wants to go (strategic vision); how the organization is seen by its stakeholders (image); all aligned with the way in which the functional body perceives the organization to be (identity).

José Coelho de Andrade Albino, Alexandre de Pádua Carrieri, Ana Luisa Castro Almeida, Felipe Jurdi Guimarães, Bruna Mota Machado Gomes, Adalberto Ribeiro de Oliveira

From Local to Global: Brand Replacement from a Consumer’s Perspective

In recent years, an increasing number of companies have been trying to optimise their portfolio and globalise their brand in the belief that they will gain financial reward. This strategy often leads to the replacement of richly valued local brands in favour of global brands. However, local brands have a home-field advantage because they are more familiar, have a strong relationship with their consumers and therefore are entrenched in the local culture. Therefore, brand switch implies an important change in the relationship with the consumer (satisfaction, commitment, trust and loyalty) which can cause financial risk (loss of market share and sales). Despite its growing presence, branding in an international context and more specifically brand name change strategy have received limited research attention. The objective of this research is to understand the consumers’ reactions to the replacement of their local brand. By identifying the transfer of values from the abandoned brand to the new brand, we will analyse whether the image of the global brand remains similar abroad or if it gains values from the local brand. A longitudinal methodology was used (over 3 years) to observe the replacement of a beloved local brand (Marie Thumas) with the global brand (Bonduelle). A qualitative study enabled us to identify the associations which consumers link to both brands and understand better their relationship with the local brand. It was discovered that the brand was part of the national culture and its origin was a significant driver of purchase and attachment which could obviously jeopardise the success of the brand switch. Therefore, we have identified key elements to drive the brand change strategy (information on the replacement, attachment to the local brand, acceptance of the replacement, perceived quality, awareness and recognition). To understand the processes involved in the transfer of values, we based our research on Michel’s (1998) theory, which illustrates how the central core and the peripheral system may evolve in a brand extension or co-branding context. The results of our study indicate that the associations linked to the local brand were progressively transferred to the global brand and vice versa. The transfer concerned functional as well as symbolic values. Consequently, the image of the global brand may change slightly due to some associations from the local brand being integrated into its representation which seems to increase local acceptance. Besides, the relationship between consumers and the replaced brand (attachment, usage habits) plays a moderating role in the transfer of values. Finally, this study contributes to the proposal of key success factors for brand replacement from a consumer perspective and illustrates that even if consumers accept global brands, they will never forget their local brands!

Véronique Pauwels Delassus

Country-of-Origin and E-Loyalty

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E-Loyalty: Its Antecedents, Implications and Differences between Developed and Developing Countries

This paper outlines the reasons for and the proposed method to be used in an examination of the antecedents affecting e-loyalty, since loyalty has been identified as being a critical aspect in online retailing (J. Kim, Jin, & Swinder, 2009; Park & Kim, 2003). The relationships between e-Service Quality, e-Service Value, e-Security, e-Satisfaction, e-Trust, and e-Commitment will also be examined in the overall model of e-Loyalty that is developed in this paper.

Ponirin, Donald Scott, Tania Von Der Heidt

Professional Topics

Frontmatter

Minding the Marketplace: Protection and Enforcement of the Marks that Matter through Alternative Dispute Resolution

The Internet has come to represent an enormous marketplace and alternative to traditional bricks and mortar establishments as well as virtual-only vendors. Though such a marketplace presents marketers with virtually unlimited access to millions of potential customers, it is nevertheless on a daily basis, the venue of choice for the unmitigated theft of highly prized, multi-billion dollar intellectual property. This theft is evidenced by the hijacking of corporate/trademark owner’s Internet domain names, (DN) by those who seek to profit from the misappropriation and re-selling of such names. For owners of corporate/trademark brands, the theft is untenable because consumers become confused, the property’s secondary meanings are lost and revenues can be compromised. It is important that students of marketing become familiar with domain name hijacking and the various means used by organizations today to combat this growing problem. Because litigation is time-consuming and costly it is also vital that marketing students become familiar with the increasing use non-judicial options, commonly referred to as alternative-dispute resolution, (ADR). ADR can be an important tool for both organizations and celebrities interested in protecting their brands without the cost, complexity and notoriety that can accompany public trials.

Diane Martin

Special Session: International Cultural Issues in Pricing Strategy

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Cross Cultural Complaint Behavior Due to a Price Increase

This study tests the differences in complaint behavior due to a price increase among consumers in Brazil, China, Germany, and the United States. The results indicate that when a price is increased, complaint behavior varies due to the relative power of the seller, the stage of development of the country, and the buyers’ perception of their own affluence. An increase in complaint behavior was found to be associated with a higher level of development and consumer power: respondents in the transition economies of Brazil and China were not likely to complain. Germans were an anomaly because, despite being a developed country in which the consumer has considerable power, they were still loath to complain. In addition, in all four countries, those respondents who felt they were relatively affluent were more likely to accept a price increase without complaining.

Sarah Maxwell, Larry King, Sabine Anselstetter, Carla Montenegro, Nicholas Maxwell

Psychological and Cultural Factors in the use of Just-Below Pricing

Just-below pricing is the practice of setting a price so that it falls just below a round number, such as setting a price at $29.99 to fall just below $30.00. There is considerable evidence, both systematic and anecdotal, that just-below pricing is used, at least to some degree, in most of the world’s nations and cultures. However, there are also interesting cultural differences in how this retail pricing technique is used.

Robert M. Schindler

The Feed-In Tariff as a Pricing Mechanism for Residential Solar Panel Installations: Germany vs. The USA

Foreign oil dependence and emissions of air pollutants could be decrease in oil-importing nations with increased sales and installations of residential solar panels. Solar energy can be captured in almost any climate, is not exhaustible and is relatively predictable (Johnson 2009). Germany has been using solar power for decades in spite of the relative lack of direct sunlight in Germany in contrast to parts of the United States (Johnson 2009). Countries that lead in adopting alternative energy sources, such as Germany, economically compensate homeowners for producing energy beyond what is required for consumption in their homes, providing between a $0.3194 and $0.4301feed-in tariff. Feed-in tariffs provide an incentive based on the amount of solar energy produced and are given per kWh. This investment in each homeowner by the government enables an investment that turns profitable as the above-market rates of energy are paid to the homeowners. Governmental assistance allows this industry to flourish in Germany; some of the same programs are being test piloted in the United States. Photovoltaic cells now have a life cycle of about 30 years, far above previous generations that allows wider distribution and application to consumers (Perpiñan et al. 2009).

Scott Owen, Lynn R. Kahle

Cross-Cultural Integrated Marketing Communications

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When Less is More: A Comparative Study on Advertising Avoidance

The main goal of the paper is to understand attitudes toward advertising in Europe, using representative consumer surveys conducted in EU countries. The study is informed by two large consumer national surveys conducted in Spain and Romania using a multi-stage random sampling method. In both observed countries the sampling frame was represented by the adult population living in urban areas.

Dan Petrovici, Cristina Etayo

The Role of Technology in Changing the Arab Culture

“Culture is communication and communication is culture,” as Hall (1976) reminds us. The influence of culture on communication has been studied extensively with programs all over the country offering courses and degrees in the field. Intercultural communication is examined in a variety of contexts from business to politics. Consultants specialize in training people in intercultural communication to facilitate communication. Intercultural communication examines the influence of cultural values on communication. For example, the way people communicate in a high context culture will be different than those in a low context culture with the latter adopting a more direct, explicit approach. Another example would be the difference in communication between countries that emphasize fatalism and those that do not. In the Arab world, where fatalism is a very strong cultural value, it is very common to hear people say “In Sha’ Allah,” which translates into “if God wills.”

Salma Ghanem, Morris Kalliny, Siham Elgoul

Culture and Brand Personality

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Which Personality Traits are Promoted by Managers? the Brand Personality of National and International Brands from the Supply Side

Brand personality is one of the most debated concepts in the field of brand management since the pioneer study by Aaker (1997). Some consider it as an important component of brand equity (Keller & Lehmann, 2006) via the “brand association” dimension. The associations are based, in parts, on exposures to communications (Yoo, Donthu and Lee, 2000) and thus, images and messages promoted by firms.

François Marticotte

Brand Personality and Consumer-Based Brand Equity: A Study among Polish Consumers

The aim of the research reported here was to examine thoroughly the relationship between brand personality and brand equity as perceived by consumers. 520 persons aged between 16 and 79 took part in the study. 240 brands belonging to 48 categories were selected for the study on the basis of a survey concerning their recognition. Canonical correlation analysis indicated a connection between the dimensions of brand personality and brand equity. The core of this connection is the consumer-perceived brand quality. Product category turned out to be a moderator of the relationship between brand equity and brand personality.

Oleg Gorbaniuk, Tomasz Sokolowski, Eliana Markowska, Kamila Czajka, Adriana Mielczarek

Capturing Retail/Service Personality across Service Contexts

Marketing and consumer researchers are long familiar with the retail personality concept (Martineau 1958). Retail personality implies that stores and retail brands take on and can be described using human like traits (Darden and Babin 1994). Just as two individual consumers may have similar physical attributes, their personalities can differ. In the U.S.A., the contrast between the Wal-Mart and Target personality illustrates the point. In France, Carrefour shopper is as different from a Leclerc shopper as Carrefour is from Leclerc. This research addresses the generalizability of the retail personality concept and proposes a way of operationalizing the construct that generalizes across service contexts, not just retail brands.

Nathalie Spielmann, Barry J. Babin

Some Important Effects of Globalization on Advertising and the Advertising Industry in French Speaking Nations

Frontmatter

The Influence of Organizational Culture on Advertising Agencies: The Case of the French Advertising Industry

Using semi-directed interviews of managers of French subsidiaries of multinational advertising agencies, this study sought to examine the influence of the organizational culture of a firm on (1) the operation of the advertising agency, (2) its impact on the content of the advertising messages and campaigns produced by these agencies and (3) to explore the function of these values on consumer choices.

Olivier Zbirou, Roy Toffoli, Benoit Cordelier, Pauline Breduillieard

The Attitude of Tunisian Consumers Towards Comparative Advertising

This research examines the reactions and attitudes of Tunisian consumers towards several forms of comparative advertisements (CA), specifically, direct comparative ads (DCA), indirect comparative ads (ICA), and two-sided comparative ads (TSCA). Although DCA are illegal in Tunisia, ICA are permitted. However, the use of the latter is still very limited. A number of hypotheses are advanced and tested in order to ascertain the persuasiveness of these three types of CA with respect to non comparative ads (NCA).

Wafa Hassainya, Roy Toffoli

Consumer Behavior across Cultures (IV)

Frontmatter

Globalization, Identity, Culture and Consumer Behavior: A Cross-Cultural Study of Chilean and Canadian Consumers

Alongside the changes characterizing the economic and political environments, globalization is also affecting the social and cultural landscapes of peoples worldwide. For international marketers, a critical yet under researched topic concerns the effects of globalization on culture and ensuing consumer behavior. Multinational corporations are challenged to efficiently institute a marketing orientation across different cultures, and this might entail the identification of within-country segments (vertical segmentation), and possibly, the detection of between-country segments (horizontal segmentation) that can be served with a similar marketing strategy. To effectively do so, it is crucial to first discern which consumption behaviors are most likely candidates for convergence worldwide, which are possibly diverging, and which entail novel behaviors resulting from the transmutation of global and local cultural forces. For a marketing strategy to successfully appeal to target consumers, product attributes need to be harmonized with consumer attitudes and values, the latter of which are largely shaped by culture.

Mark Cleveland, José I. Rojas-Méndez, Michel Laroche, Nicolas Papadopoulos

Understanding “Ostalgie” and Social Connectedness in the Former German Democratic Republic: A Consumer Perspective

In 1989, the former East Germany (or GDR) went through dramatic political, economic, and social changes with influence to the consumer. Despite the GDR’s complex transfer nearly 20 years ago, it provides a rare opportunity to explore how new consumption patterns affect people’s social relationships. One useful construct for studying consumers’ social relationships is social connectedness, which is the subjective awareness of interpersonal closeness with the social world (Lee and Robbins, 1998). The social world includes proximal and distal relationships with family, friends, peers, acquaintances, strangers, community, and society as a whole (Lee and Robbins 1995, 1998, 2000). Consumers' feelings of social connectedness are quite powerful and can be used to measure one of the most fundamental higher order needs-the need of belonging (Baumeister and Leary 1995; Kohut 1984, Lee and Robbins 1995, 2000, Maslow 1970). Published consumer research studies on transitional societies have focused on consumer relationships with brands rather than on the social implications of changing consumption patterns (Coulter et al. 2003; Feick et al. 1995). Additional research has examined consumers’ connectedness within the realms of brand communities where brands take center stage for personal interaction (e.g. Algesheimer et al. 2005; Belk and Tumbat 2005; Kozinets 1999; Muniz and Schau 2005; Schouten and McAlexander 1995). While brand communities manifest the degree of connectedness between the consumer and the brand (Ouwersloot and Odekerken-Schröder 2008), this research recognizes that the construct of social connectedness exists independent of brands, and views social connectedness as a psychological construct that recognizes the fact that community is only one aspect of the social world (family, friends, acquaintances, strangers, and society also comprise the social world).

Marco Wolf, Dennis Kopf, Pia A. Albinsson

Marketing Education across Cultures

Frontmatter

Culture, Generational Membership and Perceptions of Educational Excellence: Counterintuitive Implications for Marketing Education across Cultures

Universities are increasingly teaching and marketing to students from diverse cultural backgrounds, which have implications for teaching marketing and the marketing of education. This study explored whether business students’ culturally-anchored values have a greater affect on educational excellence than their demographic characteristics, and this was supported.

Ann Mitsis, Patrick Foley

Six Degrees of Separation: A Review of Guiding Principles in Sustainable Marketing Education

What do our students see each time we begin a class session with them? All of us, as educators, at some point have probably wondered about this. All of us are likely concerned with providing our students with an optimal teaching and learning environment, and most likely have done our best to be a “good” teacher. As such, there is a different ‘mix’ for each of us. Different classes and disciplines may dictate the structure and approach used in the ‘classroom’, from one semester to the next. Given this, most may agree that each semester we are new teachers, and hopefully better teachers.

Reginald G. Sheppard, Pia A. Albinsson

Do Online Learning Tools have the Same Influence on Learning between Different Cultural Groups?

Australian higher education in terms of numbers of students has expanded rapidly since the 1980’s reforms. A key characteristic of this expansion has been the disproportionate increase in students from overseas (typically English as second language backgrounds). In addition to this expansion and partly as a response to the huge increases in student numbers, many Australian universities have introduced online learning tools on dedicated course websites. Some of these tools include online materials (lectures-slides, audio and video, tutorials, solutions etc), self assessment tests, discussion boards, mail facilities, chat rooms and relevant external site links. Although there has been research on the difference in learning between cultural groups and some research on the effectiveness of online tools on learning outcomes there is very little research on the effectiveness of online tools between different cultural groups. Cultural background and learning styles may influence the effectiveness of online tools leading to a possible distortion of student learning. Since online materials and tools are becoming an ever increasing part of teaching and learning strategies, it is important that teachers understand if usage differs among different groups, which specific tools are being used differently and whether the effectiveness of these tools is similar between groups. Data from a few business related courses at an Australian university has been collected and student online activity and student learning and performance outcomes have been measured. Using regression and logistic regression analysis of the relevant online usage and performance data, preliminary results seem to indicate a difference in usage and effectiveness of online tools among different cultural groups. The findings may be useful as decision input into evaluations of teaching and learning strategies and removing learning biases to ensure a level playing field between various cultural groups.

Con Korkofingas

Consumer Behavior across Cultures (III)

Frontmatter

Marketing to 50+ Generations: An Overview of E-Behaviour in the UK and France

Academic recognition of the importance of 50+ consumers has been slow to progress. An article in the Harvard Business Review in 1980 (Bartos) was the first publication in the US that redefined this market both in terms of size and buying power. What is more, today’s statistics indicate quite clearly that the number of the 50+ generations using the Internet on a global scale is steadily increasing. In this article, the authors discuss the financial importance of the 50+ generations in the UK and France and the challenge that lies ahead for marketers in successfully impacting this target group. One of the central questions of this article is how best this group should be targeted in these two countries. The authors show the criticality of segmenting target markets (for instance by nationality and gender) in order to fully understand their needs and preferences. Using an interactionist conceptual framework, which advocates dovetailing the message to the needs and demands of the target audience, the paper shows the shortfalls in the segmentation of the 50+ age groups and explores possibilities for future research. The latter should address four priority areas: (i) the preferences of the 50+ segments; (ii) the impact of nationality; (iii) the role of gender and (iv) the role of cognitive age.

Gloria Moss, Catharina Wulf, Hilary Mullen

Impact of Media Celebrities on Geny Fashionistas in China

Based on prior research in which we identified four major sources of fashion information among Chinese women (fashion magazines, fashion advertising, celebrities, and the Internet), this study targeted young Chinese women with high interest in fashion (fashionistas) in an effort to determine which of the four was most influential. Subjects (n=388) were solicited through China’s largest publisher of fashion magazines and were from cities across China. Using an Internet survey, it was determined that celebrity influence was significantly greater (p<.000) than the other three purveyors of fashion information. The study has implications for international and Chinese marketers of fashion-forward products.

Karen Kaigler-Walker, Zelda L. Gilbert, Wendy Kay Bendoni

Social, Complaining and Not-for-Profit Marketing

Frontmatter

The Commercialisation of Charities – Developing or Destroying the Brand?

In today’s increasingly competitive markets not for profit organisations are campaigning more aggressively to retain their market share, their position and presence in consumer’s minds. As marketing campaigns reach new heights the consumer is faced with a plethora of organisations to potentially affiliate with and donate to. The not for profit organisation is being forced to become more commercialised and more competitive but is that to its own detriment?

Yasmin K. Sekhon, Teck-Yong Eng, Gordon Liu

Franchise Expansion into International Markets: The Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation and Knowledge Resources

Globalization and emerging markets worldwide create tremendous international expansion opportunities for erstwhile domestic franchisors. Surveys among franchisors reveal that a vast proportion of franchise systems already are expanding or hoping to expand internationally. Food service firms from the United States, such as McDonald’s, Pizza Hut, Subway, Starbucks, and KFC, have been prominent in taking advantage of international opportunities and vastly expanding their scale of operations in multiple markets. Academic franchising research has also issued calls for further understanding of franchise internationalization. Despite these developments, there is still a need for comprehensive frameworks to guide research and practice. We review and integrate literature from international business, entrepreneurship, and franchising to develop a framework of franchise internationalization. The proposed framework links entrepreneurial orientation and the market knowledge resources of both the franchisor and franchisee to franchise internationalization and performance.

Gopalkrishnan R. Iyer, Dhruv Grewal, Rajshekar Javalgi, Lori Radulovich

Travel and Tourism Marketing (I)

Frontmatter

Underlying Motivations for Attending Soccer Games

As an exploratory study, the goal of this research is to identify the underlying motivations for attending soccer games. Most previous research studies dealt with motivations in attending sports in general whereas we specifically focus and develop scales for attending soccer games. An attempt is also made to predict attendance in soccer games. The results indicate that there are three major motivations, emotional excitement, socialization, and sports environment for attending soccer games.

Fahri Karakaya, Peter Yannopoulos, Margarita Kefalaki

An Explanation of Elderly Tourist Decisions on Travelling to Risky Destinations

Drawing on Sosioemotional Selectivity Theory, this paper conceptually discusses how higher level of emotional well-being can lead older tourists to visit risky destinations. Studies have shown that older adults usually experience more positive moods, moreover there is a greater possibility for people in a positive mood to take risk. Consequently, one can conclude that older tourists are more likely to underestimate the level of risk attributed to a specific destination.

Azadeh Kazeminia, Ali Kazeminia, Roghiye Rostami

Motivation and Satisfaction of Chinese Tourists in Korea

This study showed that the levels of satisfaction on destination traits, cost-value offerings, lodging, and dining had positive effects on the overall satisfaction of Chinese tourists travelling in Korea. It was also found that the relationship patterns varied across tourist groups with different motivations.

Jonghoon Kim, Qing Hua Shan

Travel and Tourism Marketing (II)

Frontmatter

Beyond Place Sharing, The Shopping Experience of Tourists and Natives: The Case of the Medina of Sousse

The marketing literature abounds on the importance of environment and atmospheric variables in the consumer shopping experience. Moreover, numerous authors underline the importance of the individual differences, in particular the influence of shopping motivations. Yüksel (2004, 2007) and Hsieh and Chang (2006) specify that the motivations of a tourist to frequent a trading place are often multiple; besides an utilitarian shopping motivations, they can include, learning of the local traditions, search of sensory stimulation or the simple fact of escaping the daily routine.

Mohammed Slim Ben Mimoun, Mélanie Ouvry, Ingrid Poncin

Culture and Marketing Strategy

Frontmatter

From Eastern Dawn to Nothern Lights: A Comparative Analysis of CSR Implementation Practices across Europe

While Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been a subject of discussion in business and academia in North America for quite a while, the questions pertaining to business and society relationships have only fairly recently started to be thoroughly examined and dealt with under a CSR lens per se in other geographical and institutional contexts around the world. European actors in particular only took hold of the concept in the last two decades. CSR nevertheless rapidly gained unprecedented momentum within European industry, politics and academia (Matten and Moon, 2004), to the extent that CSR is now widely seen as “an idea whose time has come in Europe” (Wolf, 2002).

François Maon, Valérie Swaen

Perceived Environmental Uncertainty, Market-Orientation Strategy, and Organizational Structure in South Korean Apparel Retail Stores

The research objectives were to investigate effects of perceived environmental uncertainty on South Korean apparel retailers’ market-orientation strategies (MOS) and organizational structure, along with the effects of organizational structure on MOS. These retailers were found to be implementing MOS to some extent under fairly formalized, centralized, and specialized organizational structures.

Eun Jin Hwang, Marjorie J. T. Norton

The Design of a Methodology to Develop Competitive Rural Tourism Products and their Implementation in the Municipalities of Colima and Comala, Mexico

This paper shows the methodological developments of the research project titled:

The Design of a Methodology to Develop Competitive Rural Tourism Products and their Implementation in the Municipalities of Colima and Comala, Mexico

. The purpose of this investigation is to design a prototype model that will help one to better understand the current situation of two rural touristic products that have been selected through the methodology proposed in this paper.

Irma Magaña Carrillo, Ernesto Manuel Conde Pérez
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