Parametric amplification using an electron beam as a parametric medium was studied by many researchers in the past years. Both longitudinal beam waves and transverse beam waves have been utilized, but only the fast transverse cyclotron wave provides good performance. The fast cyclotron wave was successfully used by Adler, Hrbek and Wade ,  with r.f. pumping. The signal mode is a fast cyclotron wave which is actively coupled to an idler mode (also a fast cyclotron wave) by the pumping action of a high frequency transverse electric quadrupole field oscillating at twice the cyclotron frequency. Cyclotron waves can also be amplified by d. c. field pumping as pointed out by Gordon and others , . A wave analysis showing clearly the‘processes occurring in these devices was introduced by Siegman , . The signal mode is also a fast cyclotron wave as in the Adler-Wade tube. But the signal mode is now actively coupled to a slow cyclotron idler mode by the pumping action of a d.c. transverse electric quadrupole field. Later Wessel-Berg and BlQtekjaer studied the coupling between cyclotron waves and synchronous waves by axial symmetric and spatially periodic electrostatic or magnetostatic fields, and the coupling between two synchronous waves by d.c. electric field of straight quadrupoles . .
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- Cyclotron wave amplification using simultaneous R. F. -coupling and D. C. -pumping
A. E. Siegman
- Macmillan Education UK