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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-workshop proceedings and the doctoral symposium of the 12th International Conference on Web Engineering, ICWE 2012, held in Berlin, Germany, in July 2012.
The volume contains four workshops and a doctoral consortium, each focusing on specific research issues that contribute to the main themes of the ICWE conference:
MDWE 2012: Eighth International Workshop on Model-Driven and Agile Engineering for the Web,
ComposableWeb 2012: Fourth International Workshop on Lightweight Integration on the Web,
WeRE 2012: Third Workshop on the Web and Requirements Engineering,
QWE 2012: Third International Workshop on Quality in Web Engineering.



8th International Workshop on Model-Driven and Agile Engineering for the Web (MDWE)

An Agile Model-Based Framework for Service Innovation for the Future Internet

Service innovation for the future internet, with service design and service engineering, can benefit from a combination of an agile and model-based development approach. An agile approach is focusing on early understanding of user needs and service touchpoints to optimise for the best user experience and rapid adaptation to emerging user needs. A model based approach allows for a combination of various domain specific language that are suited for expressing services on different abstraction levels, aimed at supporting higher productivity and quality in service engineering. This approach presents an agile model-based framework using the emerging OMG domain specific standard languages VDML, BPMN, IFML and SoaML for service design and engineering, relating value models, process models, user interface and interaction flow models, and service architectures and service contract models. The associated methodology and set of practices can be supported by the emerging OMG FACESEM standard (a Foundation for the Agile Creation and Enactment of Software Engineering Methods).
Arne J. Berre

Web Engineering for Cloud Computing

(Web Engineering Forecast: Cloudy with a Chance of Opportunities)
Web Engineering has always been concerned with modelling the functional aspects of Web applications. Non-functional (e.g., performance, availability) properties of Web applications have traditionally been a minor concern in the Web engineering community and have been seen as technology- or system-related issues. The advent of Cloud computing, with substantial delegation of “system concerns” to infrastructure or platform providers, seems at a first sight to confirm the validity of this choice. But is this really true?
We will argue that, in order to be able to actually profit from the Cloud computing paradigm, Web Engineering methodologies need several interventions transcending the platform-specific concerns of adapting to Cloud technologies.
In this position paper, we call for a long-due revamp of Web engineering methodologies to become more sound engineering practices with respect to both functional and non-functional aspects of Web applications. To this end, we propose a methodological framework that preserves the advantages of model-driven development, but also takes into account performance and cost considerations for Cloud-based applications.
Giovanni Toffetti

Developing Semantic Rich Internet Applications with the Sm4RIA Extension for OIDE

This paper introduces the Sm4RIA Extension for OIDE, which implements the Sm4RIA approach in OIDE (OOH4RIA Integrated Development Environment). The application, based on the Eclipse framework, supports the design of the Sm4RIA models as well as the model-to-model and model-to-text transformation processes that facilitate the generation of Semantic Rich Internet Applications, i.e., RIA applications capable of sharing data as Linked data and consuming external data from other sources in the same manner. Moreover, the application implements mechanisms for the creation of RIA interfaces from ontologies and the automatic generation of administration interfaces for a previously design application.
Jesús M. Hermida, Santiago Meliá, Jose-Javier Martínez, Andrés Montoyo, Jaime Gómez

A Model-Based Approach for Supporting Aspect-Oriented Development of Personal Information Management Systems

This paper is concerned by the development of tools for supporting personal information management over the Web; i.e. the storage and retrieval of personal information collected by users whilst interacting with Web applications. As personal information collections are unique to the user, it is very difficult to provide a uniform organization of information for everyone. Nonetheless, most personal information management systems (PIMS) will be concerned by similar aspects of information management such as information granularity, physical storage, policies for sharing information, versioning, etc. In this paper we analyze how information management aspects affect the development of PIMS. We start by identifying the relevant software aspects required to the development of PIMS. Then we describe how models featuring different aspects can be combined in a meta-model to build PIMS tools. This approach is illustrated by a case study.
Caio Stein D’Agostini, Marco Winckler

Model-Driven Development of Social Network Enabled Applications with WebML and Social Primitives

Social technologies are transforming the Web to a place where users actively contribute to content production and opinion making. Social networking requirements are becoming a core part of the needs of modern enterprises too, which need ad-hoc Web platforms that incorporate the right set of social features for their business. This leads to the need to provide facilities and methods for developing such socially enabled applications. In this paper we propose a model-driven approach that is specifically focused on the development of Web applications that exploit social features. In particular, we describe an extension of the WebML notation (a Domain Specific Language designed to model Web applications), comprising a set of modeling concepts that encapsulate the logic of the interaction with the social platforms. Upon this, we define a set of design patterns that respond to the typical needs of enterprises and we show some sample application scenarios.
Marco Brambilla, Andrea Mauri

Model Driven Extraction of the Navigational Concern of Legacy Web Applications

Nowadays, there is a current trend in software industry to modernize traditional Web Applications (WAs) to Rich Internet Applications (RIAs). RIAs improve the user experience by combining the lightweight distribution architecture of the Web with the interface interactivity and computation power of desktop applications. In this context, Model Driven Web Engineering (MDWE) approaches have been extended with new modeling primitives to obtain the benefits provided by RIA features. However, during the last decade, widespread language-specific web frameworks have supported actual web system development. In this paper we present a model driven modernization process to obtain RIAs from legacy web systems based on such frameworks. model driven techniques reduce complexity and improve reusability of the process, making the development more systematic and less error prone. Being navigational information of upmost importance for the modernization process of a web application, the paper is focused on presenting the model driven extraction of such concern from the legacy system artifact, presenting the extraction tools and process.
Roberto Rodríguez-Echeverría, José M. Conejero, Pedro J. Clemente, Víctor M. Pavón, Fernando Sánchez-Figueroa

Model-Driven Testing for Web Applications Using Abstract State Machines

The increasing diffusion and importance of Web Applications has led to strict requirements in terms of continuity of the service, because their unavailability can lead to severe economic losses. Techniques to assure the quality of these applications are thus needed in order to identify in advance possible faults. Model-driven approaches to the testing of Web Applications can provide developers with a way of checking the conformance of the actual Web Application with respect to the model built from the requirements. These approaches can be used to automatically generate from the model a set of test cases satisfying certain coverage criteria, and thus can be integrated in a classical test driven development process. In this paper we present an automated technique for Web Application testing using a model-driven approach. We present a way of modeling Web Applications by Abstract State Machines (ASMs), and a process for generating automatically from the model a concrete test suite that is executed on the Web Application under test in order to check the conformance between the application and the model.
Francesco Bolis, Angelo Gargantini, Marco Guarnieri, Eros Magri, Lorenzo Musto

4th International Workshop on Lightweight Integration on theWeb (ComposableWeb)

Understanding Web Augmentation

The increasing volume of content and actions on the web, combined with the growing number of “digital natives”, anticipate a growing desire of more sophisticated ways of controlling the Web experience. Webies 2.0 do no longer take the web as it is but imagine fancy ways of customizing the web for their own purposes. So far, mashups are the forerunner exponent of this tendency where consumers (companies and laymen alike) come up with new applications by synergistically combining third-party resources. This presentation moves the focus to another approach: “Web Augmentation” (WA). Rather than creating a new application, WA builds on top of the rendering of an existing website. In some sense, WA is to the Web what Augmented Reality is to the physical world: layering relevant content/layout/navigation over the existing Web to customize the user experience. Unlike mashups, the purpose for WA is not so much coming up with a new application, but framing the new development within the Web experience of an existing website. Since this is achieved by third parties in a non-intrusive way, WA is a client-side technology: extensive use of JavaScript (JS) using browser weavers (e.g. Greasemonkey) or plugs-in.
Oscar Díaz

UML2 Profile and Model-Driven Approach for Supporting System Integration and Adaptation of Web Data Mashups

From a system integration perspective, Web data mashups used in larger architectures often need to be integrated with other system components, such as services, business processes, and so on. Often a change in one of these components requires changes in many of the dependent components. Similarly, an analysis of some system properties requires knowledge about other system parts than just the mashup. Such features could be implemented using the model-driven development (MDD) approach, but existing MDD approaches for mashups concentrate on modeling and execution only. To remedy this problem, we propose a generic approach based on a UML2 profile which can easily be extended to model other system parts or integrated with other existing models. It is the foundation for generating or interpreting mashup code in existing languages as well as other system parts using the MDD approach and performing system adaptation or analysis tasks based on models in a standard modeling language.
Patrick Gaubatz, Uwe Zdun

Extending Web Standards-Based Widgets towards Inter-Widget Communication

In the last decade user interface mashups have gained much interest both in academia and in industry. Their development paradigm enables end users to develop applications without dealing with complexities of the underlying technologies by using so-called widgets. However, user interface mashups haven’t reached their full potential yet. Widgets are currently implemented in an isolated manner hindering seamless user-mashup interaction due to the need of manual state synchronization between widgets. Even though mashup run-time environments often enable inter-widget communication, current widget implementations surprisingly make use of it seldom. In this paper, we present a generic approach to semi-automatically extend widgets with dedicated inter-widget communication functionality. Thus, facilitating many cumbersome tasks of the end users when combining different widgets to a single application.
Olexiy Chudnovskyy, Sebastian Müller, Martin Gaedke

A Mashup Construction Approach for Cooperation of Mobile Devices

The purpose of this paper is to present a description based mashup approach for integration of mobile applications, Web services, and Web applications in order to realize cooperation of mobile devices. We define a description language called C-MAIDL for describing logic of mashup. We use a mashup generator for generating mashup applications from the description. We aim to allow composition of existing mobile applications, extracted information from Web pages and RESTful Web services. We use a mashup execution environment to automate cooperation among devices. Finally, we demonstrate that our approach allows users to create mobile mashup applications dealing with cooperation of devices easily and efficiently.
Korawit Prutsachainimmit, Prach Chaisatien, Takehiro Tokuda

EnglishMash: Usability Design for a Natural Mashup Composition Environment

The design of mashup tools combines elements from end-user development and software composition in the context of the Web. The challenge for mashup tool designers is to provide end-users with suitable abstractions, programming models and tool support for easily composing mashups out of existing Web services and Web data sources. In this paper we describe the design of a natural mashup composition environment based on the EnglishMash controlled natural language. The environment proactively supports users as they are learning the syntax of the EnglishMash language with features such as auto-completion, immediate feedback, live preview of the mashup execution and component discovery and selection based on natural language descriptions.
Saeed Aghaee, Cesare Pautasso

visualRSS: A Platform to Mine and Visualise Social Data from RSS Feeds

RSS, a popular method of syndicating frequently updated on-line content, allows data to be stored in a semi-structured, XML-based format. Much work has been carried out applying data mining techniques to RSS, but in this paper we propose the visualRSS (vRSS) application as a platform to mine and visualise data trends in RSS feeds, by tracking changes in keyword frequencies as a source of social data. Core components of vRSS’s architecture to manipulate RSS feeds are described. We also present the results of vRSS’s initial experimental usage involving 36 students in late 2011, concerning our research into preferences of mining types and visualisations.
Martin O’Shea, Mark Levene

Extracting Models from Web API Documentation

In order to develop web mashups, designers need an in-depth understanding of each Web API they are using. However, Web API documentation is rather heterogeneous, represented by big HTML files or collection of files in which it is difficult to identify elements such as API methods and how they can be invoked. Models have been widely recognized as first-citizen artifacts for documenting software applications, abstracting from implementation details, thus becoming good candidates to raise the level of automation of web mashup development. In this paper we present an approach for extracting models from Web API documentation. Our contributions are (i) a metamodel for standardizing the information extracted from Web APIs documentation; and (ii) a method for the extraction of models by parsing HTML files containing the Web API documentation, discovering useful data, and automatically generating the corresponding models (that conform to the defined metamodel).
Rolando Rodríguez, Roberto Espinosa, Devis Bianchini, Irene Garrigós, Jose-Norberto Mazón, Jose Jacobo Zubcoff

Third Workshop on the Web and Requirements Engineering (WeRE)

Identifying and Modelling Complex Workflow Requirements in Web Applications

Workflow plays a major role in nowadays business and therefore its requirement elicitation must be accurate and clear for achieving the solution closest to business’s needs. Due to Web applications popularity, the Web is becoming the standard platform for implementing business workflows. In this context, Web applications and their workflows must be adapted to market demands in such a way that time and effort are minimize. As they get more popular, they must give support to different functional requirements but also they contain tangled and scattered behaviour. In this work we present a model-driven approach for modelling workflows using a Domain Specific Language for Web application requirement called WebSpec. We present an extension to WebSpec based on Pattern Specifications for modelling crosscutting workflow requirements identifying tangled and scattered behaviour and reducing inconsistencies early in the cycle.
Mario Matias Urbieta, Gustavo Rossi, Silvia Gordillo, Wieland Schwinger, Werner Retschitzegger, María José Escalona

Requirements Models as First Class Entities in Model-Driven Web Engineering

The relevance of a detailed and precise specification of the requirements is well known; it helps to achieve an agreement with the customer on software functionality, user friendliness and priorities in the development process. However, in practice, modeling of requirements is avoided in many projects, in particular in the Web domain, mainly due to short time-to-market. The objective of this work is to make requirements modeling more attractive providing a win-win situation. On the one hand such models are used to improve the developer-customer communication and on the other hand to generate draft design models, which can be used in further steps of a model-driven development approach, and therefore reduce the developers’ efforts. We concretize the approach presenting a domain specific modeling language defined as an extension of the UML-based Web Engineering (UWE) profile and a set of model transformations defined to generate the content, navigation and presentation models of web applications. A social network application is used to illustrate UWE requirements and design models.
Nora Koch, Sergej Kozuruba

How the Web of Things Challenges Requirements Engineering

As a subset of the Internet of Things (IoT), the Web of Things (WoT) shares many characteristics with wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs) and ubiquitous computing systems (Ubicomp). Yet to a far greater degree than the IoT, WSANs or Ubicomp, the WoT will integrate physical and information objects, necessitating a means to model and reason about a range of context types that have hitherto received little or no attention from the RE community. RE practice is only now developing the means to support WSANs and Ubicomp system development, including faltering first steps in the representation of context. We argue that these techniques will need to be developed further, with a particular focus on rich context types, if RE is to support WoT application development.
Pete Sawyer, Animesh Pathak, Nelly Bencomo, Valérie Issarny

Automatic Test Case Generation from Functional Requirements in NDT

Navigational Development Techniques (NDT) is a Model-driven framework focused on defining Web requirements and obtaining related artefacts from them by means of transformations. Testing is one of the key elements in a software development process, however NDT neither include models to define artefacts nor transformations to obtain them from requirements. This paper presents how NDT improves with new models and transformations in order to generate test cases.
Javier Gutiérrez, Gustavo Aragón, Manuel Mejías, Francisco Jose Domínguez Mayo, Carmen M. Ruiz Cutilla

Third International Workshop on Quality in Web Engineering (QWE)

Reasoning about Knowledge from the Web

(Extended Abstract)
In the presence of a vast amount of user generated content evolving around entities such as people, locations, products, events, etc., it seems that documentoriented retrieval is rather old-fashioned. Imagine an HIV-relevant search task that with the goal of finding drugs that may interfere with HIV protease inhibitors. Retrieving an exhaustive list of explicit results (i.e., drugs that may interfere with HIV protease inhibitors) can be crucial for people suffering from HIV, whose health depends on the unmediated effect of protease inhibitors. Moreover it might be desirable to have the drugs in the result list ranked by their probability of interfering with protease inhibitors. In order to automatically retrieve such an exhaustive list of ranked answers, there are two subtasks that have to be addressed: (1) knowledge about drugs that stand in an interference relationship to protease inhibitors needs to be extracted from various web pages and appropriately combined, (2) the drugs need to be ranked by their probability of interfering with protease inhibitors. Neither of these tasks can be addressed by state-of-the-art search engines. Expecting the user to manually inspect retrieved documents to construct an exhaustive list of answers is simply unrealistic. As a matter of fact, major players in the search engine industry have recognized these issues and are attempting to shift the focus towards knowledge retrieval. For example, in 2010, Google acquired Metaweb, the company behind Freebase, one of the largest knowledge bases with explicit facts about real-world entities. In 2011, Google’s search group was restructured and renamed into “knowledge group” [6]. Another example is Microsoft’s Bing, which has undergone similar changes in recent years. By the end of 2009 Bing was returning Wolfram Alpha results to entity-related and scholarly queries [8], and by the end 2010 Bing announced the new “health search experience” with the focus “on further enabling people to get relevant information and make better decisions” [7].
Gjergji Kasneci

Toward the Improvement of a Measurement and Evaluation Strategy from a Comparative Study

For evaluating web applications (WebApps) and other entities in a systematic way and further fostering robust data analysis among projects, measurement and evaluation (M&E) strategies are a valuable asset in any organization. However, the evaluation of the quality of the capabilities for an integrated M&E strategy –seen as a resource– has often been neglected. We regard a M&E strategy is integrated if three coexisting capabilities are supported, namely: i) a conceptual framework, ii) a well-established process specification, and iii) an explicit methodological support. Under this premise, we conducted a case study where GQM + Strategies (Goal-Question-Metric), and GOCAME (Goal-Oriented Context-Aware Measurement and Evaluation) strategies were evaluated. The results allowed us to understand the strengths and weaknesses of both strategies. From this understanding we have planned improvement actions and implemented some changes in GOCAME as well. This paper ultimately analyzes the achieved gains after recommended changes were performed.
Fernanda Papa

Evaluation and Comparison of Three Open Courseware Based on Quality Criteria

In spite of the scale, popularity, and importance of the open courseware movement for users worldwide, there is yet no quality assessment framework that could support users on their quest for finding the most appropriate learning resource with regard to their educational needs. This paper presents both an evaluation and a comparison between three open courseware on databases offered by three major open courseware providers, which comply with three different open courseware paradigms. Both evaluation and comparison are based on our set of quality criteria that serve as general guidelines for development, use, modification, evaluation, and comparison of open educational resources and open courseware, from a social and constructivist perspective.
Monica Vladoiu, Zoran Constantinescu

ICWE 2012 Doctoral Consortium

Maintenance of Human and Machine Metadata over the Web Content

Semantics over the Web content is crucial for web information systems, e.g. for effective information exploration, navigation or search. However, current coverage of the Web by semantics is insufficient. Web information systems mostly create their own content based metadata (e.g., identified keywords) and user collaboration metadata (e.g., implicit user feedbacks) in a form of information tags – structured information with semantic relations to the tagged content. By information tags web information systems build a lightweight semantics over the Web content, in which they can store knowledge and information about the content and interconnections between information artifacts of the content. Crucial problem of information tags lies in dynamicity of the Web whose content is continually modified. This together with influence of time can lead to invalidation of information tags which are closely related to tagged content. We address this issue via maintenance approach based on automatically and semi-automatically generated rules that respect changes on the Web and time aspect. The maintenance utilizes a rule-based engine which watches changes in the tagged content, identifies dependencies among maintenance rules and builds optimal strategy of rules application. We evaluate proposed maintenance approach in two domains – programing repositories and digital libraries, which use shared information tags repository.
Karol Rástočný, Mária Bieliková

End-User-Development and Evolution of Web Applications: The WebComposition EUD Approach

End-user-development (EUD) has been a field of study for more than 30 years already. The results are visible – users, who have no or only little programming skills, have become active creators of Web applications, developing new tools to meet their situational needs, sharing them with colleagues and combining them into more complex solutions. Recent trends, like maturation of cloud computing, mass customization and changing demographics resulted in even higher demand for flexible, feature-rich and extensible platforms for end-user development. While the potential of involving end-users into developing task is extremely high, a clear need for new systematic methods has emerged, which would take both the new technological opportunities but also risks resulting from non-professional application development into account. In this paper, we present our research towards systematic, end-user-oriented Web application development. We identify relevant research challenges; derive requirements on EUD-oriented development process and show how the WebComposition approach can be extended to support end-users during the whole life-cycle of Web applications - from requirements elicitation to evolution.
Olexiy Chudnovskyy, Martin Gaedke

A Description-Based Mashup for Cooperation of Mobile Devices

Recently, the study of mobile mashup has become important in mobile computing. Mashup approaches were proposed to allow users to create mashup for mobile devices. However, existing approaches still lack attention to enable mashup for cooperation of mobile devices. We present a description-based mashup construction approach for cooperation of mobile devices. Our approach allows end-users to create mobile mashup applications by integrating mobile applications, Web applications and Web services. We define a mashup description language for describing logic of mashup. We use a mashup generator to simplify mashup construction. We also present a mashup execution environment to automate information sharing for cooperation of mobile devices.
Korawit Prutsachainimmit, Takehiro Tokuda

Model Based Simulation and Evaluation of Mobile and Web 2.0 Applications for Users with Special Needs

The accessibility of modern Web 2.0 applications for people with disabilities continues to be a problem [1,2,3]. Recent research has shown that even the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 only cover half of the accessibility problems that users encounter when interacting with those kind of web applications [4].
Those guidelines do not consider the fact that people with disabilities use special interaction patterns when interacting with web applications [5]. Analysing these interaction patterns and integrating them into the development process of web applications by providing tool support seems promising to help improving the accessibility of those web applications and also to reduce the time and costs for user trials [6,7].
The purpose of this thesis is to simulate interaction patterns of people with disabilities and to analyse how those interaction patterns have effects on the time and efficiency to complete given tasks in web applications. It will also analyse how effective this simulation will be in helping to design web applications, both accessible and usable.
To achieve this, a model based simulation framework will be designed that take into account different models involved in the interaction of users with web applications. A software tool will be developed that implements these models and the simulation.
Philip Ackermann

Decision Support for Off-the-Shelf Software Selection in Web Development Projects

Reusing off-the-shelf (OTS) components (including commercial and open source software) has become a key success factor in software development projects leading to reduced costs, faster time-to-market and better software quality. This especially holds true in the field of web engineering, where software engineers are faced with a steady proliferation of new technologies and standards. But there are upfront and ongoing efforts and risks attached to the adoption of OTS components which makes decision-making very difficult. Such difficulties are for example a large and intransparent market, incompatibilities between components and architectural mismatches. In this paper, a plan towards a novel platform concept is proposed that can improve the situation for software engineers coping with the adoption of OTS components during web-based systems development.
One key contribution is an empirically derived ontology to describe software artifacts on a feature level allowing a better description and identification of OTS components in the domain of web development. Another key contribution is a concept for a lean experience sharing mechanism. The goal of both contributions is to improve OTS component decision-making.
The concept will be implemented as a platform prepopulated with OTS components from the domain of Java web development. A cross-case study is planned to evaluate the concept.
Widura Schwittek, Stefan Eicker


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