Bimodal distributions of protein activities in signaling systems are often interpreted as indicators of underlying switch-like responses and bistable dynamics. We investigate the emergence of bimodal protein distributions by analyzing a less appreciated mechanism: oscillating signaling systems with varying amplitude, phase and frequency due to cell-to-cell variability. We support our analysis by analytical derivations for basic oscillators and numerical simulations of a signaling cascade, which displays sustained oscillations in protein activities. Importantly, we show that the time to reach the bimodal distribution depends on the magnitude of cell-to-cell variability. We quantify this time using the Kullback-Leibler divergence. The implications of our findings for single-cell experiments are discussed.
Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
- Bimodal Protein Distributions in Heterogeneous Oscillating Systems
- verfasst von
Lan K. Nguyen
Boris N. Kholodenko
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg