Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
This contribution looks at dark networks among organized crime and terrorist organizations. Both of these clandestine groups use similar organizational designs and structures, emphasizing decentralized cellular networks to attain an optimal balance between efficiency and secrecy in efforts to avoid detection and disruption by law enforcement and the military. Organized criminals and terrorists frequently collaborate to advance their respective economic and political goals. Although research is hampered by difficulties in data collection, the terror–crime nexus appears to be increasing worldwide. Some analysts speculate that transnational organizations are converging, even merging, while others express doubts about that feasibility of alliances between groups with divergent objectives. This chapter reviews recent theoretical explanations and empirical research on the terror–crime nexus and discusses some fruitful directions for future research on the problem.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
ABC News (2001) ‘Transcript of Osama bin Laden Video’, December 13, available at: http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles, date accessed 24 December 2009.
Abuza, Z. (2003) ‘Funding Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Financial Network of Al Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiya’, Contemporary Southeast Asia, 25:2, 169–99. CrossRef
Arquilla, J. and Ronfeldt, D. (1999) ‘The Advent of Netwar: Analytic Background’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 22:3, 193–206. CrossRef
Bagley, B. (1989) ‘Colombia y la guerra contra la droga’, Politica Exterior, 3:11, 183–208.
Braun, M. (2008) ‘Drug Trafficking and Middle Eastern Terrorist Groups: A Growing Nexus?’ Policy Watch #1392: Special Forum Report, Washington: Washington Institute for Near East Policy.
Breiger, R., Schoon, E., Melamed, D., Asal, V. and Rethemeyer, R. K. (2014) ‘Comparative Configurational Analysis as a Two-Mode Network Problem: A Study of Terrorist Group Engagement in the Drug Trade’, Social Networks, 36:1, 23–39. CrossRef
Bright, D. A., Hughes, C. E. and Chalmers, J. (2012) ‘Illuminating Dark Networks: A Social Network Analysis of an Australian Drug Trafficking Syndicate’, Crime, Law and Social Change, 57:2, 151–76. CrossRef
Clarke, R. and Lee, S. (2008) ‘The PIRA, D-Company, and the Crime-Terror Nexus’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 20:3, 376–95. CrossRef
Cornell, S. E. (2006) ‘The Narcotics Threat in Greater Central Asia: From Crime-Terror Nexus to State Infiltration?’ China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly, 4:1, 37–67.
Costa, T. G. and Schulmeister, G. H. (2007) ‘The Puzzle of the Iguazu Tri-Border Area: Many Questions and Few Answers Regarding Organized Crime and Terrorism Links’, Global Crime, 8:1, 26–39. CrossRef
Dandurand, Y. and Chin, V. (2004) Links between Terrorism and Other Forms of Crime, Vancouver, BC: International Centre for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy.
Davis, G. F. and Cobb, J. A. (2010) ‘Resource Dependence Theory: Past and Future’, in: Schoonhoven, C. B. and Dobbin, F. (eds.) Stanford’s Organization Theory Renaissance, 1970–2000, Bingley, NY: Emerald Group, 21–42.
Dishman, C. (2001) ‘Terrorism, Crime, and Transformation’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 24:1, 43–58. CrossRef
Dishman, C. (2005) ‘The Leaderless Nexus: When Crime and Terror Converge’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 28:3, 237–52. CrossRef
Enders, W. and Jindapon, P. (2010) ‘Network Externalities and the Structure of Terror Networks’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 54:2, 262–80. CrossRef
European Union (2002) ‘Council Framework Decision of 13 June 2002 on Combating Terrorism’, EUR- Lex - 32002F0475, available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN, date accessed 28 June 2014.
Everton, S. (2012) Disrupting Dark Networks, New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Farley, J. D. (2009) ‘Two Theoretical Research Questions Concerning the Structure of the Perfect Terrorist Cell’ in Memon, N., Farley, J. D., Hicks, D. L. and Rosenorn, T. (eds.) Mathematical Methods in Counterterrorism, New York: Springer, pp. 91–103. CrossRef
Finckenauer, J. O. (2011) ‘Russian Transnational Organized Crime and Human Trafficking’, in: Kyle, D. and Koslowski, R. (eds.) Global Human Smuggling: Comparative Perspectives, 2 nd ed., Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 305–24.
Findlay, M. J. (2008) ‘Global Terror and Organized Crime: Symbiotic or Synonymous?’ Asian Journal of Criminology, 3:1, 75–89. CrossRef
Frantz, T. L. and Carley, K. M. (2005) ‘A Formal Characterization of Cellular Networks’, unpublished manuscript, Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon University.
Gettleman, J. and Kulish, N. (2013) ‘Somali Militants Mixing Business and Terror’, New York Times September 30, available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/01/world/africa, date accessed 2 October 2013.
Grabosky, P. and Stohl, M. (2010) Crime and Terrorism, London: Sage.
Hagan, F. E. (2006) “Organized Crime’ and ‘Organized Crime’: Indeterminate Problems of Definition’, Trends in Organized Crime, 9:4,127-37. CrossRef
Hoyos, F. L. (2008) ‘Guerra en America: Cuando la muerte de un terrorista es un ‘casus belli”’, Cuadernos de Pensamiento Politico, 18, 149–164.
Hutchinson, S. and O’Malley, P. (2007) ‘A Crime-Terror Nexus? Thinking on Some of the Links between Terrorism and Criminality’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30:2, 1095–1107.
Jackson, B. A. (2006) ‘Groups, Networks, or Movements: A Command-and-Control-Driven Approach to Classifying Terrorist Organizations and Its Application to Al Qaeda’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 29:3, 241–62. CrossRef
Jost, P. M. and Sandhu, H. S. (2000) The Hawala Alternative Remittance System and its Role in Money Laundering, Washington: U.S. Department of the Treasury, available at: http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/terrorist-illicit-finance/Documents/.pdf, date accessed 20 November 2013.
Keller, J., Desouza, K. C. and Lin, Y. (2010) ‘Dismantling Terrorist Networks: Evaluating Strategic Options Using Agent-Based Modeling’, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 77:7, 1014–36. CrossRef
Kostelnik, J. and Skarbek, D. (2012) ‘The Governance Institutions of a Drug Trafficking Organization’, Public Choice, 156:1-2, 95–103. CrossRef
Labrousse, A. (2005) ‘The FARC and the Taliban’s Connection to Drugs’, Journal of Drug Issues, 35:1, 169–84. CrossRef
Lal, R. (2005) ‘South Asian Organized Crime and Terrorist Networks’, Orbis, 49:2, 293–304. CrossRef
Lavorgna, A., Lombardo, R. and Serqi, A. (2013) ‘Organized Crime in Three Regions: Comparing the Veneto, Liverpool, and Chicago’, Trends in Organized Crime, 16:3, 265–85. CrossRef
Leong, A. V. M. (2005) ‘Definitional Analysis: The War on Terror and Organized Crime’, Journal of Money Laundering Control, 8:1, 19–36. CrossRef
Levitt, M. A (2002) ‘The Political Economy of Middle East Terrorism’, Middle East Review of International Affairs, 6:4, 49–65.
Lindelauf, R., Borm, P. and Hamers, H. (2009) ‘The Influence of Secrecy on the Communication Structure of Covert Networks’, Social Networks, 31:2, 126–37. CrossRef
Mannes, A., Shakarian, J. and Subrahmanian, V. S. (2011). ‘A Computationally-Enabled Analysis of Lashkar-e-Taiba Attacks in Jammu and Kashmir’, Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference (EISIC), 2011 European, available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6061239/?reload=true&arnumber=6061239 , date accessed 25 June 2014.
Makarenko, T. (2005) ‘Terrorism and Transnational Organized Crime: Tracing the Crime-Terror Nexus in South East Asia’, in: Smith, P. J. (ed.) Terrorism and Violence in South East Asia: Transnational Challenges to States and Regional Stability, New York: M. E. Sharpe, 169–87.
Mastrobuoni, G. and Patacchini, E. (2012) ‘Organized Crime Networks: An Application of Network Analysis Techniques to the American Mafia’, Review of Network Economics, 11:3, 1–43. CrossRef
Mullins, S. (2009) ‘Parallels between Crime and Terrorism: A Social Psychological Perspective’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32:9, 811–30. CrossRef
Mylonaki, E. (2002) ‘The Manipulation of Organized Crime by Terrorists: Legal and Factual Perspectives’, International Criminal Law Review, 2:3, 213–35.
Oehme, C. G. (2008) ‘Terrorists, Insurgents, and Criminals – Growing Nexus?’ Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 31:1, 80–93. CrossRef
Perri, F. S. and Brody, R. G. (2011) ‘The Dark Triad: Organized Crime, Terror and Fraud’, Journal of Money Laundering Control, 14:1, 44–59. CrossRef
Peters, G. (2009) Seeds of Terror: How Heroin is Bankrolling the Taliban and al Qaeda, New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Raab, J. and Milward, B. (2003) ‘Dark Networks as Problems’, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 13:4, 413–39. CrossRef
Reppetto, T. (2007) Bringing Down the Mob: The War Against the American Mafia, New York: Holt Paperbacks.
Ridley, N. (2008) ‘Organized Crime, Money Laundering, and Terrorism’, Policing, 2:1, 28–35. CrossRef
Roth, M. P. and Sever, M. (2007) ‘The Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as Criminal Syndicate: Funding Terrorism through Organized Crime, A Case Study’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30:10, 901–20. CrossRef
Saab, B. Y. and Taylor, A. W. (2009) ‘Criminality and Armed Groups: A Comparative Study of FARC and Paramilitary Groups in Colombia’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 32:6, 455–75. CrossRef
Sageman, M. (2008) Leaderless Jihad: Terror Networks in the Twenty- First Century, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. CrossRef
Sharma, D. (2013) ‘Growing Overlap between Terrorism and Organized Crime in India: A Case Study’, Security Journal, 26:1, 60–79. CrossRef
Shelly, L. I. and Picarelli, J. T. (2005) ‘Methods and Motives: Exploring Links between Transitional Organized Crime and International Terrorism’, Trends in Organized Crime, 9:2, 52–67.
Spapens, T. (2010) ‘Macro Networks, Collectives, and Business Processes: An Integrated Approach to Organized Crime’, European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law, and Criminal Justice, 18:2, 185–215. CrossRef
U.S. Department of State, Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism (2012) Country Reports on Terrorism 2012 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office), available at: http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209990.htm, date accessed 29 September 2013.
Wählisch, M. (2010) EU Terrorist Listing: An Overview about Listing and Delisting Procedures, Berlin: Berghof Foundation for Peace Support.
Wang, P. (2010) ‘The Crime-Terror Nexus: Transformation, Alliance, Convergence’, Asian Social Science, 6:6, 11–20.
Wang, P. (2013) ‘The Increasing Threat of Chinese Organized Crime: National, Regional and International Perspectives’, RUSI Journal, 158:4, 6–18. CrossRef
Wittig, T. (2009) ‘Terrorist Finance: Asking the Right Questions’, Politics, 29:2, 145–53.
Xia, M. (2008) ‘Organizational Formations of Organized Crime in China: Perspectives from the State, Markets, and Networks’, Journal of Contemporary China, 17:54, 1–23. CrossRef
- Dark Networks: The Terror–Crime Nexus
- Palgrave Macmillan UK
- Chapter 22