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Über dieses Buch

This Palgrave Pivot investigates barriers to international agricultural trade caused by a lack of standardized maximum residue levels (MRL) for pesticides. Given the preponderance of pesticide use in food production and the increasing disruptions to trade, a better understanding of the reasons for the decline in international cooperation, the trade impacts, and potential solutions is critical. This volume will contribute to that understanding. Through an analysis of the economics of MRL regulatory harmonization, select case studies, and a look at incentives and disincentives for government agencies and regulators, the authors move the conversation beyond the theoretical, and into current practices and advice for creating workable solutions. This Pivot is a valuable resource for those concerned with food security, trade policy, agricultural production and export supply chains, as well as those interested in broader issues related to science policy and societal trends.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Why Maximum Residue Limits for Pesticides are an Important International Issue

Abstract
The food security challenges that will arise over the next 35 years are outlined. The importance of international trade in meeting food security goals is explained. The threat to trade in agri-food products posed by increasingly asynchronous import regulations for maximum residue limits (MRL) for pesticides is presented. The problems facing MRL harmonization are detailed.
May T. Yeung, William A. Kerr, Blair Coomber, Matthew Lantz, Alyse McConnell

Chapter 2. The Importance of Trade for Food Security

Abstract
The important contribution international trade has in meeting the food security challenges that will arise in the first half of the twenty-first century is explained. The dual effect of rising population and increasing incomes among the world’s poorest consumers on food demand is outlined. Slowing rates of increase in global agricultural productivity will add to the difficulties in increasing food production. The areas where food demand will increase the most are not where increases in food production can take place, meaning that international movement of foodstuffs must fill the gap.
May T. Yeung, William A. Kerr, Blair Coomber, Matthew Lantz, Alyse McConnell

Chapter 3. Incentives, or Not, for Governments to Remove Asynchronous MRLs as Trade Barriers

Abstract
While there are good economic and food security reasons to pursue international harmonization of MRLs, there are constraints on how it can be achieved. Both policy makers and those charged with implementing harmonization face incentives that do not align with the need to eliminate asynchronous MRL regulatory regimes across countries. Progress in harmonization of MRLs has, as a result, proved to be elusive.
May T. Yeung, William A. Kerr, Blair Coomber, Matthew Lantz, Alyse McConnell

Chapter 4. The Economics of International Harmonization of MRLs

Abstract
The economics of asynchronous regulations internationally is modeled. The model is used to show the economic costs associated with the persistence of regulatory divergence. Given the economic and food security benefits from international regulatory harmonization, factors that enter into decision-making that are not captured in economic assessments are chronicled.
May T. Yeung, William A. Kerr, Blair Coomber, Matthew Lantz, Alyse McConnell

Chapter 5. Previous Examinations of MRLs

Abstract
A review of the literature on MRLs and their effect on international trade is presented. The literature is far from extensive but, in general, confirms the propositions regarding the effects of asynchronous regulatory regimes among countries. Reduced international trade levels are reported. The nature of the observed barriers to trade arising from asynchronous MRL regulations is explained.
May T. Yeung, William A. Kerr, Blair Coomber, Matthew Lantz, Alyse McConnell

Chapter 6. Case Studies of Trade Problems Related to MRLs

Abstract
A number of case studies that provide deeper insights into the effects of asynchronous regulatory regimes for MRLs are presented. Cases include: Philippine banana exports to South Korea; imports of tree nuts into the EU; cocoa exports from Ghana; North American cranberries destined for the EU; cherry imports into Taiwan; and global avocado trade, among others.
May T. Yeung, William A. Kerr, Blair Coomber, Matthew Lantz, Alyse McConnell

Chapter 7. What Do Administrators Say?

Abstract
The results of a survey of individual government officials charged with administering MRL policy are reported. Respondents from a variety of countries with divergent policy regimes for MRLs were interviewed. They were asked about their current practices related to MRLs and how progress might be made in achieving regulatory harmonization for MRLs. Their answers were informative regarding both regulatory divergence and how barriers to trade could be reduced.
May T. Yeung, William A. Kerr, Blair Coomber, Matthew Lantz, Alyse McConnell

Chapter 8. Institutional Initiatives to Deal with Internationally Asynchronous MRLs

Abstract
The current initiatives by international institutions to deal with asynchronous regulatory regimes for MRLs are explained. The organizations examined include the Codex, the WTO, APEC, and the OECD among others. Despite considerable efforts in these international fora, progress remains a slow and resource intensive process.
May T. Yeung, William A. Kerr, Blair Coomber, Matthew Lantz, Alyse McConnell

Chapter 9. The Way Forward

Abstract
A number of suggestions arising from the insights gained in this research are presented. They represent practical means for achieving regulatory harmonization for MRLs. They will require both the political will to move forward and a spirit of international cooperation. Enhanced food security for the world’s poorest consumers should provide a motivation for both.
May T. Yeung, William A. Kerr, Blair Coomber, Matthew Lantz, Alyse McConnell

Backmatter

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