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Über dieses Buch

This book comprises the select proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Civil Engineering (ICRACE) 2020, held at the Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala, India. The book focuses on latest research in different areas of civil engineering and lays special emphasis on sustainable construction practices. It is divided into seven major themes: (i) Modern materials and sustainable construction, (ii) Environmental engineering and management, (iii) Geotechnical engineering, (iv) Health, safety and environment, (v) Irrigation, water resources and management, (vi) Structural Engineering, and (vii) Transportation engineering and traffic planning. Given the range of the topics covered, this book can be useful for students, scholars and professionals interested in the different sub-disciplines of civil engineering.



Treatment of Well Water Contaminated with Septic Tank Effluent Using a Modified Compacted Sand Filter

The flood that occurred in the month of August 2018 had brought severe damages all over Kerala. The major problem after the flooding was the contamination of well water with septic waste. This problem created a situation where proper drinking water was not available to the victims. A similar situation was faced by the residents of Velam Panchayath of Kozhikode district, where the well water was contaminated using septic tank effluent. Disinfection using bleaching powder was the only method adopted by the local authorities to make the well water potable. Since the septic waste contains toxic content and affects the human life significantly when consumed, an efficient and economic method of well water treatment is very necessary. The well water should be treated effectively after it is pumped into the overhead tank and then used for domestic purposes. This requires the designing of a filter in which the water gets purified in stages. The purified water coming out of the filter should be tested and made sure for drinking. The aim of this paper is to make a keen attention towards this problem and to implement some control measures to minimize this problem to certain extent by fabricating a Modified Drawer Compacted Sand Filter (MDCSF). This model consists of different drawers each filled with gravel, sand, activated charcoal, and silver-impregnated sand. Although the conventional drawer compacted sand filter has been used in the treatment of contaminated water, in this paper, a modification is made to the existing design by the introduction of forced aeration, using a silver-impregnated sand layer and an activated charcoal layer.
M. Harikumar, P. Sikha, M. P. Amrutha, F. Jamshiya, T. Arathi

Heavy Metal Fractionation in Aerobic and Anaerobic Sewage Sludge

The study assessed the speciation of heavy metals in sewage sludge. Sewage sludge samples were collected from three full-scale sewage treatment plants which employ different treatment processes. Sewage sludge samples from activated sludge process (ASP), UASB reactor (UASBR) and moving bed bioreactor (MBBR), and one anaerobically digested activated sludge (ASP-AD) was collected during different seasons of the year. Modified sequential extraction process was used classifying metals into acid-soluble/exchangeable fraction (F1), reducible fraction (F2), oxidizable fraction (F3) and residual fraction (F4). Five heavy metals, namely chromium, copper, mercury, lead and zinc, were analysed for different fractions. Among the heavy metals, Zn (1317–1448 mg/kg) and Cu (925–1196 mg/kg) contents were the highest, followed by Cr (129–151 mg/kg), Pb (60–86 mg/kg), and Hg (18–34 mg/kg). Concentrations of all heavy metals tested except mercury in MBBR were within the limits set by different agencies.
Sooraj Garg, M. Mansoor Ahammed, Irshad Shaikh

Environmental Remediation of Oil Contaminated Soil

The paper deals with study of environmental remediation of oil contaminated soil using micro-bubble generators. The method is a surfactant-free and environment-friendly method. The micro-bubble generator designed here incorporates an innovative design which will ensure greater production of micro-bubbles, and as a result, greater efficiency in the soil remediation occurs. The design concept emphasizes on vortex flow of fluids through a body with micro-holes in order to produce micro-bubble generation more effectively.
A. Nishida, Aparna Gopinath, S. Chandraj, K. Radhika, R. Sethu

Treatment and Reuse of Periyar Sedimented Soil Using Nanochemicals

Severe floods affected the South Indian state of Kerala on 8 August 2018. The overflow of Periyar River resulted in large losses during and after the flood. Aftereffects of flood were severe. There were no available land or proper method to dispose the sediment dredged waste. Also it caused a large destruction to the pavements in the surrounding area of the river due to overflow. Pot holes developed due to the ingression of water into the subgrades. It demands huge amount of money for the repair of these pavements as well as to dispose the waste collected from various buildings. So in order to utilise the soil effectively and economically in an ecologically beneficial manner, we introduce a method for the proper treatment and reuse of these sedimented wastes as a suitable subgrade material. The soil treated with the nanochemicals can be used as a subgrade for pavement construction. The nanochemicals used were Zycobond and terrasil from Zydex Industries. These chemicals were added in various percentages such as 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09 and 0.1% to obtain optimum dosage.
B. Diya, Ann Mary Mathew

A Study on Red Soil to Form an Bouncy Cricket Pitch

The characteristic of soil for pitches varies considerably from country to country, and generally, pitches in Indian subcontinents are regarded to be slow and dusty in contrast to pitches in other countries. This study involves research on the behaviour of soil for cricket pitches in Kerala according to BCCI guidelines expressed in terms of percentages. The main purpose is to make use of locally available soils in order to improve its strength thereby developing a fast and bouncy pitch. For this purpose, different percentage of bentonite clay is added to the available soil in order to yield hardness to the pitch. The clayey property of bentonite clay makes the soil stiffer. Using proper clay content and appropriate techniques and proper maintenance, a perfect pitch can be developed here in Kerala. All the steps and available conditions during making process like soil selection, laboratory tests like compaction, CBR test, specific gravity, sieve analysis, etc., schedules to attain maximum compaction, CBR values and properties of soils do have proved scientific reasons and have the direct correlation with outcome and performances of pitch. This project aims on improving the characteristics of soil for an efficient rebounding pitch.
S. Amritha, V. Rani

Influence of Flood on the Behavior of Friction Piles

Structures are commonly supported on pile foundations at locations having marginal soil. Friction piles are provided wherever the depth to a hard stratum is large. The load settlement behavior of a friction pile entirely depends on the interaction between soil and the pile material at their interface. Recently, our state experienced unprecedented flood which caused wide spread damage to various type of structures and their foundations. It was observed that the majority of failure of structures occurred due to the failure of foundation. This paper investigates the influence of drawdown of water on the load-settlement behavior and stability of friction piles. The results of a series of laboratory-scale load tests to determine the influence of drawdown on the settlement of pile are presented. Laboratory-scale load tests on model pile are carried out in a masonry tank, which has arrangements for pumping in water and drawdown. The influence of rate of drawdown on settlement is studied by varying the discharge of inflow of water. It is observed that the settlement of pile considerably increases due to sudden drawdown.
R. S. Athira, S. H. Jasna, K. A. Renjini, Manjima Jayan, Shruthi Johnson, J. Jayamohan

Feasibility Study of Using Coir Geotextiles in Permeable Pavement Construction for Stormwater Management

Stormwater management is a challenging task for countries all around the world due to rapid urbanization and climate change. Different low impact development (LID) practices have been adopted around the world to tackle the situation. Permeable pavements are a widely accepted solution to stormwater management and groundwater recharge. The structure of permeable pavements incorporates a layer of geotextile to stabilize the reservoir course. However, the other properties of the geotextile layer that includes drainage and filtration also need to be looked into. This paper tries to review different properties of geotextiles when incorporated into the soil and check the feasibility of using coir geotextiles in the permeable pavement structure.
Mohan Kavitha, Subha Vishnudas, K. U. Abdu Rahiman

Assessment of Effect of Filler in the Properties of Cement Grout

The scarcity of land for construction purposes nowadays demands the use of economical techniques such as grouting for strengthening the available soils especially loose sandy soils. Conventional material adopted for suspension grouting is OPC which is not much cost-effective. So the use of certain additives as partial replacement to cement is gaining more importance. Therefore, the present study focuses on the use of metakaolin as a partial replacement to cement as it is a good pozzolanic material. Here metakaolin is added at about 10% by dry weight of cement. The properties of the grout such as viscosity and bleeding are studied for different water–binder ratios of 9:1, 8:2, and 7:3. Also, one of the most important properties of the grout to give maximum grouted volume with minimal weight without disturbing the soil skeleton is evaluated. The results indicated that the addition of metakaolin improved the viscosity and reduced the bleeding of the grout. The best result was obtained for water–binder ratio 8:2. The grouted zone volume also showed an increase with 10% metakaolin addition. Thus, the effectiveness of grout was found to be more at water–binder ratio of 8:2. Based on these results, metakaolin modified cement grout can be studied in future for its ability to impart strength and improve the permeability characteristics of sandy soils.
A. B. Kavya, S. R. Soorya

High-Strength Geopolymer Mortar Cured at Ambient Temperature

Addition of 12 percentage of OPC along with fly ash acts as the main source of Si and Al for the geopolymerisation. It is seen that the inclusion of OPC helps in geopolymerisation without heating. A mortar strength up to 105.5 MPa was prepared in this study. A total of 81 mixed geopolymer mortar mixes was selected. The molarity of NaOH, ratio of sodium silicate (Na2 SiO3) to sodium hydroxide (NaOH), alkali–binder ratio and cement content were varied. The 7 and 28 days cube compressive strength were determined. The strength prediction models developed in this study are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.
Job Thomas, N. J. Sabu

Development of High Strength Lightweight Coconut Shell Aggregate Concrete

Coconut shell is an agricultural solid waste originating from the coconut industry. Coconut shell is used for many useful purposes but most of the coconut shell wastes are yet to be utilized commercially. Since coconut shells have the potential to be used as coarse aggregate in concrete, utilizing this waste in the construction industry not only reduces the solid waste management problems associated with it but also will be a valuable contribution to the industry as an eco-friendly construction material. In this investigation, coconut shell was used for the production of high strength lightweight concrete. The dry density and cube compressive strengths were measured. Coconut shell aggregate concrete of compressive strength 35.09 N/mm2 and dry density 1913 kg/m3 was produced. These are in the range of high strength lightweight aggregate concrete.
A. Sujatha, Deepa Balakrishnan

Comparison of the Performance Between Concrete Filled and Stiffened LDSS Column

Stainless steel is employed in a wide range of structural applications such as in bridges, storage tanks and reinforcing bars for concrete structures. Among the various grades of stainless steel, austenitic grades are most popular in the construction industry which has nickel content 8–11%. Recently, a new form of a duplex stainless steel is developed which is lean duplex stainless steel (LDSS), which has a lower nickel content of about 1.5%. This grade has lower-cost, improved corrosion resistance and strength, enabling a reduction in section sizes leading to higher strength to weight ratios. The particular grade used in this study is EN 1.4162, which is generally less expensive than the austenitic counterpart but offers higher strength and a reasonable corrosion resistance. In this study, the buckling performance of different shaped (square, L, T, cross (+)) lean duplex stainless steel hollow stub columns with stiffeners are investigated. Also performance of LDSS stub column is compared with concrete filled stub column. A nonlinear static analysis of LDSS stub column is studied using ANSYS workbench. In this project, it is found out that buckling capacity increases by changing the section from square-T-L–cross shape. It is also inferred that sections with stiffeners at the corners show better performance than straight stiffeners.
Divya Roy, Milu Mary Jacob

Aspect Ratio Factor for Strength Correction of Pressed Earth Brick Prisms

This paper presents an experimental study considering the effect of aspect ratio of masonry prism specimens on the compressive strength of pressed earth brick masonry. The variable considered in the experimental study is the aspect ratio of prism specimens. A total of twelve specimens were prepared and tested under four different geometric configurations. Strength correction factors to account for the effects of aspect ratio of prism have been proposed by conducting a regression analysis.
Nassif Nazeer Thaickavil, Job Thomas

Numerical Investigation of Punching Shear Strengthening Techniques for Flat Slabs

Flat slab structures situated in seismic zones, the moments transferring from slab to column through shear increases furthermore and becoming more tendency to punching shear failure during earthquakes. There are many ways to increase the punching shear strength of concrete slabs. Few techniques are shear reinforcement system, flat slab with externally bonded CFRP at corner columns, using post-installed steel bolts using carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates in slabs, using glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates in slabs. A nonlinear static analysis of flat slab is done using ANSYS workbench to study punching shear strengthening techniques. Deflection values of various strengthening techniques were found out and compared with the limit. In this project, it is found that strengthening using carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates and shear reinforcement are effective punching. Shear strengthening techniques.
Navya S. Ravi, Milu Mary Jacob

Investigation of Bolted Beam–Column Steel Connections with RBS Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Widespread damage to steel moment structures during the 1994 Northridge earthquake led researchers to develop alternative designs to the prescriptive pre-Northridge moment connection. Two key concepts have developed to provide a highly ductile response and reliable performance, strengthening the connection and weakening the beam, in order to avoid damages of column. The reduced beam section (RBS) allows controlled yielding of the beam by moving the plastic hinge region at the beam—in a short distance from the column’s face—protecting the connection from any type of failure. Various shape cutouts are possible to reduce the cross-sectional area. The extended end plate bolted connection was chosen as an important type of RBS. In this paper, dynamic performance investigation of bolted beam–column steel connections with RBS was done by means of a three-dimensional FE model using ANSYS 16.1 Workbench. The performance of bolted beam–column connection with different RBS cut under cyclic loading was investigated.
Deepa P. Antoo, Asha Joseph

Effect of Shock Absorbers in Enhancing the Earthquake Resistance of a Multi-storeyed Framed Building

The concept of base isolation systems has gained wide spread acceptance in enhancing the earthquake resistance of a structure. To accomplish the predicted behaviour of the base-isolated buildings, the design for base isolation system is regarded as the dominant factor. The base isolation of the structure basically reduces the storey shear and acceleration and increases time period, storey displacement and storey drift inducing flexibility in rigid structure by dissipating energy to foundation. For the study, three framed structures in zone-V with vertical and horizontal irregularity having G+10 storey have been analysed for its seismic behaviour with and without isolator using ANSYS. The analysis incorporating earthquake load is based on the seismic coefficient method as described in IS 1893: 2002. The study has been conducted in complete conformity with various provisions in Indian Standards as Code of Practice for plain and reinforced concrete IS 456-2000 [1].
Deepa Balakrishnan, Anjali, Salauddin

Review Paper on Pavement Condition Assessment

India has the second-largest road network system in the world. Roads are the most reliable and accessible system for transportation which determines the growth of the country. After construction, its condition goes on deteriorating with time due to several factors (load factors, environmental factors, etc.). Pavement performance prediction models developed by the researchers include models related to rutting, cracking, potholes, etc., and are applicable only for a specific set of traffic or environmental conditions. Thus, these models lack universal acceptance and applications. Development of realistic and efficient pavement condition rating model is very essential to determine the future condition of the pavement and its service life. An effort has been taken to identify the various parameters that affect the condition of the pavement and different tools used for modeling based on the literature review. The different tools for modeling include regression models, Markovian probabilistic process, multi-attribute utility theory, soft computing techniques, etc.
Saranya Ullas, C. S. Bindu

Land Base and Digital Elevation Model Creation Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Digital elevation model (DEM) layer is most useful for the preparation of water resource applications for creating catchment area and stream order, based on the resolution of DEM the stream order and basin area are changed. Methods behind DEM satellite images, aerial photogrammetry, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), GPS, and so on. UAV system is a data collection platform, and as a measurement instrument, UAV gives the high-resolution DEM by the stereopsis principle is becoming attractive for many surveying applications in civil engineering. The present study has investigated the impact of DEM on basin creation and stream order of obtained resolution from UAV of study area at M.V.G.R College Engineering. In this work, a mobile app for capturing aerial images using UAVs, around an area of 63.0 acres, acquired 149 photographs at the 510 ft elevation. Resampled DEM resolution from 5 to 30 m and compared the outputs with the BHUVAN, ASTER, and USGS resolutions. Orthomosaic used as input data set to create the digital layout of study area, DEM as input for water resource applications, and followed the steps  as fill, flow direction, flow accumulation, stream order, and basin by ArcGIS software. The present study created the high-resolution DEM using UAV is 0.325 m and compared with BHUVAN, ASTER, and USGS of resolutions with the help of 20 GPS as checkpoints in the campus at the time of UAV survey. The profile of UAV DEM elevation points is matching with GPS, ASTER, and USGS DEM, except 5 points, and these points are covered with trees within a distance of max 1.5 m. Also, stream order and basins are also affected with resolutions of DEM, and it was compared with 5, 10 20, and 30 m. The stream order was changed from 9 to 4, and basins are changed from 10,359 to 25. High resolution of DEM gives better details compared with medium resolution DEM for small catchment areas. Land base data was prepared with orthoimages of resolution 0.325 m. The significant layers are roads, road median, buildings, playgrounds, poles, trees, water bodies, and seating benches. Finally, it was concluded that UAV applicable to the collection of qualitative data and analysis of collected data.
Anupoju Varaprasad, Kundangi Haritha, Shaik Syffudin Soz, Samoju Chiranjeevi Achari

Multiphase Modelling of Orifice Cavitation for Optimum Entrance Roundness

Cavitation is a common problem in pumps, control valves and orifices; causing serious wear, tear and damages. Under the wrong condition, cavitation reduces the components lifetime drastically. Cavitation occurs when local static pressure in a fluid reaches a level below the vapour pressure of the liquid at actual temperature. This work aims to study the cavitating flow through a circular orifice using computational fluid dynamics and to find out optimum shape of orifice in terms of entrance roundness to minimize cavitation. Fluid model of sharp-edged circular orifice is created in CFD, and the obtained result is compared with that of available experimental result. After calibration and validation, the fluid models created for circular orifice is modified for different entrance roundness values. The influence of entrance roundness on cavitation characteristics is analysed and the optimum value of entrance roundness for minimizing cavitation is obtained.
V. R. Greeshma, R. Miji Cherian

Flood Risk Assessment Methods—A Review

Floods are the most prevalent natural disasters worldwide. Studies have shown that the frequency of flooding will increase in the future. Flood mitigation measures, which include structural as well as non-structural measures, can be selected effectively once the risk assessment for the area has been done accurately. In this paper, a review on flood risk assessment methods has been done considering flood risk as a function of flood hazard and vulnerability. This paper intends to analyse some of the most popular methods, including statistical methods, GIS and remote sensing, for assessing the flood hazard, flood vulnerability and flood risk, along with relevant case studies.
Ginu S. Malakeel, K. U. Abdu Rahiman, Subha Vishnudas

Flood Hazard Assessment and Flood Inundation Mapping—A Review

Flood is one of the most common destructive natural disasters. The damage due to flood is huge and irreparable. Flood hazard is a combination of several factors which include both natural and manmade. Flood inundation map is one of the most essential tools which help urban and infrastructure planners for the future development of city. In this paper, a review is done on various methods of flood hazard assessment and flood inundation mapping using the latest technologies which integrate Geographical Information System (GIS) and various hydrodynamic models. The paper comprises of the case studies from different parts of the world.
Reshma Antony, K. U. Abdu Rahiman, Subha Vishnudas
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