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Über dieses Buch

The chapters in this book present the work of researchers, scientists, engineers, and teachers engaged with developing unified foundations, principles, and technologies for cyber-physical security. They adopt a multidisciplinary approach to solving related problems in next-generation systems, representing views from academia, government bodies, and industrial partners, and their contributions discuss current work on modeling, analyzing, and understanding cyber-physical systems.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Robust Digital Computation in the Physical World

Modern digital hardware and software designs are increasingly complex but are themselves only idealizations of a real system that is instantiated in, and interacts with, an analog physical environment. Insights from physics, formal methods, and complex systems theory can aid in extending reliability and security measures from pure digital computation (itself a challenging problem) to the broader cyber-physical and out-of-nominal arena. Example applications to design and analysis of high-consequence controllers and extreme-scale scientific computing illustrate the interplay of physics and computation. In particular, we discuss the limitations of digital models in an analog world, the modeling and verification of out-of-nominal logic, and the resilience of computational physics simulation. A common theme is that robustness to failures and attacks is fostered by cyber-physical system designs that are constrained to possess inherent stability or smoothness. This chapter contains excerpts from previous publications by the authors.
Jackson R. Mayo, Robert C. Armstrong, Geoffrey C. Hulette, Maher Salloum, Andrew M. Smith

Constraint-Based Framework for Reasoning with Differential Equations

An extension of constraint satisfaction problems with differential equations is proposed. Reasoning with differential equations is mandatory to analyze or verify dynamical systems, such as cyber-physical ones. A constraint-based framework is presented to model a wider class of problems based on logical combination of high-level properties. In addition, the complete correctness is verified using a set-membership approach in this framework. Finally, examples are given to demonstrate the benefits of the presented framework.
Julien Alexandre dit Sandretto, Alexandre Chapoutot, Olivier Mullier

Approximate Computing and Its Application to Hardware Security

The demand for high speed and low power in nanoscale integrated circuits (ICs) for many applications, such as image and multimedia data processing, artificial intelligence, and machine learning, where results of the highest accuracy may not be needed, has motivated the development of approximate computing. Approximate circuits, in particular approximate arithmetic units, have been studied extensively and made significant impact on the power performance of such systems. The first goal of this chapter is to review both the existing approximate arithmetic circuitries, which include adders, multipliers, and dividers, and popular approximate algorithms. The second goal of this chapter is to explore broader applications of approximate computing. As an example, we review two case studies, one on a lightweight device authentication scheme based on erroneous adders and the other one on information hiding behind a newly proposed approximate data format. This approach of applying approximate computing in security is interesting and promising in the Internet of things (IoT) domain where the devices are extremely resource constrained and cannot afford conventional cryptographic solutions to provide data security and user privacy. We also discuss the potential of approximate computing in building hardware security primitives for cyber physical system (CPS) and IoT devices.
Weiqiang Liu, Chongyan Gu, Gang Qu, Máire O’Neill

Mathematical Optimizations for Deep Learning

Deep neural networks are often computationally expensive, during both the training stage and inference stage. Training is always expensive, because back-propagation requires high-precision floating-point multiplication and addition. However, various mathematical optimizations may be employed to reduce the computational cost of inference. Optimized inference is important for reducing power consumption and latency and for increasing throughput. This chapter introduces the central approaches for optimizing deep neural network inference: pruning “unnecessary” weights, quantizing weights and inputs, sharing weights between layer units, compressing weights before transferring from main memory, distilling large high-performance models into smaller models, and decomposing convolutional filters to reduce multiply and accumulate operations. In this chapter, using a unified notation, we provide a mathematical and algorithmic description of the aforementioned deep neural network inference optimization methods.
Sam Green, Craig M. Vineyard, Çetin Kaya Koç

A Zero-Entry Cyber Range Environment for Future Learning Ecosystems

Sandia National Laboratories performed a 6-month effort to stand up a “zero-entry” cyber range environment for the purpose of providing self-directed practice to augment transmedia learning across diverse media and/or devices that may be part of a loosely coupled, distributed ecosystem. This 6-month effort leveraged Minimega, an open-source Emulytics™ (emulation + analytics) tool for launching and managing virtual machines in a cyber range. The proof of concept addressed a set of learning objectives for cybersecurity operations by providing three, short “zero-entry” exercises for beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels in network forensics, social engineering, penetration testing, and reverse engineering. Learners provided answers to problems they explored in networked virtual machines. The hands-on environment, Cyber Scorpion, participated in a preliminary demonstration in April 2017 at Ft. Bragg, NC. The present chapter describes the learning experience research and software development effort for a cybersecurity use case and subsequent lessons learned. It offers general recommendations for challenges which may be present in future learning ecosystems.
Elaine M. Raybourn, Michael Kunz, David Fritz, Vince Urias

Parallel Programming in Cyber-Physical Systems

The growing diffusion of heterogeneous Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) poses a problem of security. The employment of cryptographic strategies and techniques is a fundamental part in the attempt of finding a solution to it. Cryptographic algorithms, however, need to increase their security level due to the growing computational power in the hands of potential attackers. To avoid a consequent performance worsening and keep CPSs functioning and secure, these cryptographic techniques must be implemented so to exploit the aggregate computational power that modern parallel architectures provide. In this chapter we investigate the possibility to parallelize two very common basic operations in cryptography: modular exponentiation and Karatsuba multiplication. For the former, we propose two different techniques (m-ary and exponent slicing) that reduce calculation time of 30/40%. For the latter, we show various implementations of a three-thread parallelization scheme that provides up to 60% better performance with respect to a sequential implementation.
Sandro Bartolini, Biagio Peccerillo

Automatic Application of Software Countermeasures Against Physical Attacks

While the number of embedded systems is continuously increasing, securing software against physical attacks is costly and error-prone. Several works proposed solutions that automatically insert protections against these attacks in order to reduce this cost and this risk of error. In this chapter, we present a survey of existing approaches and classify them by the level at which they apply the countermeasure. We consider three different levels: the source code level, the compilation level, and the assembly/binary level. We explain the advantages and disadvantages of each level considering different criteria. Finally, we encourage future works to take compilation into account when designing tools, to consider the problem of combining countermeasures, as well as the interactions between countermeasures and compiler optimisations. Going one step further, we encourage future works to imagine how compilation could be modified or redesigned to optimise both performance and security.
Nicolas Belleville, Karine Heydemann, Damien Couroussé, Thierno Barry, Bruno Robisson, Abderrahmane Seriai, Henri-Pierre Charles

Time-Delay Attacks in Network Systems

Modern cyber-physical systems rely on dependable communication channels to accomplish cooperative tasks, such as forming and maintaining a coordinated platooning configuration in groups of interconnected vehicles. We define and study a class of adversary attacks that tamper with the temporal characteristics of the communication channels, thus leading to delays in the signals received by certain network nodes. We show how such attacks may affect the stability of the overall interconnection, even when the number of compromised channels is limited. Our algorithms allow us to identify the links that are inherently less robust to this class of attacks and to study the resilience of different network topologies when the attacker goal is to minimize the number of compromised communication channels. Based on our numerical results, we reveal a relation between the robustness of a certain network topology and the degree distribution of its nodes.
Gianluca Bianchin, Fabio Pasqualetti

Attack Tree Construction and Its Application to the Connected Vehicle

Remote connectivity of today’s and future cars increases their capabilities of autonomy and safety, but also their attack surface, as reported by several research papers. In the automotive domain, the security has a direct impact on the user’s safety. Thus, the management of risk is becoming the main concern of automotive manufacturers, especially for the future fully connected and autonomous cars. A possible way to quantify the overall risk of a system is the systematic construction of attack graphs and attack trees. These formalisms are presented as one of the possible solutions in the new Cybersecurity Guidebook for Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems (SAE-J3061). In this chapter we propose to use graph transformation to formally model the car architecture and its state evolution in order to study cyber-physical attacks against it. The resulting attacks are converted into attack trees which are used to estimate the overall risk of the system. Consequently, it becomes possible to study improvements while building a more secure architecture. The proposed method is designed to support the conceptual phase of the vehicle’s cyber-physical system. We illustrate the method on a small pedagogical example to show how it is possible to prove its efficiency.
Khaled Karray, Jean-Luc Danger, Sylvain Guilley, M. Abdelaziz Elaabid

Reinforcement Learning and Trustworthy Autonomy

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) possess physical and software interdependence and are typically designed by teams of mechanical, electrical, and software engineers. The interdisciplinary nature of CPS makes them difficult to design with safety guarantees. When autonomy is incorporated, design complexity and, especially, the difficulty of providing safety assurances are increased. Vision-based reinforcement learning is an increasingly popular family of machine learning algorithms that may be used to provide autonomy for CPS. Understanding how visual stimuli trigger various actions is critical for trustworthy autonomy. In this chapter we introduce reinforcement learning in the context of Microsoft’s AirSim drone simulator. Specifically, we guide the reader through the necessary steps for creating a drone simulation environment suitable for experimenting with vision-based reinforcement learning. We also explore how existing vision-oriented deep learning analysis methods may be applied toward safety verification in vision-based reinforcement learning applications.
Jieliang Luo, Sam Green, Peter Feghali, George Legrady, Çetin Kaya Koç

Identifier Randomization: An Efficient Protection Against CAN-Bus Attacks

The Cyber-Physical Architecture of vehicles is composed of sensors, actuators, and electronic control units all communicating over shared communication buses. For historical reasons the internal communication buses, as the Controller Area Network (CAN), do not implement security mechanisms; the communications are assumed to be “trusted.” Recently these trusted relations have been challenged and leveraged to launch cyber-physical attacks against modern vehicles. As a result, it becomes urgent to enhance the security features of vehicles and notably the robustness of the CAN bus which represents an important channel of attacks.
In this work we develop identifier randomization procedures whose aim is to protect the CAN protocol from reverse-engineering, replay, and injection attacks. The idea behind this proposition is to constantly change the message identifiers in a random fashion in a way that both sender and receiver can recover the original message identifier but not the adversary. We present the main challenges of the CAN-ID randomization solution, we highlight the weaknesses of state-of-the-art solutions presented in other scientific papers, and we propose and study candidate solutions to overcome these weaknesses. To compare our solutions to state-of-the-art solution, we propose to use the entropy and the conditional entropy as a metrics of security. Results show that the randomization functions that we propose outperform the state-of-the-art solution in terms of both entropy and conditional entropy.
Khaled Karray, Jean-Luc Danger, Sylvain Guilley, M. Abdelaziz Elaabid

Public Key-Based Lightweight Swarm Authentication

We describe a lightweight algorithm performing whole-network authentication in a distributed way. This protocol is more efficient than one-to-one node authentication: it results in less communication, less computation and overall lower energy consumption. The proposed algorithm is provably secure and achieves zero-knowledge authentication of a network in a time logarithmic in the number of nodes.
Simon Cogliani, Bao Feng, Houda Ferradi, Rémi Géraud, Diana Maimuţ, David Naccache, Rodrigo Portella do Canto, Guilin Wang

Physical Security Versus Masking Schemes

Numerous masking schemes have been designed as provable countermeasures against side-channel attacks. However, currently, several side-channel attack models coexist, such as “probing” and “bounded moment” models, at bit or word levels. From a defensive standpoint, it is thus unclear which protection strategy is the most relevant to adopt.
In this survey article, we review adversarial hypotheses and challenge masking schemes with respect to practical attacks. In a view to explain in a pedagogical way how to secure implementations, we highlight the key aspects to be considered when implementing a masking scheme.
Jean-Luc Danger, Sylvain Guilley, Annelie Heuser, Axel Legay, Tang Ming

Embedded Classifiers for Energy-Constrained IoT Network Security

We discuss the impact of physical computing techniques to classifying network security issues for ultra-low power networked IoT devices. Energy-constrained IoT systems, such as wearable devices, are already sensor rich and processing/computation constrained. The digital energy efficiency wall constrains the amount of signal processing possible at energy-constrained nodes. One rarely has any computational resources left to consider network security, leaving devices exposed. Fortunately many of these devices have infrequent wireless communication with very constrained command structures, but they still exhibit a system vulnerability, particularly when monitoring or controlling physical infrastructure. Physical computing approaches enable at least a factor of 1000 improvement in computational energy efficiency empowering a new generation of local computational structures for embedded IoT devices. These techniques offer computational capability to address network security concerns.
Jennifer Hasler

Challenges in Cyber Security: Ransomware Phenomenon

Ransomware has become one of the major threats nowadays due to its huge impact and increased rate of infections around the world. According to https://​www.​adaware.​com/​blog/​cryptowall-ransomware-cost-users-325-million-in- 2015, just one family, CryptoWall 3, was responsible for damages of over 325 millions of dollars, since its discovery in 2015. Recently, another family of ransomware appeared in the cyberspace which is called WannaCry, and according to https://​www.​cnet.​com/​news/​wannacry-wannacrypt-uiwix-ransomware-everything-you-need-to-know, over 230,000 computers around the world, in over 150 countries, were infected. This type of ransomware exploited a vulnerability which is present in the Microsoft Windows operating systems called EternalBlue, an exploit which was developed by the US National Security Agency (NSA) and released by The Shadow Brokers on April 14, 2017.
Spora ransomware is a major player in the field of ransomware families and is prepared by professionals. It has the ability to encrypt files offline like other families of ransomware, DMA Locker 3.0, Cerber, or some editions of Locky. Currently, there is no decryptor available in the market for the Spora ransomware.
Spora is distributed using phishing e-mails and infected websites which drops malicious payloads. There are some distribution methods which are presented in http://​malware-traffic-analysis.​net/​2017/​02/​14/​index2.​html (the campaign from February 14, 2017) and http://​malware-traffic-analysis.​net/​2017/​03/​06/​index.​html (the campaign from March 6, 2017).
Once the infection has begun, Spora runs silently and encrypts files with a specific extension, not all extensions are encrypted. This type of ransomware is interested in office documents, PDF documents, Corel Draw documents, database files, images, and archives and is important to present the entire list of extension in order to warn people about this type of attack: xls, doc, xlsx, docx, rtf, odt, pdf, psd, dwg, cdr, cd, mdb, 1cd, dbf, sqlite, accdb, jpg, jpeg, tiff, zip, rar, 7z, backup, sql, and bak. One crucial point here is that everybody can rename the files in order to avoid such infections, but the mandatory requirement is to back up the data.
Spora doesn’t add extensions to the encrypted files, which is really unusual in the case of ransomware, for example, Locky adds .locky extension, TeslaCrypt adds .aaa extension, and WannaCry appends .WNCRY extension. In this case, each file is encrypted with a separate key, and it is a nondeterministic encryption (files with an identical content are encrypted in different ciphertexts); the content which was encrypted has a high entropy and visualization of an encrypted file, which suggests that a stream cipher or chained block was used (AES in CBC mode is suggested, because of the popularity of this mode of operation in ransomware’s encryption schemes).
There are some methods which are used frequently to assure that a single copy of a malware is running, for example, the creation of a mutex, which means that the encrypted data is not encrypted again; therefore, we have a single step of encryption. Of course, there are some folders which are excluded from encryption, because the system must remain in a working state in order to make a payment, so Spora doesn’t encrypt the files which are located in the following directories: windows, program files, program files (x86), and games.
Spora uses Windows Crypto API for the whole encryption process. Firstly the malware comes with a hardcoded AES 256 key, which is being imported using CryptImportKey (the parameters which are passed to this function reveal that an AES 256 key is present). The AES key is further used to decrypt another key, which is a RSA public key, using a CryptDecrypt function (a ransom note is also decrypted using the AES key, as well as a hardcoded ID of the sample).
For every computer, Spora creates a new pair of RSA keys. This process uses the function CryptGenKey with some parameters which are specific for RSA keys, after that the private key from the pair is exported using the function CryptExportKey and Base64 encoded using the function CryptBinaryToString. A new AES 256 key is generated using CryptGenKey, is exported using CryptExportKey, and is used to encrypt the generated private RSA key (finally, the key is encrypted using the hardcoded RSA public key and stored in the ransom note). For every file a new AES key is generated which is used to encrypt the file, is encrypted using the generated public RSA key, and is stored at the end of every encrypted file.
Spora is a professional product created by skilled attackers, but the code is not obfuscated or packed, which makes the analysis a little bit easier. The implementation of cryptographic algorithms uses the Windows Crypto API and seems to be consistent; nonetheless the decryption of files is not really possible without paying the ransom. The ability to handle a complex process of encryption offline makes Spora ransomware a real danger for unprepared clients.
Ransomware usually uses the RSA algorithm to protect the encryption key and AES for encrypting the files. If these algorithms are correctly implemented, then it is impossible to recover the encrypted information.
Some attacks, nonetheless, work against the implementation of RSA. These attacks are not against the basic algorithm, but against the protocol. Examples of such attacks on RSA are chosen-ciphertext attack, common modulus attack, low encryption exponent attack, low decryption exponent attack, attack on encryption and signing with the same pair of keys, and attack in case of small difference between prime numbers p and q.
The attacks on AES implementation include ECB attack, CBC implementation without HMAC verification and oracle padding attack.
In the following sections, we present the fully analysis on three representative ransomware: Spora, DMA Locker, and WannaCry.
Vlad-Raul Paşca, Emil Simion

Applying Model-Based Situational Awareness and Augmented Reality to Next-Generation Physical Security Systems

Mixed, augmented, and virtual reality holds promise for many security-related applications including physical security systems. When combined with models of a site, an augmented reality (AR) approach can be designed to enhance knowledge and understanding of the status of the facility. The present chapter describes how improved modeling and simulation will increase situational awareness by blurring the lines among the use of tools for analysis, rehearsal, and training—especially when coupled with immersive interaction experiences offered by augmented reality. We demonstrate how the notion of a digital twin can blur these lines. We conclude with challenges that must be overcome when applying digital twins, advanced modeling, and augmented reality to the design and development of next-generation physical security systems.
Elaine M. Raybourn, Ray Trechter
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