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Über dieses Buch

This book covers the entire spectrum of cultural and digital tourism and presents the latest findings, examples and cases, highlighting innovations for the tourism industry from both an academic and a practical point of view. The book invites readers to discover ongoing developments and recent trends in fields like heritage and museum management; sports tourism; tourism economics and policy; e-marketing and e-business; and many other fields, making it of value to researchers in tourism management, practitioners and policymakers alike. The book was edited in collaboration with the International Association of Cultural and Digital Tourism - IACuDiT - and includes the proceedings of the First International Conference on Cultural and Digital Tourism.



Consumers’ View on Today’s Tourism Industry


The Views of Greek Mountain Travelers on Mountain Tourism During Summertime: A Questionnaire Web-Based Analysis

Almost 78 % of Greece is mountainous, with uniquely beautiful landscapes, rich culture and warm hospitality. Local wintertime tourism, which has traditionally been a strong pillar for the economies of mountainous areas, could decrease significantly in the future, due to economic crisis, but also due to decreased snow coverage according to the predicted climate trends for the coming years. This paper is based on the idea to address the crisis in the mountainous areas of Greece, and ski destinations in particular, by an all-year model of operation that could alleviate seasonality (at least in part) and yield important social and financial benefits for the local communities. Our thesis is motivated by successful summer-tourism practices of ski centers around the word. Are Greek people actually willing to visit ski destinations after the short ski season, and if so what are their preferences on possible activities, services and facilities in ski centers (assuming they would operate all year long)? To answer such questions, we created a self-administered, web-based questionnaire that was circulated to the public via e-mail and social media for a period of one month. About 460 people, most of them fans of the Greek mountains, completed the questionnaire. We present and discuss data collected and analyzed, focusing on the participants’ preferences on possible activities, services and organizational aspects of mountain tourism during summertime.

Natali Dologlou, Vaios Kotsios

Preferences and Behaviors of the Elder People Resting in Valuable Natural Areas

The purpose of this paper is to introduce results of the research about preferences and behaviors of the elder people, resting in natural valuable areas. Thus, in the article the profile of an average senior, sightseeing valuable natural areas, was presented and such aspects like motives for choosing this form of tourism (as well as the particular offer), tourists’ use of sources of information concerning accommodation, preferred ways of spending leisure time and expectations about diversification and improvement of the offer were discussed. Finally, the analysis of factors implicating surveyed tourists’ behaviors and expectations (like level of education and financial status) was made.

The research with use of the polling technique was made in summer of 2013 and included 45 participants (tourists) in age of 55 or higher, resting in rural accommodation objects near Kampinos National Park.

Identification of preferences and behaviors of people resting in valuable natural areas is crucial to the improvement and adaptation of tourist accommodation offer to the level expected by particular market segments. Such research is also important for authorities of the local communities, as well as people planning touristic and recreational development in valuable natural areas. Previous research was rarely focused on particular age groups, what seems to be vital in such case, because youths, families with babies or seniors have completely different expectations regarding their holidays.

Jan Zawadka

Interrelationships of Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction, Corporate Image and Customer Loyalty of Malaysian Hotel Industry

Hoteliers strive to win guests and subsequently retain them by trying to understand the factors that influence customer decision making toward hotel selection. Studies have found that there are several factors that might give hotel leverage over the rest in the industry, namely service quality, customer satisfaction, corporate image and customer loyalty. Hence, hotel operators need to be updated about the current and future trends of the ever-evolving hotel industry to effectively meet the demands and needs of highly sophisticated hotel guests. To have a competitive edge in the hotel industry, operators have to be innovative and creative in providing service elements that exceed the hotel guests’ expectations; so that both of their perception of service quality and level of satisfaction would translate into a favourable corporate image and strengthen customer loyalty.

This research proposed a model to test the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction, and their impact on corporate image. This research also examines the mediating role of customer satisfaction on the relationship between service quality and corporate image; and how corporate image subsequently affects customer loyalty in the hotel industry in Malaysia. Systematic sampling approach was adopted in the study; with the data collected through self-administered questionnaire from 300 hotel guests. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was adopted to analyse the reliability of items and the hypothesised relationships in the proposed research model.

The findings revealed that perception of service quality is significantly related to customer satisfaction; and both service quality and customer satisfaction have significant impacts on corporate image. Besides, customer satisfaction is found to be a partial mediator on the relationship between service quality and corporate image. In addition, corporate image has a significance direct influence on customer loyalty customer loyalty in the hotel industry.

Overall, the findings of this research contribute to several fields of study relating to the objectives. In terms of theoretical contribution, this research seeks to underpin the development of the marketing management theory and service quality strategies in the hotel industry in Malaysia. For managerial contribution, this research will determine aspects of hotel services which are important to customers, and to suggest ways to improve the hotel service quality, customer satisfaction, corporate image and customer loyalty. At the same time, to address practical implications by recommending relevant and effective micro-marketing strategies for the hotel industry in Malaysia. The knowledge and input are essential for hotel operators to boost long term business growth and sustainability in the hotel industry in Malaysia.

In spite of the noteworthy findings revealed by this study, there were certain limitations. The current studies did not examine other variables such as perceived values and employee performance that may influence corporate image and customer loyalty. Future studies should include these variables to obtain more comprehensive findings. Besides, the use of close-ended questions in the questionnaire may limit the respondents to reflect their real opinions and perceptions. For this reason, later studies should use open-ended questions to better access their feelings on the issues.

Boon Liat Cheng, Zabid Abdul Rashid

Egyptian Tourism with the Expected Water Scarcity Crisis

Water stewardship, water stress and availability have become increasingly important planning and development considerations for the tourism industry world-wide. Nowadays, Water issues are receiving significant attention from governments, the private sector, and civil society. Ever-increasing demand for water coupled with the effects of climate change, is escalating pressure on water resources in most parts of the world, including in many coastal and island tourism destinations. This paper discusses the aspects of international efforts to organize the relationship between tourism and water, concentrating on the expected role of Egyptian tourism industry in water management through discussing water resources, consumption in Egypt, especially with the challenges like the Ethiopian Renaissance Dam.

Sameh A. Refaat

The Concept of Classification of Tourist Motivation Factors

The authors of the paper puts forward a thesis according to which tourist motivation are affected by basically deferent factors which occur in the tourist market place. These factors are referred to as motivators which, when they occur, lead to satisfaction, hygiene factors which, when they do not occur, lead to dissatisfaction, and demotivators which, when they occur, lead to dissatisfaction. They may have a simultaneous impact on humans (tourists). The presented concept of the trichotomy of motivating factors in the tourist motivation is a creative development of Herzberg’s two-factor theory—the author proposes a more detailed definition of the above factors and extends the area of research by including demotivators in the analysis.

L. A. Koziol, R. W. Pyrek

Cultural Tourism Today


Art in the Globalised Era: A Disembodied Journey with Traces in the Past

In this paper we explore the nature of art in the globalised, post-modernist era, an era paradoxically combining unity and fragmentation. In doing so, we postulate a working hypothesis to the effect that a journey involves the potential of an experience that requires some kind of bodily presence, in our case, the ‘body’ of the work of art or/and that of the viewer/interactant, and entails reminiscence bound up with the spatiotemporal coordinates of the experience. Digital art, we argue, globally accessible via the Web and determined by the medium it employs, denies itself this bodily presence and, by annihilating time and space boundaries and allowing its numerous, simultaneous viewers/interactants to engulf it in Benjamin’s (The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction. In W. Benjamin


, pp. 217–51, Schocken Books, 1936/1968) terms, marks a radical change in the journey requirements referred to above. In the absence of a body, the distance between the work of art and the viewer is gone and the immersion that follows (see Polimeris,

Digital Future and Art: Institutional Management Perspectives


Ψηφιακό Μέλλον και Τέχνη: Προοπτικές θεσμικής διαχείρισης

), Unpublished PhD dissertation, Athens, The Panteion University, 2011) results in loss of the spatiotemporal dimension and reminiscence. The digital or digitalized work of art somehow needs to ‘pay’ for its universal accessibility by becoming impossible to pin down and, thus, ever-elusive. Like the globalised era it is mostly a child of, it paradoxically combines immediacy and timelessness, lethe. Yet, as we go on to show, like the globalised era, the phenomenon can trace its roots back in times bygone.

Spiros Polimeris, Christine Calfoglou

Russian Artistic Gymnastics as a Sports Tourism Product: Some Observations and a Research Agenda

Tourism and its importance to the Russian Federation are very much in the headlines at present. Considering the huge investment made in facilities for the Winter Olympics, the building of new sports facilities for such mega events as the Football World Cup, and the status of St Petersburg as a candidate city for the 2028 Olympics, it is clear that Russia has long term plans to attract visitors to their sporting events. The purpose of this paper is to develop a research agenda to explore the potential of artistic gymnastics, a sport in which the Russian Federation has excelled for many years, as an agent of tourism development.

The paper will take a case study approach, considering the nature of fandom and identifying features of artistic gymnastics as cultural heritage and sports tourism product. The national and international environment within which it is set are examined, prior to the development of a research agenda. A detailed review of literature on the historic, current and emerging trends in Russian artistic gymnastics; the place of artistic gymnastics in tourism development and sports tourism in Russia will be carried out.

The paper’s findings will include considerations of

The nature of gymnastics fandom, both in Russia and internationally

The nature of sports tourism development in the Russian Federation

The nature of gymnastics as a sport and its competition cycle

Artistic gymnastics as cultural heritage, and its potential as an autonomous means of promoting Russian national identity

The relationship between Russia’s sometimes fading gymnastics competition results, and its potential to leverage the sport for tourism interest

The potential for tourism product development linked to artistic gymnastics in the Russian Federation.

The paper contributes to the literature on the nature of sports tourism as it relates to artistic gymnastics in the Russian Federation in particular.

Elizabeth Booth, Jithendran Kokkranikal, Olga Burukina

Greek Museums on the Web

Information offered through museums websites may serve as a means to expand their reach and increase the likelihood of a visit. The paper aims at investing quantity and type of information provided by Greek museum websites. The recorded information features were divided in six dimensions according to their thematic similarity: Contact-Communication, Visit the museum, The museum, Education, Website features and Use of social media. Museums ‘thematics’ is taken into consideration. Greek museums make limited use of the web and do not take advantage of the possibilities offered. The majority of Greek museums use their websites like brochures as ‘Contact- Communication’ and ‘visit to the museum’ are the information richest dimensions. Museum ‘thematics’ have impact only on the information provided on ‘Content-Communication’ and ‘The museum’ dimensions. Impact of other managerial characteristics of the museums on provision of information features should be further investigated.

V. Vrana, D. M. Nerantzaki, D. Paschaloudis

Rose and Olive Heritage in Bulgaria and Greece: A Comparative Study

Roses and olives have been considered important symbols for Bulgarian and Greek culture and identity from antiquity to the present day. Although previously seen mainly from the point of view of agriculture, roses and olives have been redefined as a unique form of both tangible and intangible cultural heritage with multiple values, and as a resource with various areas of use (cultural, economic, social and political), upon which extensive activities and industries have been constructed. In addition to the historically strong record of various cultural uses they had in symbols, rituals, traditional folklore, arts, crafts, events and festivals, at present, the growing synergy with tourism stands out as an approach that could enhance their fundamental values even further as an important catalyst of a sustainability-aimed socio-economic development. The comparative analysis of cultural heritage policies in the case of continuing, productive and living landscapes as the Rose Valley cultural landscape in Bulgaria and the Olive Groves cultural landscape in Greece aims to encourage landscape conservation by providing cross-case landscape definitions, history of formation, cultural significance, preservation and governance systems, as well as initiated projects for sustainable use and development. Possible interactive synergies will be outlined by referring both to the theory and practice of the interrelated fields of cultural heritage conservation, tourism and sustainable development.

Vesselin Loulanski, Tolina Loulanski

Promotion of Cultural Heritage Tourism in Chokhatauri District in Georgia

Cultural heritage is unique and irreplaceable, which places the responsibility of preservation on the current generation, it has a long history, and with its roots in the Grand Tour is arguably the original form of tourism, cultural heritage is keeping traditions alive and is an expression of the ways of living developed by a community and passed on from generation to generation, including customs, practices, places, objects, artistic expressions and values, without it we will lose our main source of self-expression and in the end our self-realization.

Eka Devidze, Lali Gigauri

Application of a Cultural Landscape Tourism Marketing Management Approach in a Mountainous Area

This article identifies the significance of ecotourism and presents measures to promote the development of a mountainous DMO, opportunities for proper and needed management and use of cultural resources and environmental education in a tourism destination, as well as accompanying benefits to all tourist stakeholders. The paper presents an application of a Cultural Landscape Marketing Management Approach in the mountainous area and more specifically in the area of mount Parnon in Greece, a tourism destination of very high tourism value with biodiversity as well as cultural diversity and a function of environmental education. Ecotourism is embodiment of tourism economy and the realization of wetland protection and sustainable development and it has raised common concern now.

This paper mainly explained the Cultural Landscape Marketing Management Approach, and demonstrates that cultural resources worthy of preservation can also present opportunities for sustainable tourism development, with the expectation to provide certain guidance to tourism development in aspects including resource development, environmental and ecological protection and management mode.

Vicky Katsoni

Approaching the Monuments of the ‘Other’: A Model for Their Presentation

There are many ways to explore cultural heritage of another country or another city in the one’s country. Cultural heritage can be found in art (painting, sculpture, architecture, music), language, monuments, customs, religion, rituals, institutions and values of social life. Understanding the other’s cultural heritage helps finding a way into the others’ history and culture and build bridges with them. Monuments are one of the elements of cultural heritage that were constructed to help maintain memory by stating historical events of important turning points either in history or in culture. They are pieces of art which express cultural opinions, values, ideas and religious beliefs political ideas, practices, traditions and institutions of a social group. They are signs of people and their culture and history. There can be two ways to approach a monument: (a) as viewer, (b) as tourist. In both cases, people usually remain at superficial level without seeking the deeper meaning and symbolism of cultural elements. An inter-cultural approach of a monument can take place at three levels: (1) cognitive, (2) sentimental, (3) Action. We propose a model for the better approach and understanding of monuments which we believe will help detecting of information of historical and cultural data, presentations and analyses of the monument, relations between religion and society, architecture of the monument. We shall use the model we propose in the presentation of three ottoman monuments of Thessaloniki.

Vasiliki Mitropoulou

Pilgrimage in Georgia

Pilgrimage is one of the most ancient practices of humankind and is associated with a great variety of religious and spiritual traditions. Making of pilgrimages is common in many religions all over the world. A lot of pilgrims’ destinations where founded in inaccessible places but became centers of pilgrimage, attracting countless people.

Today, in these difficult times, when people are suffering from economic hardship, employment problems, quick spreading different diseases etc. People who have been struggling to find meaning in their lives can walk away with ray of hope, with a new vision of life and moreover, having stronger sense of responsibility and conscientiousness towards cultural heritage, caring about its preservation and improving ways how to attract people through common or virtual tours.

Since Georgia is a country with ancient and rich original culture which goes back as far as millennia and its knowledge and recognition has crossed national borders and entered the international level to become the cultural legacy of the mankind, our paper aims to deliver the main examples of pilgrimage places in this country. Historical buildings of Orthodox Churches, mosque, synagogue, Catholic and Protestant churches decorate the center of its capital Tbilisi. Georgian foreigners as well as Georgians have a unique opportunity to find refuge from daily routine and to get closer to eternal matters during the regular visits to Orthodox Monasteries and Churches around Georgia.

Tinatin Kublashvili, Nato Kublashvili

Wandering as the Determinant of Identity and Difference in Ancient Greek Literature: The Paradigm of Herodotus and Pausanias

Herodotus and Pausanias lived in different eras but shared many resemblances: the Ionian inclination to travelling and inquiring, interest in history, geography, ethnography, ethnology, culture, art and literature, the desire to commemorate deeds worth telling and sites worth seeing. They selected and combined the information they collected from their journeys, from other travelers and from written sources, in order to form a profile of the Greek identity. To achieve that they looked into the profile of the “other”, be it a foreign nation, friendly or hostile, or the different parts of the same nation, which is the case of the individual local communities of Roman times.

Pitropou Ekaterini

Motivations and Experiences of Museum Visitors: The Case of the Imperial War Museum, United Kingdom

This study explores motivations of visitors to the Imperial War Museum (North and South), United Kingdom, with a view to understanding why people visit museums associated with conflicts. Though museums are part of the education and leisure industry, the distinction between education and leisure is often blurred. There are a number of reasons why people visit museums. Motives of museum visitors can be grouped into intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This study analysed the extent to which museum visitors are motivated by extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Semi-structured interviews with visitors were conducted w at the Imperial Museum of War (North and South), United Kingdom. The findings do establish that extrinsic motivations are more dominant than the intrinsic ones for visiting the Imperial War Museum. The importance of extrinsic factors in motivating museum visitors would suggest that providing an opportunity for a good day out has more appeal to the visitors than the collections in the museum for the average visitors. The experiencing of museum in its totality is more important than the individual collections or the theme of the museum to the mainstream visitor. This work has made a contribution to understanding visitor motivations, which are multi-facetted, complex and not necessarily fully understood by the visitors themselves.

Raymond Powell, Jithendran Kokkranikal

Heading Towards a Digital Model of Tourism


Game-Based Learning and Lifelong Learning for Tourist Operators

Today’s workplace challenges are based on the belief that the group can face current challenges better using collaboration than any individual can by yourself. This belief has prompted social solutions, such as communities of practice or knowledge and social peer-learning.

Learning by playing a game is a very old method that is still applied in various contexts. Mainly in social-learning activities, the learner’s motivation is crucial to program success. Games are fun and immersive by nature. By using games in lifelong learning contexts, it is possible to deliver continuous high attention and engagement for substantial learning.

R. Pace, A. Dipace

The Effectiveness and Impact of Intellectual Property Rights: The Case of Digital Content Industry of Taiwan

The concept of Open Innovation (hereafter as OI) implies that ideas, resources and talents flow in and out of organization with the purpose that firms rely on external sources of innovation. This paper highlights an un-observed Intellectual property rights (IPRs) strategies in the current debate on open innovation, that is, the foundational question related to the decisive role of IPRs under which conditions of broadening openness is beneficial to appropriability of firms? The paper approaches this question by conceptualizing the degree of ‘openness’ in the literature and analyses the importance of IPRs strategies for innovation performance in the context of Taiwanese digital content industry.

Chih-cheng Lo

The “Clinical Risk” of a Research Project: Communication Processes

Just as in medicine clinical risk corresponds to the patient’s chances of suffering harm or distress due to medical treatment received, for a project and a team work it represents the possibility of damage, error, failure of the efficiency of the team and the achievement of the expected results. An indispensable role in this process is played by the communicative- relational variables internal and external. The project So.Net.To founded his team work, in fact, based on this awareness and introduced the concept of “clinical risk” within communities of practice and research and to demonstrate how a cure communication variables can contribute to the success of a research project and its effect on the social environment reference. This led to a careful developing strategies for internal and external communication functional to the phases of the project that led from one side to the creation of a “communicative product” designed to publicize and capitalize on the knowledge and skills obtained within the working group, the other to activate forms of communication designed to promote institutional forms of collective participation of researchers and practitioners the work of other institutions. In this perspective, the cure for the communicative dimension has responded to the new third mission of the University as well as producing new knowledge and competent professional profiles must be able to build new strategies and guidelines for disseminating knowledge in society, through communication processes of management, “engagement”, retrieval funds, public participation and civic responsibility and “corporate social responsibility”.

Daniela Dato

Crowdsourced Heritage Tourism Open‐Data, Small-Data and e-Participatory Practices as Innovative Tools in Alps Cultural Heritage Topic: Information Technology and e-Tourism

Many new questions arise with regard to Web3.0‐based technologies, more and more frequently used by non‐experts to generate and share geographic information, new collective landscape visions and place‐based knowledge. This paper discusses the role of e‐participation, mapping practices and crowdsourced‐based place rating in alpine mountain areas, related to an ongoing trans‐regional European research project (Interreg Italy‐Swiss). In particular I take into account the collaborative use of ICT (such as the use of geo‐social networks) within the processes of social sharing of images related to the spreading of cultural heritage (tangible and intangible) and cultural landscapes. This allows to point out several critical issues connected to mechanisms of collective intelligence and to define how citizen science can be correctly used inside the usual processes of participation and elaboration of visual final results. Visualization is certainly a very powerful tool to improve community’s discussion on cultural tourist destinations: is it possible to relate the new forms of voluntary and involuntary micro-participation via web with alternative visualization techniques as key in promoting new forms of sustainable cultural tourism, low cost but high value‐added? Another important issue raised by this research is: which alternative knowledge of the alpine cultural landscape is useful for processes of tourism policy making that include the inhabitant’s role, expectations, know‐how and memories? The method applied in this case study was designed to support collaborative efforts, to increase public participation in problem analysis and decision‐making and to evaluate possible interactions between non‐organized forms of collective collaboration and institutional processes of transformation linked to alpine cultural tourism. Specific attention is given to the problems of ICT mediated perception and definition of shared landscape quality. In this context, the role of expert knowledge in the analysis and definition of the social perception of the cultural landscape is now changing rapidly and radically. The recent developments of the Web—namely the open‐source GIS, the collective use of GPS tracking, and the geo‐social networks—force the technicians to rely on new skills: from the cultural mediation of landscape values to the ad hoc interpretation of the new geographical information. Furthermore, local and non‐technical knowledge starts to play an increasingly important role in expanding the scope of the definitions of the alpine cultural landscapes. The social implications of this research include also the widening of the definition of the common good to a number of intangibles: the archives of spatial data managed by public authorities, the amount of data unintentionally generated through the use of mobile devices in order to build not only innovative, but effective tools for the promotion and development of the weak and peripheral territories.

Daniele Villa

Digital Divide and Its Potential Impact on Cultural Tourism

Tourists need information about destinations for travel decision making. Thus the importance of information in the tourism industry is apparent. Tourists inform themselves before and during travelling, gather information about prices, hotels, sights, activities, alternatives, weather conditions, local traditions, food, drinks and religious views of the destination. After the visit they share information with others. Therefore, a reasonable diffusion with information and communication technologies (ICTs) can benefit both the tourists as well as the businesses. However, disparities still exist in access, skills, use of and attitudes towards ICTs. Although, the phenomenon of digital divide has been addressed in several studies, especially with regard to small and medium sized tourism enterprises, research on the adoption and implementation of ICTs in cultural and heritage tourism is still scant. This paper aims at raising awareness for the influence and effect of the digital divide on the tourism industry in general and cultural and heritage institutions in particular.

Christian Maurer

Reflections of Destinations on Social Media

Competitive environment enhanced the importance of tourist destination marketing recently. Developments in technology such as Internet and social media enable tourists to increase their knowledge about destinations more easily which creates a challenge for destination marketers. Social media has grown rapidly and started to play an increasingly crucial role in destination marketing. This study examines how social media platforms affect the destinations in terms of promotion and marketing in a case of Instagram. In this study, the researchers evaluated the Tourism Calgary’s official Instagram account followed by 2,814 people with 338 posts of photos. The photographs were analyzed according to their contents and were categorized into 13 different themes. As such, this study provides opportunities to understand growing importance of social media and the tips to create an effective social media account for practitioners in terms of effective destination marketing to maintain the interest of users.

Gökçe Özdemir, Duygu Çelebi

An ICT-Based Competence Framework to Facilitate Intercultural Competence Continuous Professional Development

The changing nature of the socio-economic environment requires the operators update their knowledge and skills continually in order to remain competitive. Tourism is no exception. The Maltese Tourism industry has gone from a fairly homogenous to a much more diverse type of visitor who not only has different interests but may uphold culturally diverse values, beliefs and behaviour compared to those of the persons employed in tourism. The nature of the sector itself suggests that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) may help support training. ICT may be used facilitate the acquisition, assessment and ultimately accreditation of intercultural competence related knowledge and skills within a Continuous Professional Development (CPD) programme. To ensure the success of such an initiative, it is important to determine the fundamental knowledge and skills making up intercultural competence and devise a pedagogical setting which is appropriate, for the intended audience. Constructive Alignment may well provide the answers in this respect, as it permits the parties involved (teachers and learners) to ‘construct’ the requirements or evidence in order to achieve a specific objective or Intended Learning Outcome (ILO). However, the myriad of ICT-based solutions calls for a detailed investigation in order to select the appropriate electronic environment in order to truly enable the take-up, assessment and accreditation of intercultural competence.

Simon Caruana

Web 2.0 Enhancing Role in Heritage Interpretation Based on Constructivist Learning Theories

The aim of this paper is to reveal Web 2.0 as a meaningful heritage interpretative technique that could be employed in heritage interpretation to improve visitor’s experience through the constructivist learning opportunities. Constructivist learning theories involve learner in a participatory meaning-making process to foster deep learning and understanding which is enhanced by Web 2.0 functions. Interpretation is an educational process that aims to reveal meanings and values that lie behind the facts and objects.

Interpretation that does not enables interaction among visitor and resource is sterile. As a result there is an interrelation between interpretation and constructivist learning which highlights the value of visitor’s participation in the interpretational activities. Web 2.0 is intended to encourage active participation, cooperation and exchange of knowledge and ideas between users. This research presents for functions of Web 2.0 that enhance heritage interpretation: Interaction among users, Content creation and interaction with it, social tagging and Recreation.

Vlassi Eirini

Xperience the CITY: The City of Destination as an Integrator and Its Role in Co-creating Travel Experiences

Fast changing trends within a technology driven society and the context of new economic landscape call for new innovative approaches and reconfiguration of roles in existing supply and value chains. Xperience the CITY, is a project aiming to change the way we travel so far, by changing the existing tourism supply chain and taking the City of Destination from a passive to a more active role, acting as an integrator among demand and supply. At the same time it calls for co-creation and invites travelers to co-create travel experiences. Building upon the premises of service-dominant logic that the customer is a co-creator of value and the essence of the experience economy, this project attempts to explore innovative ways where traveling is approached holistically as an end-to-end service. Following an extensive review of literature and an Explorative Research (qualitative), a preliminary model along with a proposed service is developed. In order for this model to be tested and validated, a Validation Research (quantitative) was designed addressing all major stakeholders. By this research the authors obtained valuable insights from 514 Passengers, 42 Hotels, 6 Airlines and 6 Airports, regarding current practices and an almost catholic validation of the preliminary model. Not only passengers are deeply interested in thematic traveling and are ready to co-create with the industry and benefit from such strategies, but Airlines and Airports would be ready to fully incorporate such service into their practices.

Evangelia G. Dougali, Sicco C. Santema, W. W. A. Beelaerts van Blokland

Tourism Product from an Alternative Perspective


Civilized Observers in a Backward Land: British Travellers in Greece, 1832–1862

British travellers visited Greece in increasing numbers after its formation as an independent state in 1832 and many of them published accounts of their wanderings. The conclusive evidence of early-Victorian travellers attested to the lack of infrastructure and domestic comfort, civil rights and free institutions. The tracing of discursive consistency in British travellers’ opinions on Greece, of recurring arguments, assumptions and associations, constitutes one of the aims of this article. It is also argued that comments on the modern Greeks should be examined in the context of a wider public debate, which involved general and universally applicable notions of “national progress”.

Pandeleimon Hionidis

Agritourism as a Form of Recreation for Students

The aim of this paper is to analyze agritourism as a form of spending leisure time by students. It presents the main factors determining the demand for agritourism in both positive and negative way. In the national statistics students do not constitute a separate group. Therefore, in order to approximate the level of students’ tourist activity, the analysis was based on data relating to two age groups (15–19, 20–29 years) and one socio-professional group, i.e. “pupils and students”. Additionally, the paper presents the results of author’s own survey conducted on a sample of 330 students of the Faculty of Economic Sciences at Warsaw University of Life Sciences. These studies provide information about the changes which should be implemented in agritourism services to increase the demand for rural tourism among students.

Agata Balińska

The Effect of Visiting Friends and Relatives on Expatriates’ Destination Knowledge: Abstract

The topic of Visiting Friends and Relatives (VFR) has received relatively little consideration in extant literature. While the focus on VFR is increasing a number of gaps, consequently, still exist. Additionally, the role of expatriates in tourism also appears to be an under-researched topic. This study particularly focused on the impact of VFR tourists on their expat-hosts’ ability to learn about the destination in which they reside. A two-stage study was conducted, using interviews and questionnaires to explore this relationship. The findings suggested that expatriates do learn when their VFR traveller visits, although the hypothesised model and relationships appeared to demonstrate weak impacts.

Chris Dutt, Ivan Ninov, Donna Haas

Visitor Attraction Management: Is There Space for New Thinking Despite the Crisis? The Cases of Buckingham Palace and the Museum of Acropolis

In the era of globalisation and economic crisis, an alarming issue has been raised in relation with the tourism product offered to visitors. Specifically, historical and important from a cultural perspective places are being severely affected by the latest socioeconomic evolutions and consist the first victims of these. Historically, visitor attraction management was neglected but during the last years it has emerged as an essential and vital means of survival for places, sometimes even countries.

The attractions sector is vital to the success of the Greek tourism industry. However, attraction managers today face a wide range of challenges, opportunities and threats, that will determine the future success of the sector. For example, for attractions which successfully embrace new technologies—such as Virtual Reality and the Internet—these technologies are an opportunity to achieve competitive advantage. Additionally, there is a need for the sector to become more cohesive and speak with one voice, so it can have greater influence on the government policy-making process and resulting legislation affecting the industry. Moreover, Greek attraction managers can learn a lot from successful foreign practices: from design and marketing, to catering and providing for disabled visitors.

Aim and main focus of this article lies on the opportunities that existing socioeconomic conditions have created by utilising a diverse way of thinking that could lead to the light at the end of the tunnel. Our study will explore the different strategies followed by Buckingham Palace and the Museum of Acropolis and how these paths led them to capitalise as well as drive them to success despite of the crisis. From a methodological approach, this study will utilise interviews and questionnaires with professionals who occupy themselves with these strategies as well as utilising all existing theoretical background on the subject.

Finally, within Greece, the government needs to take action to create a more level playing field for attraction operators. Subsidies to major national museums and huge National Lottery grants for new projects are probably ‘unfair’ competition for most small attractions.

G. Aspridis, L. Sdrolias, Th. Kimeris, D. Kyriakou, I. Grigoriou

Tourism Business Sector Stance in Front of a Sport Tourism Development: Focusing on Crete

Crete has been one of the most favourable tourism destinations of the Mediterranean contributing largely on the local as well as the Greek national income for decades. In the current years of distinct product differentiation, Crete has been re-examining the strategic road to a fruitful future and a secured position in the international tourism market. Amongst proposals promising to redirect the local offer towards a more sustainable as well as competitive tourism product is that of sport tourism due to a diverse physical environment of infinite potential for sport holidays. The focus of the present study is placed on the response of the local tourism industry and its sensitivity towards sport-related tourism products. Local tourism businesses’ acceptability to thematic tourism products remains the most crucial factor for a successful sport tourism development.

As early as 1982 sport tourism has been suggested as a strong and competitive alternative to the diminishing and unsustainable mass tourism model developed in the Mediterranean (Glyptis. Sport and tourism in Western Europe. London: British Travel Education Trust, 1982). However, limited attention has been placed on the businesses’ perspectives in embracing similar initiatives and overall the level of willingness the private tourism sector demonstrates in encompassing these products in the tourism offer (Vrondou et al. e-Review of Tourism Research (eRTR) 7(1):1–26, 2009). Examples of successful sport tourism projects have been recorded worldwide (Weed and Bull. Sports tourism: Participants, policy and providers. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, 2009) but scarcely tourism businesses perspectives on accommodating sport tourism products have been analysed. Crete represents a typical mass tourism destination in the process of quality differentiation in order to face a stagnating environment. The study examines Crete as a traditional destination in its effort to disembark from the mass tourism model towards a more specialised and quality tourism offer. Government initiatives promise to support a more quality tourism product supporting local environment but how is this received by the sceptical tourism sector having already invested a vast amount of resources to previous tourism tactics?

Leonidas Gaitanakis, Ourania Vrondou, Thanos Kriemadis, Giannis Douvis

Planning the Sustainable Tourist Development of Zakynthos Island: A Methodological Framework

The focus of the present paper is on the development of a methodological framework for guiding decision making in support of the sustainable tourist development of the island of Zakynthos, Greece. In this respect, potential future developments (scenarios) of the tourist sector are structured and evaluated in order to conclude with the most prevalent perspective. The scenario building process takes into account developments of both the internal environment (environmental deterioration, increasing pressure on local resources by mass tourism pattern, land use conflicts, etc.) and the external environment (strategic objectives for the development of the tourist sector at the national level, global trends in tourist demand and supply side, alternative tourism development paths, etc.). Scenarios and respective policy interventions take into account that sustainable futures of Zakynthos island have to be explored both at the:


, seeking the development of an environmentally responsible, spatially balanced tourist sector; and the


, seeking an environmentally responsible tourist infrastructure deployment.

E. Kapsaski, M. Panagiotopoulou, A. Stratigea

Sentiment Analysis of Hotel Reviews in Greek: A Comparison of Unigram Features

Web 2.0 has become a very useful information resource nowadays, as people are strongly inclined to express online their opinion in social media, blogs and review sites. Sentiment analysis aims at classifying documents as positive or negative according to their overall expressed sentiment. In this paper, we create a sentiment classifier applying Support Vector Machines on hotel reviews written in Modern Greek. Using a unigram language model, we compare two different methodologies and the emerging results look very promising.

George Markopoulos, George Mikros, Anastasia Iliadi, Michalis Liontos

Development of Tourism in Apulia Region and Training of Tour Operators

The research has been developed within So.Net.TO (Social Network for Tourism Operators) project, in partnership with the Technological Institute of Epirus (lead University), the Department of Humanities of the University of Foggia and the Department of Classical Philology and Philosophical Sciences of the University of Salento. The objective of the research was to identify and define innovative services capable of promoting the development of the territories involved through the adoption of collaborative models, with the help of ICT for creating communities of practice of tour operators, professionally capable of promoting sustainable local development processes. The implications appear to be linked to the possibility to raising the employment rate especially among young people in tourism segments (the high end) which appear to be in great expansion, compared to a generalized crisis of the tourism sector, consequent the more general and global economic and financial crisis that is facing the entire planet. The originality of the project is linked to the idea of investing in initial and continuing training of tour operators as a fundamental variable to capitalize on the natural and human resources of Apulia. It is to think about a model operator training that combines cultural awareness and entrepreneurship through the development of management skills able to qualify the professionalism of all those operators engaged in different ways in the tourism sector.

Isabella Loiodice

Natural and Cultural Resources as a ‘Vehicle’ for Paving Alternative Local Tourist Development Paths: A Participatory Methodological Framework

The focus of the present paper is on the development of a participatory methodological framework, founded on the scenario-based planning approach and participatory evaluation tools for planning the integrated development of a specific region, the Region of Sterea Ellada—Greece. Towards this end, particular emphasis is placed upon the sustainable exploitation of natural and cultural resources for the spatial planning of alternative tourist development paths, which are effectively integrated into the local economic structure and its future perspectives. The proposed framework results in the synthesis of scenario-specific policy guidelines which, by taking into consideration variables of the internal and external environment of the study region and the particular decision contexts these outline, support policy makers by providing a range of policy directions and policy measures that can serve effective decision making within each specific decision context. Moreover, the participatory evaluation approach adopted in the proposed framework, supports public and stakeholders’ engagement in the decision making processes, rendering them thus more pluralistic, legitimized and transparent, which in turn are to the benefit of the planning process, the final policy decisions and their implementation at the local level.

M. Panagiotopoulou, A. Stratigea

Feasibility Study of Creating Audio Tourism with Emphasis on Urban Sounds

Case Study in Three Cities: Tehran, Mashhad and Isfahan

Historical, cultural and environmental attractions absorb investments in tourism industry in certain regions. The tourism industry has always been based on visual attractions. This article, however, tries to study the feasibility of audio attractions in absorption of investment in tourism industry. The question is whether sounds can attract tourists to a particular region? Music and different musical instruments in various regions may well have this potential. Besides, would it be possible to attract tourists to a region through environmental and peripheral sound effects? Is it possible to relate a specific sound to a definite region to be known as its attribute? Creating audio tourism can only be done through the historical, social and cultural backgrounds of a city. The case study on three cities of Tehran, Mashhad and Isfahan demonstrates that audio tourism can not only help tourism industry grow but is also rich enough to be considered as a separate subject matter. Audio parameters can be used in tourism industry for advertising in different multimedia including in travel agencies and museums as well as in souvenir and gift shops. This article elaborates how these sounds can be applied to individual cities and in what ways audio tourism may develop.

Mohammad Hossein Tamjidi, Zeinab Lotfalikhani
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