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2023 | Buch

Current Problems of the Global Environmental Economy Under the Conditions of Climate Change and the Perspectives of Sustainable Development


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This book presents a systemic view of the global environmental economy under the conditions of climate change from the positions of Sustainable Development Goals. The purpose of the book is to study the current problems of the global environmental economy under the conditions of climate change and to determine the prospects of its sustainable development (systemic support for the SDGs). This goal predetermines the logic and structure of the book, which is comprised of five parts.
Part I presents the authors’ novel view of the global environmental economy under the conditions of climate change from the positions of the SDGs. It reflects the contradiction and describes the path of preserving economic growth during the implementation of SDG 13. The COVID-19 pandemic and economic crisis are considered as the result of the reduction of biodiversity under the conditions of climate change from the positions of SDG 3. Responsible innovations, eco-friendly products, and green trade are presented as trends of the environmental economy under the conditions of climate change to support SDG 12. Green jobs are analyzed in the environmental economy under the conditions of climate change during the implementation of SDG 8. The significance of social inclusivity and reduction of the inequality of the environmental economy under the conditions of climate change to support SDG 10 is noted.
Part II elaborates on the sectoral specifics of the influence of climate change on the environmental economy: energetics, finance, industry, state management, and agriculture. Part III presents and discusses the international experience of development of the environmental economy under the conditions of climate change given the specifics of developed and developing countries and based on the case experience of Central Asia, the EAEU, and Russia.
In Part IV, technological transition (Fourth Industrial Revolution) is offered as a perspective response of the global economic policy to climate change. Scenarios of the fight against climate change in the Decade of Action depending on the scale of the technological transition are described: digital economy vs Industry 4.0 and Society 5.0. The perspectives of the technological transition at the level of companies (creation of cyber-physical systems of Industry 4.0; green digital innovations and smart ESG finance) and regions (smart region as a socio-economic environment with large adaptability to climate change) are described.



Green and ESG Finance in Support of Sustainable Development of the Global Environmental Economy in the Face of Climate Change

Chapter 1. A Systemic View of Ecological Economics in a Changing Climate from the Perspective of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

The paper aims to form a systemic view of the problems of ecological economics in the context of climate change from the perspective of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). As a result, the author substantiates the systemic role of combating climate change in the development of ecological economics. The author finds that the components of ecological economics are closely interrelated (interdependent by 43.11%) and experience common problems due to climate change. Combating climate change has been proven to be a common problem in the development of the ecological economics, affecting the implementation of its constituent SDG 2, SDG 3, SDG 6, SDG 11, SDG 14, and SDG 15. The author proposes a systemic approach to solving the problems of ecological economics through combating climate change, which makes it possible to fully implement SDG 13 by increasing the availability and development of “clean” energy (in the implementation of SDG 7) and developing responsible production and consumption. The theoretical significance of these results is that they formed a systemic view of ecological economics and its key problem (climate change) and provided a holistic view of ecological economics from the perspective of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The practical significance of the proposed systemic approach to solving the problems of the ecological economics through combating climate change is that it makes it possible to most fully engage and optimally use the levers of management and stimulates the development of the ecological economics, unlocking the potential of reducing environmental costs of economic growth.

Elena G. Popkova
Chapter 2. The Harm of Cryptocurrency Mining to the Environment: How Serious is It

Blockchain technology is a significant part of the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0). However, the mining of cryptocurrency is often accused of harming nature, but the situation is changing. Ecomining is distinguished using renewable energy sources. These can be hydroelectric power plants or energy derived from the sun or wind. The energy consumption for the needs of farms will only grow, which means that people will need more diverse energy sources. But the cost of producing solar panels, wind turbines, hydroelectric dams, etc., is an irretrievable environmental cost in mining, manufacturing and construction. This is usually less expensive, but not the best option. In addition, the production of “green” energy for mining does not work as a separate power system. The use of clean energy sources still means drawing electricity from the system, which is also used to supply electricity to homes, which increases consumption and, thereby, stimulates the creation of new energy projects, including those using coal, oil and gas. The research methods in this study contain a synthesis of theoretical and empirical analysis. In the framework of the theoretical part, a comprehensive and multifaceted study of the literature was carried out in relation to the issues of cryptocurrency mining, its environmental friendliness and harm to the environment. In the framework of the empirical part, a survey was conducted on the dangers of cryptocurrency mining for the environment and the possibilities of more environmentally friendly production.

Aida G. Sargisyan
Chapter 3. Current Trends in the Green Bond Market

Purpose: The purpose of the article is to conduct a comprehensive study of current trends in the development of the global green bond market, to identify the features of investment in green bonds in the conditions of COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach: The issues of sustainable development and green financing are an urgent agenda today. The key mechanism for solving these issues is placing green bonds on the financial market. Green bonds are an innovative method of financing targeted environmental projects. The theoretical basis of sustainable development is the concept of a green economy, which explains the correlation between economic growth and the state of the environment. At the same time, forming a green economic system is impossible without a stable system of green financing, where one of the most effective tools is the issuance of these bonds. Green bonds will solve both the current problems associated with the coronavirus pandemic and the global challenges of sustainable development and environmental protection. The capacity of the international market of green bonds is still relatively small, but, according to experts, it is very promising. At the same time, the analysis of further prospects for its development requires a more detailed study. For the research, the author used methods of classification and comparison and analysis of statistical data. Findings: The article analyzes the place of green bonds in the market of socially responsible investments. The author considers the geographical aspect of the issue and placement of green bonds and analyzes the monetary and financial features of the issue mechanism of green bonds. The article examines the trend of development of corporate and sovereign debt in the format of green bonds and examines states’ restorative measures for the development of the green bond market. Originality/value: The author concluded that the green bond market is a fast-growing segment of the debt financing market. In addition, significant amounts of liquidity are concentrated in the developed green bond markets, the geography of market development is expanding, and the volume of green bond issues is growing. The states provide vital support for the development of this segment of the debt financing market.

Svetlana Yu. Pertseva
Chapter 4. Factors of Attractiveness of Green Bonds as a Financing Tool for Countering Adverse Climate Change

In the face of a global climate deteriorating, the efforts of the international community to improve the global and national environmental situation and combat negative climate change are bearing fruit, but they still need financial support. In this situation, relevant instruments are green bonds issued in the global financial market relatively recently but have already proven themselves to be quite attractive. The number and volumes of their issues are growing, and the range of issuers and investors, as well as the geography of issues, is expanding. Therefore, it seems very important and timely to analyze the current situation and state of the global green bond market, to identify the crucial factors of the attractiveness of the green bonds, including the specifics of the Russian market, which is represented by the Moscow Exchange (the Sustainable Development Sector). The results obtained will make it possible to assess the prospects for green bonds and the market they form. The study used the methods of retrospective and comparative analysis, as well as the method of least squares. The analysis of the selected factors of the attractiveness of green bonds as a tool for financing the counteraction of negative climate change showed that greenium is a significant factor for the global green bond market; as a result of a comparative analysis of the size of global and Russian markets, the data we obtained indicates high prospects of the Russian green sector. Consequently, it is possible to recommend intensifying the involvement of private companies as investors and issuers of green bonds, as well as to continue the policy of government support in the Russian market.

Olga V. Khmyz, Tatyana G. Oross, Anna A. Prudnikova
Chapter 5. Green Financing as a Tool to Fight Climate Change

Green economic growth and sustainable development is primarily a response to the challenges associated with global warming, the risks of an increase in the number and resources of natural disasters. Governments in many countries have become more active in taking action on renewable energy sources and immediate response to the threat of climate change. Today the global green finance market is developing at an accelerated pace. This article analyses the characteristics and prospects for the development of green finance. The purpose of the article is to propose new strategies at the state and corporate levels, and the application of green financing’s new instruments. The article examines opportunities for a green transition for companies and the identification of challenges that may arise in doing so. The article identified the advantages and disadvantages of new green finance instruments and institutions, in particular, green bonds and green funds. The need for more active participation of countries with developing and emerging markets in promoting green initiatives at the global level is identified.

Vladimir Ya Babaev
Chapter 6. Stock Exchanges and Institutional Support of ESG Reporting: Evidence from Russia

Investors and financiers are increasingly considering a wide range of non-financial factors when making investment decisions. ESG reporting is becoming more-and-more popular, and one of the key entities with a unique position to promote it are stock exchanges. The purpose of the paper is to define Russia’s position in providing ESG reporting guidance to the corporate sector through such institutions as a stock exchange and the Bank of Russia. This purpose is fulfilled through the methodology of comparative analysis. The latter comprises the ESG recommendations of two stock exchanges from developed countries, the London Stock Exchange and Nasdaq, and those of the Bank of Russia taken as a proxy for stock exchange guidance. As a result, the authors conclude that, although there are certain differences between the above-mentioned recommendations, there are more similarities, and the overall vector of development in the ESG field is similar.

Anastasia V. Buniakova, Elena B. Zavyalova
Chapter 7. Environmental Accounting and Reporting as a Tool of Ensuring the Sustainable Development of the Economy

Currently, ensuring the sustainable development of the economy is one of the topical issues of society. The traditional goals of the business are considered to be the expansion of production capacity and profit maximisation. However, in the contemporary world, the range of tasks facing the corporate sector is considerably widening. Nowadays, companies should take responsibility for their activity, strive to reduce a harmful impact on the environment. Ecological problems exert influence on enterprises’ operation, their financial standing and image. Therefore, environmental accounting aimed at collecting and systematising data on the ecological aspects of the organisation’s activity, which are reflected in environmental reports, is becoming particularly important. The relevance of environmental accounting and environmental report generation is due to the existing ecological imbalance around the globe, the development of a socially responsible business and the increased information requirements of stakeholders. The research aim is to define the prerequisites for the emergence of environmental accounting and reporting as a separate area of accounting as well as to analyse the trends of the development of this sphere. To achieve the set goal, the authors have used empirical and theoretical scientific methods. The article examines the factors contributing to placing environmental accounting in a separate subsystem of accounting as well as identifies the objective, tasks, objects of environmental accounting and the users of environmental reports. The authors consider the ways to reflect accounting information in the system of environmental accounting, its methods as well as principles for defining report content established in the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Standards. The publication analyses international standards following which it is possible to conduct environmental accounting and compile environmental reports. Special attention is paid to identifying the pros and cons of environmental report generation. At the end of the article, the authors note the revealed trend of a steady increase in the significance of environmental accounting and the expansion of the scope of its application.

Larisa V. Shmarova, Irina O. Ignatova
Chapter 8. Prospects of International Cooperation in the Arctic Under the Russian Chairmanship of the Arctic Council in 2021–2023: Sustainable Shipping, “Green” Technology and Innovation

This article examines the key areas of international cooperation in the Arctic in the framework of the priorities of the Russian Chairmanship of the Arctic Council in 2021–2023 in the context of sustainable development. As a result of the analysis, the authors form a set of recommendations applicable to the Russian Chairmanship of the Arctic Council. The main focus of the article is the development of green technologies in the Arctic region and the sustainability of shipping. Within the study, the authors used both general and specific methods of analysis, including comparative legal analysis. Based on the conducted research, the authors form the following recommendations on the considered priority areas of the Russian Chairmanship of the Arctic Council: 1. Development of sustainable shipping in the Arctic by enhancing the activities of the Working Groups of the Arctic Council (by studying the prospects for the development of the Northern Sea Route in the context of the global energy transition and climate change); 2. Promotion of international cooperation in the development of environmentally sound technologies, including their further refinement and operational testing in the Arctic region, with a focus on up-to-date marine technologies.

Valery I. Salygin, Igbal A. Guliyev, Valeriya I. Ruzakova
Chapter 9. Developing Responsible Investing

The article studies ESG investments, key drivers for their development, respective investments criteria and ratings, as well as the influence of environmental, social and corporate factors on the companies’ value. The investment decision-making process is evolving. Investors require additional information about companies’ ESG performance and are no longer satisfied with standard financial statements. Companies have to bear additional costs to comply with ESG standards which negatively affect profitability. At the same time, the ESG agenda attracts new investors and increases the market value of the company. Government and professional associations should offer market participants joint standards and ESG categorization rules to avoid possible manipulations.

Vladimir V. Shapovalov
Chapter 10. Financial Aspects of Increasing the Effectiveness of Innovative Activities of Enterprises in the Framework of the Concept of Sustainable Development

In the article, the authors analyze the financial aspects of the development of innovative business. The problem of efficiency of innovative activity within the framework of the concept of sustainable development is considered. The relevance of the study is determined by the need to address the containment of the country's innovative development on the way to the formation of a knowledge and technology economy in an unstable political and economic international environment. The article deals with a correlation analysis of the dependence of the effectiveness of innovation activity on the volume of its financing. The authors proved that the performance indicator of innovative activity has an impact on the amount of money invested in the development and implementation of innovative products. The study proposes a set of measures aimed at developing a system for financing innovation and improving the effectiveness of innovation. The results obtained within the framework of this study can be used in the work of federal and regional authorities when making decisions on the management of sustainable innovative development.

Sergey N. Yashin, Yuliia S. Korobova, Yuliia V. Zakharova, Dmitry A. Sukhanov, Victor P. Kuznetsov

Climate-Smart Innovations and Advanced Industry 4.0 Technologies to Support the Sustainable Development of the Global Environmental Economy

Chapter 11. Smart Climate Innovations Impacting Industrial Systems

Economic transformation and world industrialization are accompanied by developing technologies in all economic sectors. Along with that, its development is driven not only by the use of smart technologies but also by ensuring comfortable working conditions for industrial and office workers at production corporations. The most important factor is the trend in using climate technologies that improve the room climate and reduce the negative impact produced by hazardous production factors on workers’ health. Recently, digital smart technologies have been actively integrated into climate systems that can simplify their control and adapt to the peculiarities of air circulation by using minimum energy. Smart climate technologies are increasingly entering industrial markets, as they can be controlled from a single remote centre, regardless of the equipment location. The advantage of such innovations is the capacity to automatically adjust the equipment settings required depending on air deformations. This reduces the negative impact on indoor worker operation, with no direct assistance required. Technology operation is based on artificial intelligence behaviour, which is also being constantly changed. As a result, the established digital-first is step-by-step replaced with innovative AI-first developments. The key task for this trend is to build the foundation for digitalization in all processes to efficiently collect and analyze data used in managing the specific actions, ensuring healthy airspace in particular. Studying smart climate technologies is actively discussed in the scientific and industrial environment, as evidenced by international forums and conferences. The keynote of these events is to promote a scientific and technological breakthrough in climate technologies, which is undoubtedly associated with the integration of digital smart innovations into such solutions that are capable to meet social needs to ecologize the world and improve working conditions for millions of workers. The article is also aimed to analyze the use of digital innovations in climate equipment at industrial companies. The use of different options to digitize these devices and their impact on business climate conditions was compared. It was concluded that investing in smart climate technologies is justified by green economy goals and a significant increase in labour productivity. The introduction of smart solutions in the climate systems of modern industrial businesses has been proven to be able to adapt to the overall infrastructure of their production sites integrated into a single remote dispatch centre, which includes all elements of digital technologies used in controlling. The given digitalization examples, climate control at large businesses, in particular, have justified the feasibility of their use and a positive impact on all production indicators.

Yana A. Saltykova
Chapter 12. Marketing HR Strategy for Creating Green Jobs to Support the Fight Against Climate Change

The paper aims to investigate the prospects for improving HR marketing strategies for creating green jobs to support the fight against climate change. The research is based on econometric methodology—the method of regression analysis. The authors formed a sample of ten countries included in the “Relative green skill intensity (Top 25)” rating in 2022. As a result, the authors substantiate that green jobs allow for increased support for combating climate change in business. The development of knowledge-intensive employment and research talents is necessary to increase the number of green jobs in the business. Based on the identified econometric models, the authors develop an HR marketing strategy for creating green jobs to support the fight against climate change. The contribution of the research to the literature lies in the development of the scientific positions of the theory of green jobs. The theoretical significance of this research is that the author’s findings clarified the causal relationships of green jobs. The practical significance of the research results is that the developed HR marketing strategy for creating green jobs will more fully reveal the potential of businesses in the fight against climate change: more effectively engage entrepreneurial ability as an engine of progress and a catalyst for change in the business environment. The social significance of the research lies in the fact that the author’s recommendations will increase the share of green jobs and improve the results of the implementation of SDG 13.

Natalia V. Przhedetskaya, Dmitry S. Zhukov
Chapter 13. Industry 4.0 Innovations in the Global Fashion Sector and Their Role in Contributing to Minimizing Its Negative Impact on the Climate

The increasing importance of global warming and the active attention to these issues by key economic parties involved determine the study's relevance. The global fashion sector comprising textile, garments, and retail offline and e-commerce significantly impacts climate issues. Ten percentage of global greenhouse gases emissions are caused by the global textile and clothing industry, more than all international flights and maritime shipping combined. Purpose: The article is devoted to the problems of efficient solutions based on Industry 4.0 to improve the environmental impact of the global fashion industry. The goal of the article is to determine whether existing and being applied technologies connected with Industry 4.0 can radically improve the climate and environmental impact of the global fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The leading method of the research is the systematic and comparative analysis based on statistical data. Findings: The climate impact of the fashion industry starts with fibre production, but already existing technologies, if implemented correctly, can significantly diminish greenhouse emissions while creating or growing fibres. The paper investigates the conditions necessary for the implementation of those technologies. The research confirms that already existing technologies can minimize waste and increase efficiency. The paper stipulates the necessity for textile and clothing factories to use green energy. Big data can radically improve customer reactions and behaviour forecasting. The next frontier is connected with AD and VR, as well as virtual clothing. Originality/value: The analysis indicates customer desire and significant changes in consumer behaviour and approaches are needed to implement Industry 4.0 to minimize negative fashion impact on the climate. To achieve that is required coordinated efforts of the governments, businesses, media, and society. The research’s practical significance is determined by the extensive and growing impact of the global fashion industry on climate warming and the potential to improve the situation.

Igor B. Dolzhenko, Anna A. Churakova
Chapter 14. Environmental Assessment of Companies and Organizations in Russia in the Context of Industry 4.0

In modern world, it is hard not to think about environmental problems and their deleterious effects on humans. The theme of responsible attitude to the environment is especially relevant in the context of digitalization since the active introduction of information technology, the automation of business processes, and other attributes of Industry 4.0 allow forming new, more environmentally friendly approaches to production. The purpose of this study is to assess the level of ecological sustainability of public organizations, large, medium, and small companies in Russia in terms of workspace and process shaping. The research methods of this paper contain a synthesis of theoretical and empirical analysis. In the theoretical part, a comprehensive study of sources on the topic of ecological sustainability of Russian companies and public organizations in the conditions of Industry 4.0 was conducted. The empirical part of the study is based on the results of a survey of the workspace of employees of various Russian companies and state organizations. At this point, the following conclusions can be drawn: the majority of Russian companies and organizations are not interested in complying with environmental norms and rules; the main focus is on the indicators of revenue and margins, etc. The author of the study believes that companies in Russia should more actively introduce digital technologies, as well as attract financing from the global market with the help of such increasingly popular tools as “green bonds.”

Daria A. Averianova
Chapter 15. Development of National Systems of Green Finance in the Context of Industry 4.0

Purpose: Research of the current state and prospects of development of national systems of green finance (NSGF) in various countries. Methodology: The research is based on the analysis of academic literature, official, and statistical materials. Results: The article examines the processes of formation of NSGFs, designed to provide targeted financing of environmentally oriented projects and types of economic activities and, thereby, contributing to the transition to a green economy. The main conclusion of the study is that the institutional features of such systems, manifested in significant differences between countries in the level of development of markets for green financial instruments and the role of various types of financial institutions in financing green investments, are determined by the specifics of financial intermediation models typical for these countries. Along with this, the influence of digital technologies on the development of green financing has been analyzed. It is shown that fintech increases the opportunities for targeted green investment for a wide range of investors, including retail, and thereby contributes to the formation of NSGFs in the countries. Conclusions/recommendations: The state policy regarding the formation of NSGFs should take into account the specifics of national models of financial intermediation. In the context of Industry 4.0, the governments could contribute to the development of NSGFs by creating a favorable regulatory environment for the emergence of green fintech startups offering investors innovative solutions for working in the market of green financing.

Maksim V. Petrov, Vasiliy N. Tkachev, Igor B. Turuev
Chapter 16. Applying Digital Technology to Combat Climate Change in Russia and the EU

The chapter provides a comparative analysis of the use of digital technologies to combat climate change in Russia and the EU. Since global warming has accelerated recently, with threatening consequences for mankind, the study aims to analyze Russian and European approaches in combating climate change, primarily through digitalization. In this regard, this chapter is devoted to the study of the possibilities and consequences of the use of cloud platforms, artificial intelligence, and other digital technologies in the EU and Russia to achieve carbon neutrality. The study of this problem was based on a systematic approach, in which the authors considered the processes of digitalization, combating climate change, and development strategies of the EU and Russia as a whole. As a result, it was possible to prove that the digital transformation will reduce harmful emissions into the environment, and, in perspective, achieve carbon neutrality. The results of the chapter have practical relevance for countries and companies that are at the initial stage of digital transformation and can take them into account in the process of designing their environmental development strategies.

Natalia S. Zagrebelnaya, Anastasia V. Sheveleva
Chapter 17. Industry 4.0 Climate Risk Management in International Oil & Gas Companies

Today, oil and gas companies around the world see digital technologies as one of the most effective tools to help them combat climate change. However, their implementation can also bring about a lot of risks along the way. The purpose of this study is to analyze the risks arising from the application of Industry 4.0 technologies by international oil and gas companies to combat climate change, as well as to find effective ways to manage each of the identified types of risk. To achieve this, the authors applied the methods of analysis and synthesis, which enabled them to identify major risks as well as formulate general recommendations for their effective mitigation. The results of the study show that it is becoming increasingly important to restructure the risk management system of oil and gas companies as digital technologies are being implemented throughout all the areas of their activities, including combating climate change. An updated configuration of such a system is proposed. The results obtained can be put into practice by international oil and gas companies introducing digital technologies to their activities to help them tackle the possible risks arising from there.

Anastasia V. Sheveleva, Maxim V. Cherevik
Chapter 18. Prospects of International Cooperation in the Arctic Under the Russian Chairmanship of the Arctic Council in 2021–2023: Social Projects and ESG Financing

The article examines the issue of ensuring the well-being of indigenous peoples as well as local communities living in the Arctic in order to form a set of recommendations applicable to the Russian Chairmanship of the Arctic Council. This area of international cooperation is within the scope of the Russian Federation's Chairmanship of the Arctic Council in 2021–2023, is closely related to sustainable financing in the Arctic, and is highlighted by Russia as a priority. In the study, the following methodology is used: statistical analysis, economic forecasting, statistical and comparative analysis of annual reports of energy companies, and national and international statistical databases.Based on the analysis conducted, the authors propose the following recommendations on the considered priority area of the Russian Chairmanship in the Arctic Council: 1. To consider in more detail, the social factors when evaluating industrial and technological projects in the Arctic—along with the issues of ecology and carbon footprint; 2. To develop human capital in the Arctic, including opportunities for digitalization and integration of knowledge and skills of indigenous peoples; 3. To develop institutions for sustainable financing in the Arctic—starting from the formation of a separate taxonomy of ESG factors, in consideration of peculiarities of the Arctic region.

Valeriya I. Ruzakova, Arina A. Shiptenko, Elizaveta O. Ryabinina
Chapter 19. The Use of Blockchain Technology to Solve Problems in the Field of Ecology and Health Care

The purpose of the article was to select and analyze the accumulated positive experience of the best cases and practices of effective use of blockchain technology to solve problems in the field of ecology and health care. For this purpose, an analysis of existing precedents for the effective use of technology in these areas was conducted. The qualities and features of the technology that made it successful were identified. The authors justified the advantages that various stakeholders receive from the use of technology in the cases under consideration. When analyzing the sphere of ecology, the authors studied the arguments about the significant energy intensity and the allegedly negative energy footprint from cryptocurrency mining operations and emphasized the potential positive aspects of the impact of blockchain technology on solving environmental problems. When analyzing the healthcare sector, the authors managed to show how blockchain technology is used in many ways and effectively to combat the coronavirus pandemic and overcome its consequences. In the process of analysis, the authors identified the most effective niches, ways, and methods of applying the technology and best practices of application. As a result, the authors concluded the prospects for expanding and deepening the use of technology in the analyzed areas.

Artem S. Genkin, Alexey A. Mikheev
Chapter 20. Insufficiency of the Material Base for Implementing the Environmental Agenda of Industry 4.0

This study focuses on implementing the “green” climate agenda by the EU, China, the USA, and Russia. The transition to green energy implies the total replacement of automobiles with internal combustion engines by electric cars. Another important aspect is the transfer of industrial enterprises, as well as the power supply and heating of homes, to clean energy sources, such as solar panels and wind turbines. The authors consider that the existing material base is insufficient for such a transition.

Elena B. Zavyalova, Tatyana G. Krotova

Industry-Specific Sustainability Features of Environmentally Responsible Business Practices in Support of the Fight Against Climate Change

Chapter 21. Formation of a Balanced Financing Model as the Basis for Sustainable Development of the Social Insurance System Against Unemployment in the Russian Federation

The paper aims to develop a balanced model for financing the system of compulsory social insurance against unemployment based on the pre-established principles. To achieve this goal, the authors used the following research methods: analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, grouping, generalization, methods of building models, tabular method, and graphical method. The research materials were works of various authors. The originality and scientific novelty of the research lie in developing principles for building a balanced model and forming a balanced model of compulsory social insurance against unemployment in the Russian Federation. As a result, the authors developed a balanced model for financing the social insurance system against unemployment in the Russian Federation based on the principles of sustainable development. They determined and substantiated the principles and assumptions underlying the development of this model. The implementation of these principles and assumptions is necessary for developing models and implementing them in practice. The aim of the further study of this scientific problem is to test models. Further development of the social insurance system is only possible through the introduction of appropriate organizational and legal mechanisms.

Anatolii V. Kholkin, Anastasia A. Sozinova, Olesya A. Meteleva
Chapter 22. Analysis of Organizational and Individual Values Congruence in the Implementation of the Bank’s ESG Strategy

The ESG principles, on which business today increasingly relies for its activities, imply a responsibility for solving a wide set of social problems arising in its environment. Therefore, the issues of congruence of organizational and individual values of employees (P-O fit) are important. Their solution determines the possibility of balanced and conflict-free functioning of companies on a socially oriented basis, which, in turn, is one of the conditions for achieving sustainable development goals. The research aims to identify the relationships formed around the interaction of organizational and individual values of employees in the banking sector of the economy of the Russian Federation. The author proposed and proved the hypothesis that there is a positive correlation between the congruence of organizational and individual values (P-O fit) and organizational commitment and job satisfaction. In contrast to foreign studies of this issue, the study of Russian banking organizations found a significant mediated relationship between value congruence and job satisfaction through organizational commitment. This relationship strengthens over time. The revealed nature and level of connection between the studied parameters determine the necessity of implementing managerial practices aimed at increasing the level of organizational commitment of bank employees and developing an employee motivation system. Besides, the increase of the level of congruence of organizational and individual values of the employees is provided by timely identification of risks in the functioning of a social subsystem of the organization, taking measures minimizing the probability of appearance and increase of these risks.

Alim B. Fiapshev
Chapter 23. Solving Environmental Problems as a Priority for “Young” Companies Conducting IPOs Amid Global Economic Uncertainty

A crisis has always been a challenge for any economic entity: from households to governments and transnational corporations. Another challenge was thrown down to the global economy in 2020, it was the COVID-19 pandemic, which entailed some serious and large-scale restrictions and turned out to be disastrous for the economic development. Despite the unfavorable situation on the market as a whole, the stock market is characterized by positive dynamics in the context of the pandemic, which is particularly noticeable from the number of IPOs conducted during the pandemic. In this research, companies that are just launching their shares on the stock market are considered as “young” ones, and the environmental policies of such companies are the subject of the study. The purpose of the study will be to assess the involvement of companies that conducted IPOs in the context of the global crisis in solving environmental problems, taking into account the time and geographic factors. The methodological basis of the research includes the methods of comparative and statistical analysis, comparison of time series and expert assessment. As a result of the study, the authors formulated the geographical and chronological characteristics of companies’ contribution to sustainability and solving environmental issues, the geographical structure turned out to be uneven, and the dynamics in the time perspective has a tendency to constant growth. The main motive that encourages companies to increase environmental costs is improving the company’s image in the eyes of investors. In conclusion, the necessity to maintain a positive “green” trend among companies by government officials was determined by the authors.

Ekaterina Yu. Voronova, Yulia A. Lukina
Chapter 24. Transnational Corporations, Climate Change and Human Rights (“Milieudefensie Versus Royal Dutch Shell”, 2021)

International law today imposes on states, as the main actors, the obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, TNCs that are not subjects of international law make a very large contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, today the issue of extending legal obligations to reduce greenhouse gases to TNCs is becoming more acute. On 26 May 2021, the Hague District Court ruled that Royal Dutch Shell owe Dutch citizens a duty of care under the Dutch Civil Code, according to which it is obliged to reduce its CO2 emissions by a net 45% by the end of 2030. The Court rejected an argument from Shell that the reduction obligation will have no effect, or even be counterproductive because the place of the Shell group will be taken by competitors since every company will have its responsibility to cut their emissions. This is a serious step forward in changing and establishing a completely new policy in the sphere of climate change and its impact on human rights protection as this is the first time that a national court ordered a private company to reduce its emissions following the Paris Agreement.

Alexander M. Solntsev, Salikhat G. Magomedova
Chapter 25. Implementation of Sustainable Development Principles into Corporate Risk Management

Author analyses climate risks and their impact on the sustainable development of the corporation, and the necessity to implement ESG principles into corporate management. Since the issues of climate risks and ESG transformation have become at the forefront of assessing the effectiveness of companies, strategic management is undergoing significant changes. Many companies adopt sustainable development strategies that include the need to achieve goals in all areas of ESG transformation. In addition to new goals, such strategies entail new risks that require assessment and mitigation. To a large extent, these changes are taking place under the pressure of new regulatory requirements both within the Russian Federation and abroad, and the goals of achieving carbon neutrality by 2050–2060. For public companies, the strategic policy of sustainable development becomes a necessary element of public information about the results of their activities. The modern approach to compiling and providing such information to users is not formalized. It can be expected that the efforts of international organizations will have a significant impact on the formation of common approaches to indicators and the structure of non-financial reporting. So far, the Russian regulator has formulated only general requirements for the disclosure of such information.

Capitolina E. Tourbina
Chapter 26. World Experience of Developing Entrepreneurial Competencies in the Context of the Sustainable Development Paradigm

The paper aims to review the basic principles and approaches to forming and developing entrepreneurial competencies in the higher education system. The authors justify the necessity of transferring a regional higher educational institution to sustainable development on the principles of “entrepreneurship” and a project-oriented approach. It is proposed to implement the transformation process through the potential of practice-oriented education and advanced practices and technologies to form an entrepreneurial approach. The authors consider basic provisions of developing the concept of “technological and innovative entrepreneurship”: principles, educational tools, and mechanisms.

Dmitriy N. Panteleev, Alexey V. Sysolyatin, Anastasia A. Sozinova
Chapter 27. Comprehensive Assessment of the Sustainable Development of an Industrial Enterprise

The article deals with topical aspects of the formation of conditions for the development of industrial enterprises based on the technological and economic content of economic activity, followed by an assessment of the development and production of complex products. The systematization of the existing scientific groundwork for assessing approaches to assessing the sustainable development of an industrial enterprise was carried out, on the basis of which it was concluded that a complete assessment of the sustainable development of an industrial enterprise is impossible, and it is necessary to determine priority areas for development. In the study, it is proposed to consider as such the technological and technical reserve for the production of a complex product. The central issue in this context is the assessment of the complexity of costs and benefits. As a solution, a methodical approach is proposed to the formation of a cross-functional model for assessing the sustainable development of an industrial enterprise, which makes it possible to quantify the profitability and complexity effect in a company in order to improve the company’s financial and operational performance.

Ekaterina P. Garina, Natalia S. Andryashina, Elena P. Kozlova, Zhanna V. Smirnova, Olga T. Cherney
Chapter 28. Formation of the Necessary Conditions for the Sustainable Development of Industrial Enterprises

The article deals with topical aspects of the formation of conditions for the development of industrial enterprises based on technological transformation, development and production of complex products, prolongation of production processes and technological developments. The systematization of the existing scientific groundwork for the evaluation of approaches, methods and tools in the area under consideration has been carried out. A methodical approach to the formation of the necessary conditions for the development of industrial enterprises has been formed. A method for assessing production processes, a model for assessing the complexity of a system with high functional integration of components and an approach to a comparative analysis of the directions of development of industrial enterprises have been developed. The proposed material is based on modern ideas that are directly related to the problem under consideration. The scientific results that have been obtained by researchers in recent years are presented.

Ekaterina P. Garina, Sergey D. Tsymbalov, Svetlana N. Kuznetsova, Natalia S. Andryashina, Elena G. Kislova

Carbon-Neutral and Clean Energy for Sustainable Development of the Global Environmental Economy in the Face of Climate Change

Chapter 29. Nanotech Innovations—The Basis of Efficient Energy Transfer

The relevance of the research is due to the significance of breakthrough nanotech developments that, for the last decade, are actively applied in the world economy, both in high-tech and in traditional industrial sectors (especially in green energy). There has been a steady tendency to the inculcation of nanotechnology primarily as a promising source of sustainable economic growth of leading countries in the contemporary world of open innovations. The goal of the study is to consider the process of nanotechnologization in the system of international economic relations, and specifically, in the field of oil and gas production, in transition to the sixth technological structure. The following research tasks are set to consider the promising resources of nanotech in the sectors of the world economy; to identify new growth points in the real sector of the economy; and to determine modern nanotechnological trends in the oil and gas complex. According to the goal of the research, scientific methods such as analysis, synthesis, comparative analysis, and system approach were used. Institutional analysis let us describe market architecture of nanotechnologies. Results obtained as follows: (1) The further achievements of nanoscience will provide a conceptual contribution to the world industrial production and revolutionary change in most technological methods and value chains with increasing returns. In this regard, the total number of patent applications filed and patents received by the flagships of national nanoindustry systems is substantial. (2) The points of sustainable growth of the real sector of the world economy and separation of its traditional branches in the new economic normality conditions lie in the modernization of these industries through the accumulated improvements of nanotechnology. Quite competitive and the works are deployed in this direction in Russia. (3) Moreover, the serious innovative potential for implementation and commercialization of nanoelaborations remains in the fuel and energy complex in the transition period to the sixth technological structure.

Olga B. Lomakina, Alexander I. Voinov, Evgeny P. Torkanovskiy
Chapter 30. Sustainable Development of the Oil and Gas Sector in the Arctic Region

Sustainable development is becoming increasingly important for business management due to growing public pressure. This is especially true for the oil and gas sector, as its activities involve damage to nature and the environment. One can scale the environmental impact, but this requires additional investments, which can significantly reduce the final profitability of the project. This means that one should not rely on the responsibility of big businesses when it comes to caring for the environment. The state and supervisory authorities should monitor and control the activities of companies in the most careful manner from the point of view of sustainable development. This circumstance explains the need to apply adequate assessment methods. This assessment can help government agencies to analyze how a business works from the point of view of sustainable development, as well as help in making decisions, for example, which company should be given the right to develop a particular license area. This paper analyzes the modern methods of assessing companies’ sustainable development that can be used to assess potential subsoil users of the sites located in the Arctic region.

Igbal A. Guliyev, Vladislav I. Kiselev, Victor V. Sorokin
Chapter 31. Competitiveness of the Renewable Energy Sector in Russia and Prospects for a New Government Support Program Until 2035

The article discusses the issues of renewable energy development and promotion through the extended government support mechanism as well as the competitiveness of renewable energy technologies in the power generation sector in Russia. The problem of the need for structural transformation in the Russian energy sector is of high relevance due to concerns about environmental damage and devastating impact on human beings resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. Russia’s participation in international agreements on combating climate change and achieving the goals of sustainable and balanced economic development while reducing the level of CO2 emissions leads to the need to revise the approach to planning the development of the national energy system. The main purpose of this study is to identify the effects of the government support mechanism of renewable energy and assess the competitiveness of renewable energy technologies in the power generation sector in Russia in terms of costs. The author traces the ways to improve the efficiency of such technologies through the results of the state support mechanism. Specifically, the author examines the development of the green energy sector by providing a comparative analysis of the costs and auction prices of different energy technologies. The key findings show that as a result of the government support mechanism, the cost of electricity generated by renewable energy sources will become comparable to world prices already from 2025. Results of the competitive selection carried out in September 2021 show that the most efficient projects in solar and wind power generation will provide cheaper generation than combined cycle plants since 2027. Overall, this article highlights that the energy transition in Russia will occur much faster than predicted a few years ago.

Iman S. Magasheva, Olga B. Lomakina
Chapter 32. Sustainable Energy Development in the Russian Arctic. Prospects for Smart Solutions to Mitigate Climate Change

The constantly growing pace of development of the world economy has led to the fact that the whole world is now under the threat of climate change. As a result, today, sustainable development is a very important topic on the geopolitical agenda, while international energy companies are now looking for balanced solutions to mitigate the negative impact on the environment. Russian Arctic region was chosen due to its significant potential to mitigate climate change by developing climate solutions in this region. The purpose of this study is to analyze the prospects for creating smart climate innovations designed to mitigate climate change. Research objectives: A brief analysis of the current trends in sustainable development in the energy complex of the Russian Arctic; analysis of promising climate innovations that have the potential for effective work in the Arctic; and an assessment of the prospects for smart climate solutions to combat climate change have been successfully achieved. Among such innovations, the article discusses CCS projects, the production of hydrogen from natural gas, the conversion of waste into energy, the synthesis of biofuel from CO2. The study used data published in regular print media by Russian energy companies operating in the Arctic and research in the field of CCS projects. The methodology of the article includes carbon dioxide emissions calculations when comparing different power plants. Being of an overview and analytical nature, this article also includes observation of climate technologies, potentially suitable for the objectives of the study. The key findings are a primary analysis of the prospects for the creation and implementation of smart solutions to mitigate climate change, which can be further used for deeper and more thorough applied research; an attempt to present a “circular energy system” of different climate technologies designed to mitigate climate change.

Igbal A. Guliyev, Petr A. Kruzhilin
Chapter 33. Adapting Innovation Strategy of Major International Oil and Gas Companies to the Evolving Climate Agenda

Achieving international climate goals depends on scaling up the use of clean energy technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. International oil and gas companies disposing of considerable R&D budgets and deep expertise in innovation management could contribute to the development of a wide range of technologies to minimize emissions from the energy sector in which they operate. Adapting innovation strategy to climate agenda can in turn provide higher sustainability. This study aims to identify best practices enabling efficient integration of clean energy technology projects in innovation portfolios to support decarbonization and diversification efforts of oil and gas companies. Research has been conducted through a comprehensive comparative analysis of innovation strategies of major international oil and gas companies in the following areas: approaches to the organization of the management system of innovation activities; directions of technological development. Aspects considered throughout innovation development life cycle include strategic planning of innovation activities, technology forecasting system, elements of innovation ecosystem and role of open innovation, financing of innovation activity, commercialization of innovations. Authors identify four main strategic directions of climate agenda adaptation, which determine the focus of technological development: offsetting emissions from existing operations, transforming current operating activities, transforming product supply and transforming business model. Relevant R&D projects are implemented through a variety of mechanisms including in-house research and open innovation. Authors have revealed the increasing importance of corporate venture capital investments and multilateral technological partnerships for the development of clean energy technologies. The analysis of the innovative development directions of leading foreign oil and gas companies permits to conclude that the innovation programs include a range of technologies that are essential in the context of the energy transition, decarbonization trends and the development of a circular economy. Meanwhile, decisive energy technology landscape supporting energy transition is highly uncertain due to existence of a wide range of alternative technological options based on early-stage technologies.

Yulia V. Solovova, Alisa O. Khubaeva
Chapter 34. Czech Energy Policy and Diplomacy in the Context of the Climate Agenda

The article is devoted to the role and directions of the energy policy of the Czech Republic in terms of the formation of new approaches to the transformation of the concept of energy consumption and the construction of a new energy model in the context of the global climate agenda. In recent years, environmental issues have become an essential factor in the transformation of the global energy sector, which has been greatly facilitated by both the intensification of climate change manifestations against the backdrop of economic recovery after the pandemic, as well as aspects of economic competition and the strategic aspirations of many countries for energy and resource independence. Based on the ideology of “sustainable development” the global climate agenda, having received support from public structures and the population of different countries, is reaching the global level, turning into a serious tool for achieving geopolitical and economic goals. Nevertheless, different groups of countries often demonstrate opposite approaches to the formation of the most effective methods of practical human response to climate change. Currently, aspects of the decarbonization of the global energy sector have gone beyond individual countries and moved to the global level. For the Czech Republic, decarbonization of energy is of particular importance, in view of the existence of objective factors that make it difficult to implement this direction at the pace and within the time provided for by the European Green Course plan and other documents adopted by the EU. The main method is a comparative analysis of the approaches of the Czech Republic to the formation of the most effective methods of practical implementation of the goals of decarbonization and response to climate change. The most probable directions of the energy policy and diplomacy of the Czech Republic shortly are shown.

Igbal A. Guliyev, Natalia V. Ushakova
Chapter 35. Green Energy of the BRICS Countries: The Driver of Inclusive Development

Purpose The study aims to analyze the drivers of the renewable energy sources development in the BRICS countries as well as to assess the models of the renewable energy sources market incentives. The driving forces of the sixth technological order: global digitalization and intellectualization of economic processes, the introduction of innovative technologies and the smart use of resources—have an unprecedented impact on the development of world energy and create conditions for the introduction of fundamentally new methods of power generation. Over the past decade, some BRICS countries have already been at the forefront of countries that are rapidly introducing renewable energy sources (RES) into their energy balances. Methodology The authors use modern concepts of energy market development as well as academic approaches to renewable energy sources in the context of sustainable development. The systemic, economic, factor and comparative analysis, as well as methods of expert assessments, are used. Findings In the context of inclusive development the authors identified the state, features and prospects of the RES-development in the BRICS countries, found out the factors affecting the share of the RES in the structure of primary energy consumption in the BRICS countries. Models and regulatory mechanisms of the green electricity market are analyzed and compared across countries. The paper reveals that the increase in the installed capacity of the RES power plants could slow down the rate of carbon dioxide emissions, thereby contributing to the inclusive development of the BRICS countries. In turn, the dynamic introduction of the RES in electricity production of the BRICS countries is a timely and rational solution to the aggravating problems of energy supply, climate change, and environmental pollution.

Viacheslav E. Zakharov, Marina D. Simonova
Chapter 36. Prospects for Sustainable Development of the Green Energy Sector in the New Economic Environment

Recently, the goal of combating climate change has come to the forefront of the sustainable development agenda, which means that decarbonization and energy efficiency are becoming more relevant for all national and regional economies. Green energy plays a key role in achieving this goal. This research aims to investigate the prospects for introducing “green” technologies in the energy sector and the possibility of a smooth energy transition. As a result of the conducted studies, the authors substantiate that the attempt of a quick and abrupt transition to alternative energy sources has no tangible environmental or economic benefits, and even more so, it risks turning into a global crisis, especially given the planned structural changes in the economies of many countries. The novelty of this research lies in the fact that it proves that many countries have unreasonably early bet on the development of renewable energy sources, and, in the case of extreme events, such sources will not be able to become reliable and affordable sources of energy in the near future.

Sergey G. Tyaglov, Pavel A. Degtyarev, Tatiana V. Miroshnichenko

Social Institutions, Government Regulation, and Infrastructure for Sustainable Development of the Economy and Combating Climate Change

Chapter 37. Novelties of Tax Regulation of Decarbonization in the Russian Federation

The Russian Federation is currently at the stage of developing and adopting its long-term agenda in the field of energy transition and green transformation. First of all, the issues and problems in this area lie in terms of filling the budget, changing the tax, customs, and tariff policy. In general, the financial sphere and taxation system form the basis of any statehood, since the tax has not only fiscal, but also regulatory, social, and other functions.

Alla V. Kiseleva, Yuriy A. Kolesnikov
Chapter 38. Infrastructural Dimension of Sustainable Development, Climate Change and Environmental Governance

Infrastructure is the most important component of the modern economy. However, despite the public benefits that infrastructure brings, it often suffers from a lack of funding. Overcoming infrastructure gaps, therefore, is the main imperative of infrastructure development. On the other hand, new challenges—such as the growth of social problems (poverty, inequality and overpopulation), an increase of anthropogenic pressure on the environment and its large-scale pollution and climate change, pandemics and their consequences—call into question the ability of traditional infrastructure to meet these challenges. In light of this, new approaches to infrastructure development are required that could not only fill the “investment hunger” in this area but also increase the efficiency of investments in infrastructure projects by improving the quality of the infrastructure being created, ensuring its greater sustainability, social and environmental orientation. The infrastructural aspects of sustainable development, climate change and environmental management are analyzed. Special attention is paid to conceptual and doctrinal foundations of new approaches to infrastructure development—the concepts of “sustainable infrastructure” and “quality infrastructure”, as well as new approaches to the development of the infrastructure complex, proclaimed by leading international organizations. Through the prism of the key trends of infrastructure development in recent years in the world, the issues of infrastructure development and environmental governance in the Russian Federation are considered. Suggestions and recommendations are made on ways to improve approaches to these problems in Russia.

Oleg V. Ivanov
Chapter 39. Public–Private Partnerships and Green Financing of Infrastructure Projects

As one of the main engines of socio-economic development, infrastructure needs additional funding increasingly to meet the growing needs of the population, as well as to meet the new challenges of our time—environmental pollution, poverty, inequality, overpopulation, climate change, reduced natural resources and biodiversity. In that sense, the focus of this study is on the development of sustainable and high-quality infrastructure that is less exposed to climate risks, is aimed at improving people’s lives and is more effective in terms of return on investment. It analyzes the formation of a market for green financing instruments, and the possibilities and feasibility of using public–private partnership (PPP) mechanisms for the implementation of environmentally oriented infrastructure projects in Russia and abroad.

Ellina A. Shamanina
Chapter 40. EAEU Industrial Development Under SDG-9: Challenges and Possibilities

The UN Sustainable Development Goals are firmly entrenched in the strategic national agenda of all countries in the world, but the implementation of the SDGs is possible not only at the global or national levels but also at the regional one within the integration economic unions. The manufacturing industry is a driving factor of economic growth in many countries and the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) is not an exception. According to the Treaty of the Eurasian Economic Union (2014), the Union aims to raise and upgrade comprehensively the competitiveness of its members’ national economies by the formation of a new development model and implementation of coordinated industrial policy. The main purpose of this research is to reveal the current condition of the manufacturing industry in the Eurasian Economic Union in terms of environmentally sustainable development. Based on UNIDO’s SDG-9 Industry Index, the authors rank and analyze the industrial performance on SDG-9 of the EAEU countries. Since industrial cooperation is the main focus of integration processes within the Eurasian space, modernization could serve as a positive factor in strengthening the integration, and the transition to resource-saving and environmentally friendly technologies can help to reduce the environmental damage.

Maria A. Maksakova, Angelina A. Kolomeytseva
Chapter 41. From Scientific and Technical to Socio-Ecological revolution–A Step into the Future

The paper is based on the results of the research and devoted to the most acute macroeconomic and socio-economic problems of today’s civilization, such as the environmental irresponsibility of economic entities, combined with their increasing social disorientation. The authors propose a socio-cultural perspective on the failure in the work of socio-economic mechanisms within a given historical perspective. Based on the consideration of economic systems and their elements carried out within the framework of the indicated approach, the authors propose comprehensive, non-point financial mechanisms for the implementation of a successful green economy. The questions raised in the paper regarding the state of the current economy and the social sphere and the proposed methods of correction through the use of financial mechanisms outline the contours of the discussion, which the authors call on the academic and professional communities. The first part of the research is an overview of the ecological and social situation in its current state. Based on the review, conclusions are drawn about the values of CSR, the sustainable development agenda, and the fundamental drivers of the business. In the second part of the research, these conclusions are used to justify the proposed mechanisms of green finance.

Olga I. Ostrovskaya, Galina M. Golobokova, Matvey G. Chertovskikh
Chapter 42. Formation of Competencies for the Sustainable Development of Future Teachers of Mathematics

The paper focuses on the integration of the ideas of sustainable development into the practice of training mathematics teachers and the formation of their competencies in the interests of sustainable development. The primary idea of education for sustainable development is to integrate the identified problems and issues into curricula and programs. However, there is no such subject in school education that would cover all problems related to sustainable development. If a certain issue of sustainable development is considered within the framework of one discipline, then, to solve it, separate information will have to be searched in other academic subjects or sources. Solving the problems of sustainable development largely depends on the careful and accurate collection of quantitative data, analysis of numerical arrays, and generalization of results. It is indisputable that mathematics serves as a tool in such cases; mathematical methods can successfully investigate many models of societal, economic, and other development.

Meilihan A. Altybaeva, Kaukhar A. Sooronbaeva, Elnura T. Avazova, Raykhan Zh. Turganbaeva
Chapter 43. The Instruments, Necessary for the Transition from the Scientific and Technological Revolution to the Socio-Ecological One

The paper presents a list of tools necessary in the transition from the current model of economic growth to the model of the green economy. The paper discusses such key transition tools as green accounting and reporting, green technologies, green jobs, and sustainable procurement. Environmental and ethical characteristics of purchased products or services throughout their life cycle should be incorporated into the procurement system of any economic and business entity. A special place is given to such an important tool as environmental education. The authors pay special attention to the issues of green economy, green finance and offer their vision of such a critical element of the green economy, one might say, its key element, as green money. The authors proceed from the fact that green money should have full-fledged functions of money, as far as possible. Authors consider introducing five necessary tools for such a transition: green accounting, sustainable procurement, universal environmental education, green jobs, and green technologies.

Irina A. Koroleva, Natalia V. Avtionova, Olga V. Balandina
Chapter 44. Environmental Behaviour: Aspects of Definition in the Modern System of “Man–Environment” Interaction

The purpose of the study is to show the limitations of the theory of rational consumer behaviour, the main postulate of which is thoughtful behaviour, to compare the results of decisions made with the costs associated with making these decisions, to identify the problems of modern overproduction and irrational consumption, which entail global climate change, deterioration of the environment, which leads to the loss of unique natural resources. It is no coincidence that the World Consumer Organization on March 15, 2020, on World Consumer Rights Day, called for focusing attention on the above problems.Secondly, to define behavioural constructs in relation to subjective consumer obligations towards the environment, that is, a sense of “ecological responsibility” as a factor of “ecological behaviour”, to justify that the choice and behaviour of consumers should take into account the laws and mechanisms of functioning of the biosphere for biotic regulation and stabilization of the environment. It is no coincidence that the concept of sustainable development is the concept of integration of the economy and ecology, aimed at removing contradictions between socio-economic development and the state of the environment.Thirdly, to give a methodological justification of the concept of “ecological behaviour”, to determine the peculiarities of the transformation of this concept in modern conditions of society’s development, to describe the factor of “environmental responsibility” as significant in terms of the formation of the direction of change of the system under consideration. The object of this research is the “man–environment” system.

Olesya E. Ryazanova, Vera A. Gnevasheva
Chapter 45. Transformational-Overcointegrative Methodology as the Intellectual Core of Noosphere Approach to Governance and Achievement of the Goals of Sustainable Development

The paper aims to apply principles of a new proactive and projective methodology—developed by the author in the previous ten years and named and characterized by him as a transformational-overcointegrative methodology—to the existing noosphere approach and, by this, strengthen it as a tool for successful governance and systemic achievement of the goals of sustainable development. This non-standard (over-standard) original way of research gives the possibility to reveal systemic disadvantages and shortages of the noosphere approach itself, as well as of the set of the goals of sustainable development, and overcome them, getting greater intellectual potential in the vision of the nearest and more distant future.

Alexander P. Gorbunov

International Experience and Regulatory Specifics of Combating Climate Change in Different Countries

Chapter 46. Environmental Taxation: Experience of Foreign Countries

Environmental taxation has a positive impact not only on the environment but also on the well-being of society as a whole. Taxing environmental pollution can reduce taxes on labor, investment, and innovation. The environmental taxation schemes existing in the European Union differ in the purposes of tax collection, methods of determining the tax base, and the degree of use. The experience of some European countries shows that the use of taxes for environmental management, in addition to having a positive effect on the environment, and contributes to the active introduction of innovations and the search for new sources of energy. In general, it increases the well-being of the nation and reduces its dependence on the external environment. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of environmental taxation in the EU countries, as well as to determine the feasibility of its introduction in Russia. The research methodology is based on a systematic approach to the problem under study and comprehensive consideration of the implementation of the “green” tax in European countries. The theoretical basis was the scientific research of foreign economists in the field of taxation, civil, and budgetary legislation. Scientific generalization, statistical, and comparative analysis were used as research methods. The study showed that issues related to tax payments and their integration into sustainable development strategies are still on the agenda today. The modern interpretation of sustainable development is based on the assumption that economic growth should be accompanied by increased environmental sustainability and social justice. We are talking about the transition to “environmentally responsible” taxation. As a result of the study of the experience of “green” taxation in Europe, a positive effect of the introduction of a tax on the welfare of states and their citizens was revealed.

Elena V. Pilevina, Yulia A. Lukina, Sofya N. Chernaya
Chapter 47. Quantitative Assessment of the Implementation of Sustainable Development Projects in the USA, the United Kingdom and China in the Context of Natural and Climatic Disasters

This article is devoted to the quantitative assessment of the implementation of sustainable development projects in the context of natural disasters in leading countries. For this, the indicators of economic damage, the number of victims of natural disasters, the budgets of the government for the implementation of resilience programs are analyzed. In the context of natural disasters and climate change, human and economic loss, investments are critical criteria for assessing the performance and progress of sustainable development projects.

Olga A. Derendyaeva, Vladimir S. Osipov
Chapter 48. Whether Globally Leading Warming to Strengthen the Geo-Economic Position of China?

This chapter deals with the issues of the balance between the leading world centres—China, the US and the EU in the modern geo-economic confrontation in a situation of fastening global warming. China’s position on global warming has undergone significant changes in recent years: whilst remaining the primary source of carbon emissions, China has undertaken strict obligations and commitments to reduce them. It is a fact that the focus of China’s climate policy is shifting, and it is taking critical positions in the green economy. The purpose of the chapter is to determine whether the geo-economic influence of China is increasing in the course of global warming. The leading method is the systematic and comparative analysis based on statistical data. The analysis indicates an increase in China’s geo-economic position in the past few years on various aspects related to global warming, and in general, in the green economy. Continuation of current trends and approaches to climate policy will lead to unique China’s geo-economic position. Practical significance is determined by taking chances in the global alignment of geo-economic forces and making the best approaches to the global climate policy progress.

Natalia Yu. Konina, Elena V. Sapir
Chapter 49. The Landscape of Social Entrepreneurship: A Case Study of India

This paper discusses the growth of Social Entrepreneurship in India and its ever-growing role in the county’s economy. India is yet a developing country, which needs many social entrepreneurs with progressive solutions to society’s economic, social and environmental problems in the areas such as poverty, unemployment, hunger, sanitation, skill development, primary education, gender and caste bias, poor health facilities, pollution and water scarcity. These problems have been persistent and need imperative and permanent solutions. Although the philanthropic concept of ‘giving back’ has always existed in India, the fusion concept of doing social welfare on a more sustainable basis as a business is relatively new. The modern Indian social enterprise ecosystem is quite developed and, the government as well as many enterprising and capable citizens and non-profit organizations have come forward over time to help the society overcome problems. However, the struggles and problems in doing so have also been long and persistent. This paper shares a consolidated view of the social entrepreneurship ecosystem in India and some examples of exemplary social entrepreneurs who have been substantially contributing their might to the effort. The government of India clearly realizes the double benefits of generating employment and developing the neglected sectors of the economy through social entrepreneurship and consequently, is making huge efforts to encourage it through its affirmative action. This paper throws light on such programmes and efforts too. The research is based on a comprehensive study of social entrepreneurs and reports on social entrepreneurship by various governmental and non-governmental organizations.

Parul Tyagi
Chapter 50. Comparative Analysis of Climate Programs in Germany and the USA

Environmental problems are on the main agenda of the developed countries of the world. This article examines programs to combat climate change in Germany and the United States. Both countries adopted the Paris Agreement in 2016. The key areas of their activity are also similar, as is the main goal: to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 2030. Along with this, several significant differences can be distinguished. First, Germany adheres to a stable course within the approved program, while in the United States, the actions of the political party in power have a significant impact on the implementation of the agreement. President Trump even began the process of withdrawing from the Paris Agreement, and it was only under President Biden that the United States returned to fulfilling the goals of this agreement. Second, some differences can be identified concerning emission reduction targets. In Germany, the year 1990 was indicated as the base year, while in the USA, when the new program was finalized, the base year was replaced by 2005 when the value of emissions was higher than in 1990. Thirdly, when the countries develop a program to combat climate change, they face different problems: in Germany, which forms part of the EU, the procedure for adopting changes is long since all EU countries must accept all the amendments; in the United States, it is necessary to repeal several laws passed under Trump and to get the approval of the climate change laws in Congress, with a significant number of Republican voters, many of whom may not support the President’s initiative. We should also note the desire of the United States to lead the movement toward climate change on the international stage, while Germany does not set such a goal. The article also provides a comparative analysis of the programs, which makes it possible to highlight the most promising areas of the US and Germany policy to combat climate change, as well as the strengths of each program.

Maria A. Kozlova, Taisiya V. Dianova
Chapter 51. Analysis of Some EU Legal Initiatives Within the Green New Deal Framework

The purpose of this paper is to study the legal basis of the climate policy of the European Union, its instruments and mechanisms, as well as to define the role of climate legislation as a key direction of the energy transition policy. Methodology The methodological basis of the study consists of a number of general scientific and interdisciplinary methods, such as the method of systems analysis and structure-functional method, logical and dialectical methods, systematization and statistical methods, as well as a group of particular scientific methods, such as comparative-legal and formal-legal methods. The work will be based on the analysis of international documents, primary EU law, current and emerging directives and regulations, i.e., acts concerning climate policy, as well as other scientific documents, manuals and reports reflecting the climate agenda. Findings Up-to-date global warming, increasing anthropogenic pressures and natural resources scarcity is forcing the leading world economies to take urgent action to minimize the negative effects of the above-mentioned factors. In 2019 the European Union approved the Green Deal for Europe, an economic development strategy aimed at achieving carbon neutrality by 2050 and reducing greenhouse gas emissions by, at least, 55% by 2030. It envisages a set of measures that change all sectors of the economy, consumption and social behavior. Some tools will be described in the results of this work: Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (C-BAM) and EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), fuel pricing, renewable energy sources (RES) regulation. Originality The study has found that the European Union is developing a comprehensive system of legal economy regulation within which many mechanisms and legal regimes are created. This multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach should lead to a better understanding of the processes within the EU, identify a number of economic and legal risks and provide recommendations to other jurisdictions.

Yuriy A. Episkoposyan
Chapter 52. European Practice of Building a Carbon-Free Economy

The paper aims to analyze the European concerns and approaches to environmental protection and climate change and determine the main trade regulation tools applied by the block. The research methodology is based on the following methods. The method of induction allowed studying different approaches to environmental protection and their historical evolution. The axiomatic approach was applied to determine the connectivity between climate change and Industry 4.0. The synthesis of the methods mentioned above allowed the authors to argue that new environmental issues have been actively integrated into the international trade regulations in recent years. The new concepts such as “green growth,” “green economy,” and “green course” are not just national concerns anymore; these concepts have become an integral part of the current trade negotiations agenda. These concepts are increasingly used as an argument to support the implementation of trade measures regarding market access to goods and services for exports of certain industrial products. This approach is called “green protectionism.” Based on the analysis, the authors substantiate that the European Union, which launched the Green Deal program in 2019, is now most actively forcing the adaptation of its national legislation following the goals set. At the current stage of increasing protectionist tendencies in the world economy, the improvement of environmental requirements is an effective tool to curb foreign competition in completely legitimate ways.

Tatiana M. Isachenko, Irina A. Medvedkova
Chapter 53. The Role and Place of Russia in the World Grain Market

Having gone a long way from a net importer of wheat and several other strategic food categories to a country with the status of the world’s largest exporter of wheat, the Russian Federation has managed to achieve a high level of national food security and is currently a significant player in the global food market. In many ways, it was the timely development of the national grain industry that became the key to the successful modernization of the national agro-industrial complex and laid a solid foundation for the development of related sectors of the country’s agricultural production. Within the framework of this research, the author considers the dynamics of the development of the world grain market and its structure and assesses the role of Russian wheat supplies in its formation.

Vera A. Tikhomirova
Chapter 54. Model to Predict Waste Generation Within the Context of Sustainable Development: The Example of the Regions in the Far East of the Russian Federation

Designing efficient industrial and consumer waste management systems requires an assessment of the rate of waste generation. However, with certain developments in Russia’s scientific space related to the creation of methods for predicting waste generation at the federal and municipal levels (for solid household waste) already in place, the regional level seems to be receiving less attention. This paper studies the possibility of using the relation between the production and consumption waste generation and the gross regional product figures according to the data obtained in 2002–2016 for the regions of the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia to estimate such waste generation in the future. These dependencies were tested on independent factual material—data on production and consumption waste and gross regional product for 2017–2020. It has been discovered that, in most cases, the statistically drawn significant relations are suitable for estimating the waste generation based on the available GRP movement estimation. Supplementation of the dependencies previously obtained with new factual data confirmed the author’s earlier conclusion about the current trend toward a decrease in the intensity of growth of the annual industrial and consumer waste generation volumes. The advantages of the proposed methodology include the simplicity of obtaining the source data and interpreting the results, making it as accessible as possible for application within regional government bodies. The conclusions made are accurate as long as the economy of the federal district does not include newly implemented major projects in the mining industry. However, once such projects are initiated, the methodology makes it relatively easy to make adjustments if there are estimated waste generation indicators within the framework of ongoing projects.

Raisa N. Shpakova, Dmitriy I. Gorodetskiy, Sabir K. Mustafin
Chapter 55. Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals Through the Prism of Participation in Regional Integration (Using the EAEU as an Example)

The paper aims to examine the role of regional integration in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). During the research, the author used the method of comparative analysis to compare the GDP of EAEU member countries for the period and the rating of sustainable development of EAEU member countries for 2018 and 2021. Many projects are being implemented within the EAEU at the regional level that contributes to the achievement of the SDGs by member countries in the future. However, there are still problems in some SDGs (e.g., SDG 13 and SDG 15), which can be solved by covering new areas of integration in the EAEU.

Aygerim M. Karagulova
Current Problems of the Global Environmental Economy Under the Conditions of Climate Change and the Perspectives of Sustainable Development
herausgegeben von
Elena G. Popkova
Bruno S. Sergi
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