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Über dieses Buch

In the light of upcoming global issues, concerning population, energy, the environment, and food, information and communication technologies are required to overcome difficulties in communication among cultures. In this context, the First International Conference on Culture and Computing, which was held in Kyoto, Japan, in February 2010, was conceived as a collection of symposia, panels, workshops, exhibitions, and guided tours intended to share issues, activities, and research results regarding culture and computing. This volume includes 17 invited and selected papers dealing with state-of-the-art topics in culturally situated agents, intercultural collaboration and support systems, culture and computing for art and heritage, as well as culture and computing within regional communities.



Culturally Situated Agents

Using Immersive Simulations to Develop Intercultural Competence

This chapter describes a simulation-based approach to cultural competency training realized in the Alelo family of learning products. It is intended to help people who may not be cultural specialists to quickly develop the cultural skills they need to be effective in intercultural settings. This includes the knowledge and skills necessary to handle common situations involving intercultural interactions, as well as the adaptability needed to cope with unexpected intercultural interactions. Crucially, it utilizes simulations of intercultural encounters that learners are likely to experience in the course of carrying out their jobs or missions, which help learners develop the skills and confidence necessary to be effective in those situations. The approach also supports the assessment of cultural competence by testing trainees in simulated intercultural encounters. The approach makes use of a number of innovative technologies, but most importantly immersive game and artificial intelligence technologies.
W. Lewis Johnson

Cross-Cultural Study on Facial Regions as Cues to Recognize Emotions of Virtual Agents

This paper reports the preliminary results of a cross-cultural study on facial regions as cues to recognize the facial expressions of virtual agents. The experiment was conducted between Japan and Hungary using 18 facial expressions of cartoonish faces designed by Japanese. The results suggest the following: 1) cultural differences exist when using facial regions as cues to recognize cartoonish facial expressions between Hungary and Japan. Japanese weighed facial cues more heavily in the eye regions than Hungarians, who weighed facial cues more heavily in the mouth region than Japanese. 2) The mouth region is more effective for conveying the emotions of facial expressions than the eye region, regardless of country. Our findings can be used not only to derive design guidelines for virtual agent facial expressions when aiming at users of a single culture, but as adaptation strategies in applications with multicultural users.
Tomoko Koda, Zsofia Ruttkay, Yuka Nakagawa, Kyota Tabuchi

Availability of Multilingual Chat Communication in 3D Online Virtual Space

There is a possibility that a 3D online virtual space can become a more familiar communication medium because of the widespread use of the Internet. However, language differences pose significant barriers to intercultural communications. We have developed a multilingual chat communication support system in Second Life as an initial research. Second Life is one of the most popular 3D online virtual spaces in the world. We have carried out a multilingual chat communication experiment in Second Life. From this experiment, we have found the following. (1) It is important that a machine translation machine make it visible in a 3D virtual space. A user can easily learn the usage of a machine translation. (2) There is not understanding other party’s language in the problem because appearances of each avatar are free. It is important for users to show translation language pairs not to give confusion.
Takashi Yoshino, Katsuya Ikenobu

Capture and Express Behavior Environment (CEBE) for Realizing Enculturating Human-Agent Interaction

We are studying how Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) express communication behavior with cultural background. The objective of this study is the proposition of the modified Capture and Express Behavior Environment (CEBE) in which a person can interact with ECAs controlled by the captured behavior of another person with cultural background. In this paper, we discuss modifications and concepts of CEBE to apply CEBE for investigations to realize an ECA with cultural background. The prototype system could capture basic human behavior, such as head direction, posture of the upper body, and 3D angles of arms, when each part of the body, such as head, hands, arms and trunk. In addition, the system could control a robot or a virtual agent based on the detected data. We have to develop some implementations to interact with people with cultural background.
Yoshimasa Ohmoto, Akihiro Takahashi, Hiroki Ohashi, Toyoaki Nishida

Intercultural Collaboration and Support Systems

Hesitation in Intercultural Communication: Some Observations and Analyses on Interpreting Shoulder Shrugging

This paper concerns the different ways in which hesitation, and hesitation related phenomena like uncertainty, doubt and other phenomena where lack of knowledge is involved are expressed in different cultures. The paper focuses especially on shoulder shrugging as a signal of hesitation or uncertainty, and starts from the observation that shoulder shrugging has different interpretations depending on the interlocutor’s cultural background. It is not commonly used in Eastern cultures while in Western cultures it is a sign of uncertainty and ignorance. The paper reports a small study on the differences in interpretation of a particular video tape gesture, and draws some preliminary conclusions of how this affects intercultural communication between human interlocutors and between humans and conversational agents.
Kristiina Jokinen, Jens Allwood

A Socio-Cultural Model Based on Empirical Data of Cultural and Social Relationships

The goal of this paper is to integrate culture and social relationship as a computational term in an embodied conversational agent system by employing empirical and theoretical approach. We propose a parameter-based model that predicts nonverbal expressions appropriate for specific cultures in different social relationship. So, first, we introduce the theories of social and cultural characteristics. Then, we did corpus analysis of human interaction of two cultures in two different social situations and extracted empirical data and finally, by integrating socio-cultural characteristics with empirical data, we establish a parameterized network model that generates culture specific non-verbal expressions in different social relationships.
Afia Akhter Lipi, Yukiko Nakano, Matthias Rehm

Dynamic Term Suggestion for Searching Multilingual School Documents

The number of school children having ties overseas is on the rise year after year in Japan. In order to support these children and their parents, we developed a multilingual school document portal site, and made it open to the public. The portal site allows easy-to-use document retrieval by faceted classification as well as keyword search. However, it is not necessarily easy for the users to express their information needs in query terms, and they often come up with poor results from short and generic query terms. In pursuit of the formulation of better query statements with a few search terms even in the initial query, we realized a dynamic term suggestion or auto-suggest interface in the portal site. In the auto-suggest interface, suggested terms are ranked according to domain relevance, rather than merely on the basis of term occurrence frequency in the document collection. In this paper, we explain an overview of the school document portal site, the auto-suggest interface realized in the portal, and the domain-dependent term-weighting scheme, followed by the results of a user study conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the auto-suggest function.
Kohei Sawa, Yusuke Okano, Masahiro Hori, Chigusa Kita

Intercultural Collaboration Support System Using Disaster Safety Map and Machine Translation

Natural Disaster Youth Summit (NDYS) is an intercultural collaboration project promoted by a NPO called JEARN (Japan Education And Resource Network). They are working on collaborative learning about disaster prevention by exchanging disaster safety maps created by students over the world and by discussing over BBS’s and video conference systems on the Internet. Language barrier is the most difficult issue in this activity, and in order to communicate freely in their own native language, linguistic support, such as using machine translation systems, is necessary. We develop CoSMOS, an intercultural collaboration support system using disaster safety map and machine translation, and discuss collaboration supports using CoSMOS from four viewpoints; handling high-definition digital images, linking disaster safety maps to the world map, supporting collaborative learning, and supporting multiple languages.
Yoshiyasu Ikeda, Yosuke Yoshioka, Yasuhiko Kitamura

Development of a Multilingual Translation Service for Interpretations and Usage Examples of Mobile Phone Pictograms

To find mobile phone pictograms that have age-specific or gender-specific differences of interpretations, we surveyed 276 Japanese mobile phone users and compiled over 6,600 of their interpretations and usage examples for these pictograms. We used these reported pictogram interpretations and usage examples to develop a prototype of a web-based age-specific pictogram dictionary application that can be searched and viewed by specifying the pictogram, age group, and/or gender as search conditions. By applying Language Grid machine translation services to this application, we developed a web-based service that translates these pictogram interpretations and usage examples into several languages. This multilingual translation service for our age-specific pictogram dictionary enables the pictogram interpretations and usage examples reported by the Japanese survey respondents to be presented to foreign residents of Japan. It should help expedite and facilitate communication on mobile phones across different languages and cultures.
Seiya Tanaka, Aika Nakakubo, Momoki Kimura, Kazuya Takeda, Tomoko Koda

Culture and Computing for Art and Heritage

Cultural Computing – Creative Power Integrating Culture, Unconsciousness and Software

The author is carrying out technology studies to explore and expand human emotions, sensibility, and consciousness by making innovative use of artistic creativity. We develop interfaces for experiencing and expressing the “essence of culture” such as human feelings, ethnicity, and story. History has shown that human cultures have common and unique forms such as behavior and grammar. We suggest a computer model for that process and a method of interactive expression and experiencing cultural understanding using IT called “cultural computing”. We particularly examine Japanese culture, although it is only a small subject of computing.
Naoko Tosa

Logos, Pathos, and Entertainment

Various new entertainments using information and media technologies have emerged and have been accepted among people all over the world. Casual and heavy games, communications using mobile phones, blogs, and twitters are such kinds of new entertainments. It is important to discuss the basic characteristics of such entertainment and to which direction they would direct our societies. In this paper, a comparative study of entertainment in developing countries vs. developed countries, in old days and in nowadays will be carried out. Also future relationship between entertainment and our society will be described.
Ryohei Nakatsu

Digital Conservation of Cultural Assets

Research goal of archiving is not simply digitalization of assets ,but archiving based on clarification of the original structures of the assets. For example, the information on old and deteriorated documents may be difficult to decipher. We aims to make such material widely available after using advanced analytic techniques to revive script and illustrations, thus restoring the document to its original form. First Cases: The Nishi Hongwanji holds a large collection of paintings and artifacts. To preserve the cultural property we are investigating preservation, conservation and conservation documentation methods. Second Cases: we report the virtual reconstruction and conservation of a lost cave shrine. The purpose of this research is to search for the possibility of the digital restoration that maintained the resolution for the realistic representation and the interactive media for digital archives of ruins in the future.
Yoshihiro Okada, Tetsuo Shoji

Automatic Knowledge Acquisition from Historical Document Archives: Historiographical Perspective

Recently many archives containing historical documents have been created and made open for public use. The availability of such large collections of past data provides opportunities for new kinds of knowledge extraction. In this paper we discuss the potential of web and news archives for automatic acquisition of historical knowledge. We also describe some aspects of the data and we draw parallel to historiography – the science of making the history.
Katsumi Tanaka, Adam Jatowt

Culture and Computing in Regional Communities

Virtual Kyoto Project: Digital Diorama of the Past, Present, and Future of the Historical City of Kyoto

Using the recently developed 3D GIS (Geographic Information System) and related visualisation technologies, we have created a digital diorama of an entire historical city, which can be used to virtually travel through different realistic landscapes at different times in the history. The digital diorama called Virtual Kyoto is the virtual geographic environment of the past, present, and future of the historical urban spaces in Kyoto City by constructing geotemporal-referenced 3D models of cityscape elements at different eras. In order to promote digital humanities studies on the arts and culture of traditional Kyoto, Virtual Kyoto is used as a digital platform for constructing a web-based digital museum interface with geographic data-linkages to numerous historical and cultural digital contents. We also explore the possibility of using Virtual Kyoto as an information environment to discuss the future of the historical city of Kyoto with the effects of city planning activities such as landscape policies or the possible damage due to disasters on historical landscapes.
Tomoki Nakaya, Keiji Yano, Yuzuru Isoda, Tatsunori Kawasumi, Yutaka Takase, Takashi Kirimura, Akihiro Tsukamoto, Ayako Matsumoto, Toshikazu Seto, Takafusa Iizuka

A Platform for Mining and Visualizing Regional Collective Culture

This paper proposes computational methods for mining and visualizing collective culture among the community members of a region. This paper first outlines a procedure to extract significant narratives with text mining technique and spatiotemporal analysis on the textual data transcribed from oral-history interviews with the regional community members. It also introduces the KACHINA-CUBE system that imports the narratives as contextualized fragments of sentences based on spatiotemporal information, visualizes them onto a virtual 3D space, and assist researchers to discover commonalities and diversities among them based on the trajectory equifinality model (TEM), which is a theoretical framework to clarify both the similarities and differences among the trajectories of individual life courses. At the end of this paper, we illustrate a test case on collective culture regarding the once-flourishing film industry in Kyoto.
Shin Ohno, Shinya Saito, Mitsuyuki Inaba

A Web Strategy for Cultural Inheritance Centered on Agriculture Case Study Approach: The Olive Project in Shodoshima Japan

The olive culture in Shodoshima has the 100 years history, yet faces to the crisis when looking at the century ahead. In modern society, it is assumed that there has been a strong link between food culture and two kinds of aspects which consist quality necessary for cultural succession. One is the promotion of target products and the consideration of consumer behavior and quality requirements from consumers. The other is the creation of cultivation recipe which clarifies the method and component necessary for the production of products fulfilling the required quality by consumers. Therefore, we attempted to construct the strategic website for consumer driven food culture extension and to make cultivation recipe by the installation of Field Server in agricultural field and its data utilization. This paper shows the case that adopted the ICT in both consumer-led promotion and agricultural production for passing food culture down the generations.
Takashi Togami, Yoshitaka Motonaga, Ryoei Ito, Atsushi Hashimoto, Takaharu Kameoka, Tsuyoshi Nakamoto

Area Informatics – Concept and Status –

Area studies are interdisciplinary science of humanities, natural and technological researches. Area informatics is a new information paradigm in area studies to integrate and analyze data from variety disciplines quantitatively and objectively. Spatiotemporal data gives a few quantitative attributes that are relatively easy to be derived from area studies’ data. The Humanities GIS research group (H-GIS) is a leading joint research group in Japan to apply spatiotemporal informatics to area studies. This paper sums up current situations on area informatics and introduces the H-GIS outcomes about applying spatiotemporal informatics to area studies.
Shoichiro Hara


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