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This book presents strategies and models for cultural heritage enhancement from a multidisciplinary perspective. It discusses identifying historical, current and possible future models for the revival and enhancement of cultural heritage, taking into consideration three factors – respect for the inherited, contemporary and sustainable future development. The goal of the research is to contribute to the enhancement of past cultural heritage renovation and enhancement methods, improve the methods of spatial protection of heritage and contribute to the development of the local community through the use of cultural, and in particular, architectural heritage.

Cultural heritage is perceived primarily through conservation, but that comes with limitations. If heritage is perceived and experienced solely through conservation, it becomes a static object. It needs to be made an active subject, which implies life in heritage as well as new purposes and new life for abandoned heritage. Heritage can be considered as a resource that generates revenue for itself and for the sustainability of the local community. To achieve this, it should be developed in accordance with contemporary needs and technological achievements, but on scientifically based and professional criteria and on sustainable models. The research presented in this book is based on the approach of Heritage Urbanism in a combination of experiments (case studies) and theory.



Chapter 1. Heritage Literacy: A Model to Engage Citizens in Heritage Management

Heritage management is a complex and demanding task; when successful, it will always show (either in the forefront or in the background) the compound multidisciplinary approach standing behind it. Heritage interpretation, not surprisingly, very often plays a key role in this process. Contemporary understanding of heritage management, by professionals as well as by laymen (since they are interconnected), must consider all the relevant (site/county/country/region) specific factors, foremost the social or economic ones beside essential preservation. Heritage management tends towards ensuring tangible (as well as intangible, or more precisely indirect) benefits for local communities and in this way towards the development of society in general. Critical heritage studies over the last few years have significantly influenced the perception of heritage, and consequently the essence of heritage management and heritage interpretation. Stress on the participative and inclusive approach has become crucial, where multi/polyvocality is (almost) self-evident. While the aforementioned words are regular buzzwords today, this article looks for their origins. Surprisingly, this practice could be easily tracked to the early 1970s and the eco-museums movement which is quite a revealing experience. We attempt to demonstrate how the practices of eco-museums could be interlinked with contemporary demands, the need for participative and inclusive heritage interpretation, and management approaches/practices. Finally, the paper will point forward the need for socially responsible heritage management which could indeed be recognised as a demand for heritage literacy and as a model/tool to mitigate diverse interests where contemporary heritage management is concerned.
Darko Babić, Meltem Vatan Kaptan, Clara Masriera Esquerra

Chapter 2. The Uses of Space Syntax Historical Research for Policy Development in Heritage Urbanism

The application of space syntax methods to heritage-related questions has a long track record both in the field of space syntax research and beyond, for example in archaeology. These studies deploy the theories and methods of space syntax to explore the sociocultural dimension embedded in spatial systems of historic and archaeological significance. Space syntax analysis provides a link between the material and immaterial aspects of ‘spatial’ culture. It offers a critique of built environment typologies defined in terms of stylistic periodisation by advancing an understanding of the role of spatial configuration in the production and reproduction of space–time events. In the context of urban heritage studies, this means looking beyond the value of buildings as individual objects to buildings as elements in emergent arrangements of social space. Building on the comprehensive review of the disciplinary interface between urban history and space syntax historical studies provided by Griffiths (The use of space syntax in historical research: current practice and future possibilities, 2012), this chapter advances ‘heritage urbanism syntax’ with the aim of orientating this body of historical research towards contemporary issues of urban heritage. It identifies three kinds of heritage urbanism syntax: (1) conservation areas; (2) street scales and (3) spatial cultures in order to assist critical reflection on the application of this perspective to urban heritage contexts. The chapter highlights how a diachronic understanding of spatial cultures enables an integrative approach to heritage urbanism that situates heritage within both historical and contemporary urban landscapes. It describes the potential contribution of space syntax to inclusive bottom-up definitions of heritage and resilient heritage futures.
Garyfalia Palaiologou, Sam Griffiths

Chapter 3. Applying Cultural Tourism in the Revitalisation and Enhancement of Cultural Heritage: An Integrative Approach

This chapter focuses on cultural tourism as a means of cultural heritage revitalisation representing specific soft models, which can help revive heritage sites. The visible trends of increasing cultural tourism together with the new profile of tourists interested in cultural heritage go hand in hand with the revitalisation needs of the cultural heritage sector. Still, not all heritage sites are equally attractive nor are they all successful in cultural tourism development. Current research has pointed out the leading principles of heritage revitalisation based on cultural tourism development. These can be applied in order to increase the attractiveness of a given site while maintaining its physical, economic and socio-cultural sustainability. The chapter discusses an integrated approach to revitalisation which entails social, territorial, economic as well as the knowledge/education component directly visible in participatory governance, public management of heritage and the gradual integration of sustainability aspects into heritage management. The strong involvement of the community in the revitalisation process is the key principle. The accumulated body of knowledge has further detected several success factors linked to modern storytelling in heritage interpretation for the cultural tourism market; these are the use of creative industries as bearers of symbolic cultural values, engaged activities through participatory experience tourism, and the creation of a tourism offer based on experience economy design principles. The need to involve all five senses in experience creation and to stir visitors’ emotions is emphasised.
Daniela Angelina Jelinčić, Yoel Mansfeld

Chapter 4. Conceptualising the Relationship Between Tangible Cultural Heritage and the Tourism Market

The conceptualization model of the relationship between tangible cultural heritage (TCH) and the tourism market is largely determined by the complexity of the tourism market itself, the number and the complexity of the relations between the stakeholders involved in the cultural heritage management (CHM) and tourism destination management, the legislative framework and the government policies which both the stimulation of tourism activities and preservation and management of cultural heritage relies upon and the characteristics and value of tangible cultural heritage. Government policies and legislation determine the balance in the allocation of power within such relationships. Furthermore, the relationship between tourism supply-side stakeholders and CMH take on different forms and move between dichotomies of co-operation and conflict. The stakeholders in such relationships are numerous and diverse, which adds to the dynamics of interaction and, consequently, to its complexity. The relations between stakeholders are made additionally complex by the characteristics of TCH as a pure or mixed public good where competition in consumption may or may not exist. Based on different forms of cultural heritage, there are different levels of excludability. The model is applicable in the domain of tourist attraction management as well as tourism destination planning.
Ingeborg Matečić, Oliver Kesar

Chapter 5. Heritage Protection Policies from the Perspective of the Social Sciences: The Case of Croatia and Non-EU South-East European Democracies

Heritage protection is a social invention established in proto-democratic countries. Through two centuries of modernisation, heritage protection has become an important public-sector activity in all Western European democracies. Transition in parallel with accession to the EU enabled the earlier integrated countries to benefit from the transfer of best practices of heritage protection from the core EU countries. Such a transfer has not taken place in belatedly integrated Croatia or in other non-integrated South-East European democracies. The mentioned deficit fundamentally threatens sane heritage protection schemes in South-East Europe. Sane heritage protection policies could be reintroduced in South-East Europe by integrating heritage urbanism principles into urban, rural and space development policies in order to couple the protection, revival and enhancement of cultural heritage at the same time. Therefore, heritage urbanism could help bridge the asymmetries in heritage protection policies on the European continent.
Saša Poljanec-Borić

Chapter 6. A Comprehensive Approach to Urban Heritage Regeneration

Urban regeneration has been the dominant practice in revitalising urban heritage over the last three decades. It represents a comprehensive, holistic and integrated approach, encompassing material and immaterial dimensions of space that make up the city’s identity and image, considering the wider city area and systems relevant in the interaction between the city and the citizens. Therefore, it should be grounded on sociological insights into stakeholders’ opinions and accomplished with experts from relevant fields offering a result focused on all elements, “from the spoon to the town”, as EN Rogers defined designing in different scales. Urban and planning practices often focus on the bigger scale, but for the successful reintegration of urban fragments into a functional whole, it is necessary to establish a comprehensive strategy encompassing elements from the smaller scale as well. Simultaneously planning and designing in different scales and grounding the result on both material and symbolic elements of urban space and life would give way to a coherent and meaningful environment supporting the integrity and identity of a place. A comprehensive and parallel approach embodying sociological, psychological, economic and spatial research could provide a strategy for creating revitalised space through the synthesis of urbanism, architecture and design.
Iva Kostešić, Jana Vukić, Fedja Vukić

Chapter 7. Virtual Restoration and Preservation of Anthropogenic Nineteenth-Century Landscapes Based on Historical Land-Use Data

Historical maps are a valuable source of information. The Franciscan cadastral maps comprehensively cover the entire territory of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. They are a trustworthy source of historical land-use data and information regarding past urban-planning concepts, especially due to their high geometrical precision. Studying and analysing historical land use makes it possible to reconstruct the historical cultural landscape, which is itself a significant element of cultural heritage. In studying historical maps, the most widely used analytical approach is the comparative method. Matching and overlaying historical and contemporary map data makes it possible to see and analyse changes in land use. This technique has been widely adopted and is now well established, but advanced technologies like high-resolution Lidar terrain data offer new opportunities. It is postulated that especially in rural areas, unlike land use, the terrain has not changed significantly, and the combination of detailed three-dimensional terrain data and historical land use can yield novel views on the man-made landscape of this era. The methodology presented can generate other interpretations of the available data. A combination of new technologies and techniques can provide an accurate virtual historical view and comparison with the same location in the present. The research presented offers fresh insights into what the cultural landscape looked like in the past and what actions can be taken to preserve it in the future.
Tomaž Berčič

Chapter 8. On the Edge of Protection: Archaeology and Territory, Culture and Landscape

This paper proposes an evaluation and re-reading of the common problems that characterise the difficulties in the practice of protecting and enhancing the territory, with particular focus on the archaeological field. Despite the widespread idea that archaeology should always be included in the territorial project, the link between protection and planning seems to be more evoked and required than programmed and realised. Current solutions define a concept of structured protection for the undifferentiated preservation of goods, where archaeological evidence with different characteristics (position, materiality, collective perception) seems to match univocal and indifferent solutions. This depends, of course, on what is meant to be protected: a single antique object may be subject to simple protection. However, everything is more complicated if the single monument turns out to be an area, an archaeological area, or where the object to be protected is the landscape. First of all, this is so because it is still extremely complicated to give it a unique and shared definition, secondly, because it is a theme that requires a review of the analytical approach, to subordinate it and make it operational on the observation scale. Therefore, this contribution attempts to provide a different approach to territorial analysis and to archaeological and landscape protection.
Giovanni Azzena

Chapter 9. Archaeological Heritage Enhancement in the City and in the Landscape

The chapter examines the possibilities of enhancement and planning of immovable archaeological heritage in situ from the perspective of urban and spatial planning. The aim of the research is to develop scientific starting points for the enhancement, preservation and sustainable use of archaeological heritage. The research is based on the deductive method whose results are confirmed by qualitative measurement obtained from field research conducted in Croatia and Italy. The survey included selected sites (case studies) in urban areas and in the landscape. The results of the research are defined spatial models of archaeological heritage planning: archaeological heritage in suburban recreational and leisure areas, archaeological heritage in protected natural areas, urban integration of archaeological heritage, archaeological heritage in tourism areas, archaeological heritage in the vicinity of important road infrastructure or traffic nodes, and the combined model. In addition to the basic planning models, the research includes specific archaeological heritage planning models (Council of Europe Cultural Routes, the European Heritage Label and World Heritage) and the cultural landscape model as a contemporary archaeological heritage planning model.
Marko Rukavina, Roberto Busonera

Chapter 10. Urban Transformation and Sustainable Development of Small Historic Towns

Small historic towns in Europe face many common challenges that remain relatively unknown and unrecognized. Small towns make an important element in a settlement network. Their urban functions provide a range of key services to rural areas surrounding them and are an important developmental stability and vitality factor of the wider area. In Europe, the majority of small towns are historic towns whose urban heritage significantly contributes to local identity, from local to national and wider levels. Small historic towns face common challenges, including the lack of administrative capacities and the lack of flexibility to adapt to complex demands of modern development. This leads to a reduction in economic activities and service functions, demographic problems and general economic, social and physical decline. Urban transformation of small historic towns is a specific topic requiring innovative approaches. Successful urban renewal models for small historic towns are models that are capable of achieving a balance between the preservation of their cultural heritage and the demands of development, strengthening their competitiveness while preserving their authenticity.
Nikša Božić, Biserka Dumbović Bilušić, Jasenka Kranjčević

Chapter 11. Planning as a Function of Preserving the Identity of Place

People create Places, but can hardly distinguish Places from Space as the definition of Place is a complex integration of nature and culture manifested in physical terms, which has been developed and is still developing in particular locations. Places are linked by a flow of people and goods between them, and each of them has its attributes—altogether creating the Identity of Place. Proper respect of cultural and natural heritage values, along with adequate safeguarding and maintaining, will help in preserving the Identity of Place. The most effective tool a planer can use in managing and controlling the Place Identity and its valuable identity attributes is a clearly defined planning process that will result in setting clear and omni-understandable planning ordinances and proposed methodologies for conserving/preserving (protecting) the Identity of Place. This paper proposes possible planning steps that represent a planning model researched and developed within the HERU, scientific project, which could help achieve this goal. The planning process today is a multidisciplinary one, with professionals from different fields taking part. The planner’s role is to coordinate and combine all of their efforts within a single document (physical or urban plan), a document that will create a unique searchlight for the Place development. To make it possible and reach that planning model, all participants must speak the same (professional) language. We need something we all shall agree upon—a relevant glossary within a field that will be prepared by professionals, not by lawmakers.
Nenad Lipovac, Gojko Nikolić, Svetislav Popović, Nikolina Gradečki

Chapter 12. Physical Branding and Heritage

Physical branding is a method of managing architectural/urban systems which, in its significance, design and purpose, represents individual spatial identities and can affect the competitive identity of the site. The aim of the research presented in this chapter is to identify physical branding models in the field of cultural heritage and the designed natural environment in relation to the renewal of heritage and/or the application of urban modernity. The expected results are typologically defined physical branding models. The networking of specific spatial characteristics, through targeted architectural/urban planning, contributes to the establishment of individual spatial identities which, in their significance, affect competitive identity. The obtained results may be applied to strategic planning procedures, both in spatial planning and in the planning of economic development.
Marina Pavković, Jesenko Horvat

Chapter 13. Recycling Heritage Between Planning and Design Interventions

The topic of recycling and contemporary approaches to sustainable urban and landscape renewal are nowadays extended to those parts of our territory that, although characterised by important historical traces, are in a critical condition of drosscapes: this is the case of archaeological sites, abandoned places “in-between” city and landscape and past and present, whose relationship with the environment life cycle is interrupted and in which the concepts of “ruin” and “heritage” are easily confused with those of “residue” and “waste”. The last important Italian National Research Programme (PRIN) called “Re-cycle Italy: New Lifecycles for Architecture and Infrastructure of Cities and Landscape” has connoted new complex issues in the triad Reuse/Reduce/Recycle and defined new interpretative matrices on the relationship between heritage protection, sustainable design and urban planning. Both under an epistemological and architectural perspective, a new interpretative approach emerges with a critical look entirely focusing on the archaeological sites’ “life cycle” and on the modalities through which they “dialogue” with the social dimension of the environment. This chapter fits within this framework, through a critical analysis of the relationship between the concept of recycle and interdisciplinary actions in the archaeological landscapes between planning methods and design experiences.
Vincenzo Paolo Bagnato, Nicola Martinelli

Chapter 14. Models of Heritage Tourism Sustainable Planning

The study is based on the theory models of heritage tourism sustainable planning that act as a catalyst for the destinations’ market positioning. From the spatial-planning point of view, the competitiveness of the destination is based on the specific cultural experiences, environmental quality and scenic landscape, that positions destination as a quality place for living, working and investing as result of (positive) tourism–heritage interaction. Models of heritage tourism sustainable planning imply the harmony and balance between the global tourism standards and the preservation of the cultural identity of the destination. They are comprised of two main components: an autochthonous place with its cultural–social–economic characteristics and a viable tourism scenario with its sustainable cultural product. The research, based on the visual perception questionnaire, reinforces the paradigm that the heritage tourism sustainable planning models should aim to support the development of tourism without jeopardizing the spatial and socio-economic characteristics of both natural and anthropogenic features of the area and without creating social or economic difficulties for the local community. At the same time, they should be empowered to regulate the tourism/visitor issues consistent with the destinations’ lifescape image and cultural tourism experience.
Ana Mrđa, Hrvoje Carić

Chapter 15. Tourism Valorisation of Cultural Heritage

Until recently, cultural heritage was treated as something of high value, primarily to be protected. Recently, however, this conservational approach has lessened and cultural heritage has been treated as a valuable resource that can be managed in a sustainable manner and as a function of economy, mostly via tourism. By incorporating cultural heritage into the tourism supply, the economic significance of cultural heritage becomes equally important to its social, scientific, and political significance. Economic significance is not solely limited to financial profit, developing tourism destination supply, and economic development of the community in question, but also for securing funds for financing of cultural heritage, which are necessary for its maintenance, revitalisation, and enhancement. Tourism valorisation of cultural heritage includes several steps: identification of cultural heritage suitable for conversion into tourism attractions; evaluation of the tourism attractiveness thereof; determination of its spatial distribution and; finally, application of an appropriate model for tourism valorisation. In evaluating tourism attractiveness of cultural heritage, it is necessary to define clear criteria and indicators, as well as an assessment scale. Four spatial models of tourism valorisation of cultural heritage are proposed based on identification of cultural heritage suitable for conversion into tourism attractions, the evaluation of its tourism attractiveness and determination of its spatial distribution: concentrated or point model; dispersed urban model; linear thematic model; and regional networked model. Each mentioned model is based on a specific principle and is suitable for attracting certain groups of cultural heritage tourists, depending on their motivation.
Vuk Tvrtko Opačić

Chapter 16. Recognition and Preservation of Associative Landscape Features

This study is based on exploring the relationship between examples of coastal settlements of the Eastern Adriatic coast in Croatia and their natural context—the sea and the mountain hinterland. These are landscapes with different intensities and qualities of associative features. Associative landscape provides mental connections of physical elements with intangible heritage through the experience of landscape meaning. Associative experience is possible when landscape is perceived as a whole, with recognised contextual values and a unity of intellectual and physical content. In this research, landscape identity is observed as the most prominent and comprehensive associative landscape feature. The research is based on the Heritage Urbanism approach, with the aim of defining models for the revival and enhancement of landscape identity from the landscape and spatial and urban planning points of view. Selected case studies, Starigrad Paklenica with South Velebit, and Makarska with Biokovo, are landscapes where strong relations exist between urbanscape and the natural context, through which means of the recognition and preservation of the landscape associative features and landscape identity are established. The research results define the present state of perceiving associative landscape features (the landscape identity model), identifying the means of perceiving the landscape identity which requires preservation (the landscape concern model) and setting a spatial development strategy from the aspect of the relationship between the settlement and its natural landscape (the landscape resilience model). Landscape perceived as a whole is presented as a new heritage dimension and as a process of the development of the perception of knowing a landscape. By establishing the perception, concern and resilience models of associative landscape features, the associative dimension is affirmed in landscapes as fundamental to their being retained, restored and redefined.
Ana Sopina, Bojana Bojanić Obad Šćitaroci

Chapter 17. Landscape Models of Enhancing the Inherited City Identity

The role of landscape planning in preserving the city’s identity is researched. Heritage landscape is considered a concept of integrally planned landscape, recognized as an important city’s identity factor. The landscape has always played a significant role in forming the image of Zagreb. Its strong landscape strategy determined by twentieth-century urban planning gradually loses its clarity over the past decades. The research starts from the thesis that the concept of an integral landscape image should be considered as urban planning heritage that contributes to the preservation of the city’s recognizability. It is necessary to determine the landscape models of its revitalization, adaptation and improvement. Comparative analysis of contemporary landscape strategies of European cities resulted by the identification of landscape model reflected in:
  • recognizing landscape as an important formative element of the city;
  • overcoming the boundaries between the city and the region and their territorial intertwining;
  • determining the starting point of the landscape strategy for the whole city level;
  • networking of unbuilt spaces into a recognizable system of green infrastructure;
  • ‘conquering’ brownfield areas for new public open spaces;
  • including the dynamic features of natural systems in planning process.
By applying a landscape model on the example of Zagreb and other cities, it is possible to protect and enhance their recognizable landscape image, or inherited identity.
Sanja Gašparović

Chapter 18. Reuse and Revitalisation of Contemporary City Areas: Structural and Functional Transformation of Brownfield Sites

Examples from Zagreb and London
Urban regeneration and revitalisation of brownfield sites and urban areas are the result of functional urban transformations and an approach to creating new methods for spatial change. This chapter presents various models of urban transformations with particular focus on ownership and the functional use of buildings and urban areas; strategic planning mechanisms for shaping and transforming brownfield areas; the role of citizens’ participation and engagement in the decision-making processes; and potential funding models and the value of public/private partnerships. First, the paper presents key theories and practice-based examples of brownfield regeneration and revitalisation schemes, using cases from London and Zagreb that have been implemented or are waiting to be realised. Discussions are also framed by a critical analysis of the two planning systems that underpin these interventions. Special attention is given to the role of “urban projects” as potential models for the functional and structural revitalisation of brownfield areas. Such projects, it is argued, are of special interest to cities today where the “city” participates in the co-creation and realisation of such projects through land or building ownership or as a public infrastructure investor with the overall purpose of improving the quality of life of its citizens. The analysis also discusses the value of area regeneration models and presents examples from London and Zagreb as contrasting socio-political and planning systems.
Tihomir Jukić, Georgia Butina Watson

Chapter 19. Walkspace as Cultural Heritage Within Urban Landscape

The focus of this research is to explore the urban landscape through the promenade notion and contemporary walkability strategies to connect open spaces into a walkspace system. The research on urban public spaces seen as a walkspace system points out specific models of alternative urban heritage. These models are characterised by the presence of diverse cultural heritage and pedestrian connections which should be recognised in current design and city planning procedures. The aim is to create awareness of heritage values in practices of everyday life using public space as a mediator and spatial networking as a planning criterion. The identified walkspace models came out of case study comparisons in five cities: London, Barcelona, Budapest, New York and Madrid. The case studies represent diverse urban landscapes as pedestrian streets, boulevards and linear urbanscapes. These examples confirm that streets are not just traffic corridors and show ways in which streetscapes form walkspace systems in different scales. Pedestrianisations, landscaped streets, historic park streets and urbanscape parks are strategies which interconnect cultural heritage and create new heritage of contemporary promenades through public space design. Walkspace systems are the basis for heritage urbanism approach as means of achieving vitality and quality of public space in heritage revitalisation.
Tamara Zaninović, Garyfalia Palaiologou, Bojana Bojanić Obad Šćitaroci

Chapter 20. Landmark Phenomenology of Sacred Architecture as Cultural Heritage

Multisensory experience is an important part of the perception of sacred architecture. It is important to understand that the content of sacred architecture as cultural heritage, in the complex way of understanding, is not only its historical, artistic or cultural value, but also its symbolic value. One of its symbolic aspects is the multisensory experience it creates. This assertion is based on the theoretical framework of the phenomenology of architecture, an aspect of architectural theory that explores the experience of the built. Every experience of architecture is multisensory, and in the case of sacred space this aspect particularly influences the experience of the believer and of the visitor of cultural heritage because architecture relates, mediates and projects meanings anchored in a complex experience of space. Different phenomena such as light, sound, smell and touch directly affect the experience of sacred architecture. They create specific atmospheres that are intrinsic to the experience of the sacred, such as the atmosphere of the transcendent, the atmosphere of eternity, the atmosphere of belonging to the community and the atmosphere of an out-of-the-ordinary character of space. This approach changes the viewpoint on sacred architecture as cultural heritage and highlights numerous aspects of a building that should be considered in the process of the protection of cultural heritage.
Zorana Sokol Gojnik, Igor Gojnik

Chapter 21. Heritage Urbanism and Landscape with the Sense and Limitations of the “Place”

Since the European Landscape Convention, where everything is culture and everything is landscape, the need to provide strategies of integrated action between both realities is a highly desirable goal. The structure to log it adopts the following sequence:
Knowledge of the place, as physical-spatial, landscape and historical interaction. We propose an initial analytical matrix as a starting point.
Determining carrying capacity. The physical and environmental physical load according to the characteristics of the place, using a simplified method of calculation.
Determining the attraction capacity of the place, by its patrimonial heritage (physical or immaterial).
Overarching these three realities, we can summarise the following aspects:
  • An array of compatibilities of use, according to the thresholds of the impacts on air, soil and water, to mitigate the negative impacts.
  • The result of the positive impacts, through the generation of jobs and wealth for the local population, and addressing an interesting experience for the tourist as well.
Architects, ecologists, urban planners and specialists in landscape sciences and ecology need new tools, hence the importance of these strategies, written in the form of a handbook for their determination. Finally, the case study of Easter Island is explained, thanks to the singularity of its location, the existence of a rich cultural heritage and with a continuous increase in tourism demand, where a new balance is required. This proposal could be replicated in other places and contexts, with similar characteristics, within the environmental protection of cultural landscapes and heritage.
Ester Higueras Garcia

Chapter 22. Regeneration of Historical Urban Landscapes in the Hinterland of Marche Region

The hinterland of Marche region has been declining for a long time, mainly due to the process of littoralization, ongoing phenomenon worldwide that represents a great challenge for planners and policy-makers. Increasing urbanization, seasonal mass tourism and overall growing of human pressure are just some of the issues affecting the coast. Vice versa, dramatic depopulation, economic depression and abandonment of rural activities are just some of those affecting the hinterland. In many places, this trend has become chronic, almost irreversible. Few models of regional development have barely stopped it. Most frequently, the historical villages, towns and the related landscape heritage, so peculiar and precious in the hinterland of Marche region, just further decay. After the earthquakes of 2016, the Marche Regional Council has commissioned a research team of five Italian universities to draft a strategic programme aimed at regenerating the hinterland. Supported by local authorities, scholars and experts in different fields, however related to regional and spatial planning, have made a joint effort to conceive possible solutions to the long-lasting crisis of these areas, which started in fact long before the recent earthquakes. The programme highlights the unexplored potential and resources of the hinterland, promoting a polycentric, integrated and synergistic model of development. In this framework and spirit outlined in the first part of the paper, and from Heritage Urbanism perspective, the focus shifts onto the case study of Camerino, outstanding example of urban heritage, exploring issues and options for different approaches and intervention models to regenerate the historical urban landscapes.
Flavio Stimilli, Massimo Sargolini

Chapter 23. Models of Terraced Landscape Regeneration in the Case of Slovenia

Terraced landscapes in Slovenia are a feature that has only been partly inventoried and has not been properly recognized. However, it is possible to find many examples of terraced landscapes in the Register of Slovenian Cultural Heritage, which is a central repository of data on heritage maintained by the Slovenian Ministry of Culture. There are 220 immovable cultural heritage units registered as cultural landscapes. The register defines landscape heritage as a heritage site that is an open space with natural and artificial components in its structure, the development and use of which are chiefly determined by human processes and activities. All types of agricultural terraces can be found protected as cultural heritage areas. A comparison of terraced landscapes in Slovenia shows that terraces have been dramatically decreasing over the last decade. Models for renewing terraced landscape heritage in Slovenia have an agronomic basis. There is no model similar to terraced landscape management, and none of Slovenia’s terraced landscapes are protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This study presents new approaches to terraced landscape renewal based on strategic spatial planning, although the models are patterns whose idea can be understood but cannot be copied because the meaning of the context of individual examples varies. The main fear of people living in terraced landscapes, which are defined as cultural heritage sites, is that protective measures could pose many obstacles to their lives, work, and residence. Every regeneration of terraced landscapes must be based on the participation of the local community.
Lucija Ažman Momirski

Chapter 24. Application of MCDM Methods to Tourism Evaluation of Cultural Sites

This paper explores the usage of two specific multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods—Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) method and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS)—in the tourism field, where their usage is practically non-existent. Multi-criteria analysis methods use objective or subjective criteria to rank different variables of interest, the purpose of ranking being to facilitate different strategic decision-making and problem-solving processes. By using these methods, the paper assesses the attractiveness of six cultural heritage sites in Porto, Portugal, namely some of the city’s architectural masterpieces, and ranks them based on the following set of criteria: (i) historic value; (ii) aesthetic/artistic value; (iii) representativeness; (iv) state of preservation; (v) infrastructure and accessibility and (vi) social significance. The purpose of the study is to understand different levels of attractiveness of cultural sites and to discuss the possible reasons why ones are given higher importance than the others. The two methods give almost identical outcomes, showing parity between their usages and affirming the integrity of the results.
Ivana Stević, Stevan R. Stević, Zélia Maria de Jesus Breda

Chapter 25. Reactivation of Functionally Derelict Areas with Cultural Heritage Sites

Functionally derelict areas (FDAs) refer to not fully utilised land or abandoned land with the impact of its previous use still visible and being of lower utility value, which can have potential for further sustainable spatial development and also for protecting undeveloped natural or agricultural land, i.e. greenfield land. This chapter addresses FDAs where there is immovable cultural heritage (ICH) on wholly or partially abandoned sites with substantially reduced functioning. The purpose of this study is to show the possible regulatory solutions at national and local levels for the regeneration/reactivation of FDAs with cultural heritage sites. Analysis of FDAs in Slovenian territory has revealed that problems associated with their regeneration originate from the applicable provisions concerning cultural heritage protection. The relevance of the investigated topic is supported by the fact that in more than a third of all FDAs in Slovenia we recorded various cultural heritage units and legal regimes for their protection, which are included in the national register of immovable cultural heritage. FDAs with the presence of ICH were classified into three groups (A, B, and C) depending on the intensity of the ICH phenomenon in the FDAs. Based on the cases presented in this chapter, we propose various instruments for the reactivation of FDAs with the presence of ICH.
Mojca Foški, Gašper Mrak, Alma Zavodnik Lamovšek, Barbara Lampič

Chapter 26. Models of Bastion Fortifications Integration in Cities

This paper examines the models of contemporary integration of bastion fortifications into the urban tissue, either in case of preserved bastion fortifications or in case of valuable urban areas created by their transformation during the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries, and also in case of spaces at the place of former fortifications in which visible physical remains of fortifications have not been preserved nor has recognizable and historically valuable urban area been created by historical transformation. Bastion fortifications, which had significantly characterized the morphology of renaissance and baroque cities during the four centuries of their existence, lost their purpose at the end of the eighteenth century. Depending on specific strategic and political circumstances, fortifications in certain cities have been preserved in their original form, whereas in others they have been partially or completely removed and the spaces at their place have experienced urban transformation. Based on the analysis of historical integration models of bastion fortifications, the analysis of urban features of spaces at the place of fortifications at the beginning of the twenty-first century and the identification of contemporary identity factors of city centres of such genesis, this paper defines three possible models to enhance future development of spaces at the place of bastion fortifications.
Damir Krajnik, Lea Petrović Krajnik

Chapter 27. Revitalisation of Historic Gardens—Sustainable Models of Renewal

The main research aim of this paper is to determine appropriate and sustainable models of revitalisation of historic gardens and parks which must respect the gardens’ authenticity and inherited identity features, but also allow for contemporary interventions and new facilities. The fundamental criterion for such interventions is to preserve the historical identity and revitalise the former atmosphere while affirming authenticity. The goal is to identify suitable models of revitalisation of gardens and parks. Three different examples are used in this research: (1) gardens of Renaissance summer villas in Dubrovnik (sixteenth to nineteenth century, Southern Adriatic); (2) historicist gardens in Opatija (late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Northern Adriatic); (3) historicist spa gardens (late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Northern Croatia). The models of renewal and revitalisation of the gardens and parks identified and examined are divided into two groups: basic models and thematic models. In relation to basic models, the following models are applicable: conservation, urban planning, architectural, functional, aesthetic and ambient models. Regarding thematic models, the following can be applied: activation, spatial (linear, networked or dispersed), economic, ecological, transformational and participative models. Research was conducted on selected examples of typologically diverse cultural heritage based on which historical and contemporary models were identified for use in the revitalisation and enhancement of historic gardens now and in the future.
Mladen Obad Šćitaroci, Mara Marić, Koraljka Vahtar-Jurković, Ksenija Radić Knežević

Chapter 28. Revitalisation Models for Central European Country Houses

A country house is a representative building which, apart from its residential function, also serves as a managerial focus for the wider estate. Throughout history, the representation, organisation, and management of a country house have served as complementary economic mechanisms that ensured that the seigniorial estate functioned as a (self-)sustaining system. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1918, life in Central European country houses started to decline progressively. The ensuing turbulent national, social, and political situations on the territory of the former empire left the majority of the country houses to oblivion and decay. However, after a long hiatus, interest in this type of built heritage in Central Europe has significantly increased in the last few decades. In the present-day economy, recognising and implementing suitable models of active use for the manors of the region has become a pressing issue. This chapter begins with a presentation of the historical models of alterations, and deliberates on the adequacy of their implementation today. It proposes contemporary architectural and conservation models of revitalisation and includes the urban and spatial planning models which can contribute to the rehabilitation of wider cultural landscapes in rural parts of Central Europe.
Boris Dundović, Mladen Obad Šćitaroci, József Sisa

Chapter 29. Models of Revitalisation and Enhancement of Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Use

Models of revitalisation and enhancement of cultural heritage were studied through the Heritage Urbanism approach. A total of 17 models were identified and divided into three groups: Universal Heritage Models, Basic Heritage Models, and Thematic Models of the Heritage Approach. Appropriate models that can enhance and modernise heritage and preserve its identity features were chosen from these groups. In terms of dealing with heritage, the following models may be differentiated: conservation models, development models and models of use. Cultural heritage management is becoming a model to connect public, institutional, local and all users. Potential models for the enhancement and revitalisation of urban heritage and landscape heritage were studied. The study and identification of these models was based on multidisciplinary research and a multitude of selected case studies. The aim was to determine universal models which could contribute to finding sustainable and lasting new use for heritage. The research was based on the following hypotheses: heritage is not a burden but a potential for development and a strategic national resource; it is not sufficient to protect and conserve heritage, it must also be renewed and interpreted in a sustainable manner that will provide it with new life; heritage is a current challenge which can be resolved through its inclusion into the contemporary and future life of towns, settlements and communities; heritage is not to be perceived as a static object, but as a creative subject.
Mladen Obad Šćitaroci, Bojana Bojanić Obad Šćitaroci
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