Skip to main content

2022 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

21. Decolonisation Challenges of the Brazilian/Latin American Geography/ies

verfasst von : Rogério Haesbaert

Erschienen in: Brazilian Geography

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Aktivieren Sie unsere intelligente Suche um passende Fachinhalte oder Patente zu finden.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

The theoretical trajectory of Brazilian Geography has been strongly influenced by the hegemonic thought in the European and North American context. Some authors such as Josué de Castro have, nevertheless, presented the seeds of approaches that are today labelled “decolonial”. With the end of the military dictatorship, the renewal promoted by the rise of historical materialism inaugurated a new period that is much more attentive to the spatiality of power and territory. The geographer Milton Santos played a notable role and reinforced a change in geographical thinking, with an influence throughout Latin America. More recently, the dissemination of so-called decolonial approaches has created new conditions for international and interdisciplinary dialogue, particularly by focusing on the acknowledgement of “local” or “regional” knowledge and the political commitment to social change, not only in analytical-critical terms, but also in practical-participative terms. As such, territory as an instrument for struggle against the coloniality of power (Eurocentric binary thought, patriarchalism, racism) is central for many subaltern groups, allowing us to speak about an openness of Brazilian and Latin American geographies (plural) to a fertile exchange with their ancient Euro-North American roots.

Sie haben noch keine Lizenz? Dann Informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 390 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe




 

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Fußnoten
1
The main names selected by Moreira in order to search for this answer are Josué de Castro, Aziz Ab’Saber, Carlos Augusto Monteiro, Bertha Becker and Milton Santos.
 
2
While the military dictatorship corresponds to the period between 1964 and 1985, it can be said that the relevance of quantitative Geography in Brazil, especially via IBGE—but also with an important centre at UNESP-Rio Claro (SP)—extended from 1969 to 1978 (Lamego, 2014).
 
3
Given the ambivalences of modernity, built on the interplay between autonomy and heteronomy (as the philosopher Cornelius Castoriadis said and as analysed in Haesbaert, 2002), perhaps it would be preferable to speak of “colonial capitalist”.
 
4
“The locus of enunciation (...) shows the need to think of knowledge as geopolitical” (Mignolo 2003, p. 21).
 
5
“Through her own (inseparable) thinking-acting, Anzaldúa (2016, p. 136) synthesises the border condition in the figure of the “new mestiza”, capable of developing “tolerance towards contradictions, (...) ambiguity”, learning “to be Indian in Mexican culture, to be Mexican from an Anglo point of view” and playing “juggling games with cultures”. This “pluralist mode of operation” (2016, p. 136)—which I would call transterritorial – also appears, as we will see later, in the proposal of Silvia Rivera Cusicanqui, another mestiza, a descendant of Bolivian Aymaras.
 
6
This included, for example, the joint organisation (with sociologist Carlos Vainer, from UFRJ) of the IVth Meeting of the Latin America and Coloniality of Power Professorship in 2013, bringing together some of the great names in this debate such as Anibal Quijano, Alberto Acosta, Catherine Walsh and Edgardo Lander.
 
7
In this text, when we identify a “geographer”, we refer to an author’s central contribution linked to issues that are considered geographical, and not to his/her academic-institutional training—if that were the case we would, in addition to a classic author like Josué de Castro, be excluding the most well-known intellectual of Brazilian geography, Milton Santos, whose university education was in Law.
 
8
On Manuel Correia de Andrade, based on works such as “A Guerra dos Catanos”, Ferretti says: “Andrade’s analyses of the historical revolts in the Northeast and the abolitionist and quilombola struggles throughout Brazilian history make an important contribution to Spivak’s questions about the voice of the subordinate: Brazilian subordinates spoke through their acts, exercising a centuries-old agency and influence through revolt, construction of community and different levels of negotiation that marked the entire history of Brazil. (...) Crucially, Andrade provided examples of how to engage in critical reflections on subordinate spaces, despite the limitations of colonial archives(...).” (2019, p. 1646).
 
9
Seminar “Milton Santos, 20 years—A period, a crisis: globalisation and territorial instability—a critical reading of the situation from Milton Santos”, held from 22–24 June 2021. Presentation available at https://​www.​youtube.​com/​watch?​v=​Z3wCsV3LY8g
 
10
In one of his main interviews, Milton Santos reveals that he has a “very complicated relationship with the black world”, due to a life story that has always made a mark on him, beginning with an “education to be a man of the court, a man of a full social life”. Therefore, despite the “blackness present as a result of the physical condition”, he states: “I’m not a militant in anything, be it politics or racialism” (Santos, 2000b, p. 88, translation). However, with his outstanding role as one of our rare black intellectuals with international projection, the influence of his name on Brazilian black movements is growing—as can be seen, for example, in the “rounds of conversation” of the ‘Milton Santos, 20 Years’ Seminar, already mentioned here, whose schedule and links are available at https://​www.​miltonsantos20an​os.​com.​br/​c%C3%B3pia-programa%C3%A7%C3%A3o-1.
 
11
Domination tends to give rise to purely utilitarian and functional territories, without allowing the attainment of a true socially-shared meaning and/or a relationship of identity with the space. Thus, territory must be seen from the perspective not only of a politically-structured dominion or control, but also of an appropriation that incorporates a symbolic ‘identity’ dimension—and, one might say, depending on the group or social class we are referring to—an emotional dimension” (Haesbaert 1997, p. 41, author's italics). “(...) The territory, relationally speaking, (...) results from the differentiated interaction between the multiple dimensions of power, from its more strictly political nature [linked to State power] to its more properly symbolic character, passing through relations within so-called economic power, inseparable from the legal-political sphere” (Haesbaert 2004, p. 93). “We could say that territory, as a relationship of domination and appropriation of society-space, unfolds along a continuum that ranges from a more ‘concrete’ and ‘functiona’ political-economic domination to a more subjective and/or ‘cultural-symbolic’ appropriation” (Haesbaert 2004, p. 95–96).
 
12
Latin American territorial struggles have a lot to teach us, but it is obviously not sufficient to take this concept as a simple transposition of its practical use, its ‘native’ construction—because the purpose of its use can also be to confuse, or it manifests itself in an excessively-manifold and mutable manner, making a process of understanding difficult. As Gramsci (2011) stated, fighting both blind passion and sectarianism, “the popular element 'feels', but does not always understand or know; the intellectual element 'knows', but does not always understand and, even less, 'feels’” (p. 202). As intellectuals, even though recognising ours as one among several forms of knowledge (and not as a great “law of history”, as Gramsci sometimes still believed) in what Boaventura de Sousa Santos calls “cognitive justice” or “ecology of knowledge”, it is also necessary to note the specificity of this knowledge, the limits of the (non-) rationality in which it is immersed, and the extent to which it can contribute to the re-reading and/or strengthening of these struggles and the social processes involved in them. Just as the field of ideas about territory is not a simple reflection of the multiple-sphere of concrete actions, these can also be remade in the light of new analytical conceptions about territory. The truth is that the boundaries between categories of analysis, practice and standardisations are always relative and, although endowed with relevant specificity, they are always open to their mutual reconfiguration” (Haesbaert 2021:348–349).
 
13
On the relationship between transterritoriality and transculturalism see Haesbaert & Mondardo (2010), and on multi-inter-transterritoriality and interculturality see Haesbaert, 2021 (especially pp. 337–338).
 
15
Without forgetting that territory also has a strong binding role in the urban peripheries of Latin America, to the point of sociologist-activist Tiaraju d’Andrea affirming that “perhaps territory consciousness is (...) a new form of class consciousness”. With the fragmentation of the “working class”, he notes, poor populations began to search for their reinforcement and a certain unity (in diversity) by identifying with the territory, life and living space, with the positive redefinition of terms such as “periphery”, thus seeking to overcome stigmas and fight for autonomy, as occurs with many cultural groups anchored in the territory. At the same time, however, other heteronomous territorialising subjects arise, such as neo-Pentecostal churches and organised crime (in the case of São Paulo, the PCC), “which also fulfil the role of organising a territory that is socially disaggregated”. Source: https://​outraspalavras.​net/​resgate/​2021/​06/​28/​tiaraju-dandrea-periferia-brasileira-alem-dos-cliches/​ (accessed: 2 July 2021).
 
16
As stated by Rodó-Zárate (2021): “There are issues that cannot be explained by capitalism or the relations of production, just as there are issues that cannot be explained by gender or race. (…) Starting from a situated perspective of intersectionality, in which place has a constitutive role, the debate is not whether there is an axis that explains more at a global level, but rather which axes are necessary in order to understand a situation of concrete inequality”. (p. 97).
 
17
Rivera Cusicanqui goes as far as proposing the “idea of a ch’ixi world as a possible horizon of emancipatory transformation. By living in the midst of opposing mandates, creating links with the cosmos through allegories, the ch'isi balance, contradictory and at the same time interwoven, of the irreducible differences between men and women (or between Indians and mestizos, etc., etc.) would make another world possible”. [other worlds, I would say] (2018, p. 56).
 
Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat Anderson KB (2019) (2000) Marx nas margens: nacionalismo, etnia e sociedades não ocidentais. Boitempo, São Paulo Anderson KB (2019) (2000) Marx nas margens: nacionalismo, etnia e sociedades não ocidentais. Boitempo, São Paulo
Zurück zum Zitat Andrade O (1995) (1928) A Utopia Antropofágica, 2ª. edn. Globo, Rio de Janeiro Andrade O (1995) (1928) A Utopia Antropofágica, 2ª. edn. Globo, Rio de Janeiro
Zurück zum Zitat Anzaldúa G (2016) (1987) Borderlands/La Frontera: la nuevamestiza. Capitán Swing Libros, Madri Anzaldúa G (2016) (1987) Borderlands/La Frontera: la nuevamestiza. Capitán Swing Libros, Madri
Zurück zum Zitat Berdoulay V (2017) (1981) A Escola Francesa de Geografia: uma abordagem contextual. Perspectiva, São Paulo Berdoulay V (2017) (1981) A Escola Francesa de Geografia: uma abordagem contextual. Perspectiva, São Paulo
Zurück zum Zitat Bonnemaison J (1981) Voyage autour du territoire. L’Espace Géographique X(4) Bonnemaison J (1981) Voyage autour du territoire. L’Espace Géographique X(4)
Zurück zum Zitat Carelli L (2020) Arqueología del mestizaje: colonialism y racialización. Ed. UFRO, Temuco; CLACSO, Buenos Aires Carelli L (2020) Arqueología del mestizaje: colonialism y racialización. Ed. UFRO, Temuco; CLACSO, Buenos Aires
Zurück zum Zitat Cruz VC (2017) Geografia e pensamento descolonial: notas sobre umdiálogo necessário para a renovação do pensamento crítico. In: Cruz VC, Oliveira DA (orgs) Geografia e giro descolonial: experiências, ideias e horizontes de renovação do pensamento crítico. Letra Capital, Rio de Janeiro Cruz VC (2017) Geografia e pensamento descolonial: notas sobre umdiálogo necessário para a renovação do pensamento crítico. In: Cruz VC, Oliveira DA (orgs) Geografia e giro descolonial: experiências, ideias e horizontes de renovação do pensamento crítico. Letra Capital, Rio de Janeiro
Zurück zum Zitat Cruz VC (2020) Da produção do espaço ao governo do espaço: deslocamentos metodológicos para uma abordagem territorial. In: Limonad E, Barbosa JL (orgs) Geografias, Reflexões Conceituais, Leituras da Ciência Geográfica, Estudos Geográficos. Max Limonad, São Paulo Cruz VC (2020) Da produção do espaço ao governo do espaço: deslocamentos metodológicos para uma abordagem territorial. In: Limonad E, Barbosa JL (orgs) Geografias, Reflexões Conceituais, Leituras da Ciência Geográfica, Estudos Geográficos. Max Limonad, São Paulo
Zurück zum Zitat Elden S (2013) The birth of territory. Chicago University Press, Chicago & London Elden S (2013) The birth of territory. Chicago University Press, Chicago & London
Zurück zum Zitat Escobar A (2003) Mundos y conocimiento de otro mundo. El programa de investigación de modernidad/colonialidad latinoamericano. Tabula Rasa 1 Escobar A (2003) Mundos y conocimiento de otro mundo. El programa de investigación de modernidad/colonialidad latinoamericano. Tabula Rasa 1
Zurück zum Zitat Escobar A (2015) Territorios de diferencia: la ontologia política de los “derechos al territorio”. Cuadernos de Antropología Social 41 Escobar A (2015) Territorios de diferencia: la ontologia política de los “derechos al territorio”. Cuadernos de Antropología Social 41
Zurück zum Zitat Ferretti F (2019) Decolonising the Northeast: Brazilian subalterns, non-European heritages and radical geography in Pernambuco. Ann Am Assoc Geogr 109:5 Ferretti F (2019) Decolonising the Northeast: Brazilian subalterns, non-European heritages and radical geography in Pernambuco. Ann Am Assoc Geogr 109:5
Zurück zum Zitat Ferretti F (2020) Subaltern connections: Brazilian critical geographers, development and African decolonisation. Third World Q 41:5CrossRef Ferretti F (2020) Subaltern connections: Brazilian critical geographers, development and African decolonisation. Third World Q 41:5CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Gottman J (1973) The significance of territory. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville Gottman J (1973) The significance of territory. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville
Zurück zum Zitat Haesbaert R (2002) Questões sobre a (pós)modernidade. In: Haesbaert R (ed) Territórios Alternativos. Contexto, São Paulo Haesbaert R (2002) Questões sobre a (pós)modernidade. In: Haesbaert R (ed) Territórios Alternativos. Contexto, São Paulo
Zurück zum Zitat Haesbaert R (2004) O mito da desterritorialização: do “fim dos territórios” à multierritorialidade. Bertrand Brasil, Rio de Janeiro Haesbaert R (2004) O mito da desterritorialização: do “fim dos territórios” à multierritorialidade. Bertrand Brasil, Rio de Janeiro
Zurück zum Zitat Haesbaert R (2010) Regional-Global: dilemas da região e da regionalização na Geografia contemporânea. Bertrand Brasil, Rio de Janeiro Haesbaert R (2010) Regional-Global: dilemas da região e da regionalização na Geografia contemporânea. Bertrand Brasil, Rio de Janeiro
Zurück zum Zitat Haesbaert R (1997) Des-territorialização e identidade: a rede “gaúcha” no Nordeste. EdUFF, Niterói Haesbaert R (1997) Des-territorialização e identidade: a rede “gaúcha” no Nordeste. EdUFF, Niterói
Zurück zum Zitat Haesbaert R (2014) Viver no limite. Bertrand Brasil, Rio de Janeiro Haesbaert R (2014) Viver no limite. Bertrand Brasil, Rio de Janeiro
Zurück zum Zitat Haesbaert R (2021) Território e Descolonialidade: sobre o giro (multi)territorial/de(s) colonial na América Latina. CLACSO, Buenos Aires Haesbaert R (2021) Território e Descolonialidade: sobre o giro (multi)territorial/de(s) colonial na América Latina. CLACSO, Buenos Aires
Zurück zum Zitat Kusch R (2000) Obras Completas. Fundación Ross, Rosario Kusch R (2000) Obras Completas. Fundación Ross, Rosario
Zurück zum Zitat Lamego M (2014) O IBGE e a Geografia quantitativa brasileira: construindo um objeto imaginário. Terra Brasilis (Nova Série) 3 Lamego M (2014) O IBGE e a Geografia quantitativa brasileira: construindo um objeto imaginário. Terra Brasilis (Nova Série) 3
Zurück zum Zitat Lefebvre H (1986) (1974) La production de l’espace. Anthropos, Paris Lefebvre H (1986) (1974) La production de l’espace. Anthropos, Paris
Zurück zum Zitat Mariátegui J (2008) (1928) Sete ensaios de interpretação da realidade peruana. Expressão Popular, São Paulo & CLACSO, Buenos Aires Mariátegui J (2008) (1928) Sete ensaios de interpretação da realidade peruana. Expressão Popular, São Paulo & CLACSO, Buenos Aires
Zurück zum Zitat Massey D (1992) Sexismo flexível. Sociológica 18(7) Massey D (1992) Sexismo flexível. Sociológica 18(7)
Zurück zum Zitat Moreira R (2010) O pensamento geográfico brasileiro 3: as matrizes brasileiras. Contexto, São Paulo Moreira R (2010) O pensamento geográfico brasileiro 3: as matrizes brasileiras. Contexto, São Paulo
Zurück zum Zitat Ortiz F (1999) (1940) Contrapunteo cubano del tabaco y del azúcar. Ariel, Barcelona Ortiz F (1999) (1940) Contrapunteo cubano del tabaco y del azúcar. Ariel, Barcelona
Zurück zum Zitat Porto-Gonçalves C (2003) Geografando nos varadouros do mundo: da territorialidade seringalista (o Seringal) à territorialidade seringueira (a Reserva Extrativista). Edições Ibama, Brasília Porto-Gonçalves C (2003) Geografando nos varadouros do mundo: da territorialidade seringalista (o Seringal) à territorialidade seringueira (a Reserva Extrativista). Edições Ibama, Brasília
Zurück zum Zitat Porto-Gonçalves CW (2013) (2008) Lareinvención de los territorios: la experiência latino-americana y caribeña. In: Porto-Gonçalves CW Territorialidades y lucha por el territorio em América Latina. Unión Geográfica Internacional, Lima Porto-Gonçalves CW (2013) (2008) Lareinvención de los territorios: la experiência latino-americana y caribeña. In: Porto-Gonçalves CW Territorialidades y lucha por el territorio em América Latina. Unión Geográfica Internacional, Lima
Zurück zum Zitat Rodó-Zárate M (2021) Interseccionalidad, desigualdades, lugares y emociones. Bellaterra, Manresa Rodó-Zárate M (2021) Interseccionalidad, desigualdades, lugares y emociones. Bellaterra, Manresa
Zurück zum Zitat Santos M (2006) (1996) Por uma epistemologia existencial. In: Lemos A, Silveira ML, Arroyo M (orgs) Questões territoriais na América Latina. USP, Buenos Aires: Clacso& São Paulo Santos M (2006) (1996) Por uma epistemologia existencial. In: Lemos A, Silveira ML, Arroyo M (orgs) Questões territoriais na América Latina. USP, Buenos Aires: Clacso& São Paulo
Zurück zum Zitat Santos M (1978) Por uma Geografia Nova. Hucitec, São Paulo Santos M (1978) Por uma Geografia Nova. Hucitec, São Paulo
Zurück zum Zitat Santos M (1979) O espaço dividido: os dois circuitos da economia urbana dos países subdesenvolvidos. Francisco Alves, Rio de Janeiro Santos M (1979) O espaço dividido: os dois circuitos da economia urbana dos países subdesenvolvidos. Francisco Alves, Rio de Janeiro
Zurück zum Zitat Santos M (1996) Por uma Geografia cidadã: por uma epistemologia da existência. Boletim Gaúcho de Geografia 21 Santos M (1996) Por uma Geografia cidadã: por uma epistemologia da existência. Boletim Gaúcho de Geografia 21
Zurück zum Zitat Santos M (2000a) Por uma outra globalização: do pensamento único à consciência universal. Record, Rio de Janeiro Santos M (2000a) Por uma outra globalização: do pensamento único à consciência universal. Record, Rio de Janeiro
Zurück zum Zitat Santos M (2000b) Território e sociedade: entrevista com Milton Santos. Fundação Perseu Abramo, São Paulo Santos M (2000b) Território e sociedade: entrevista com Milton Santos. Fundação Perseu Abramo, São Paulo
Zurück zum Zitat Santos M (2009) (1971) O trabalho do geógrafo no Terceiro Mundo. EdUSP, São Paulo Santos M (2009) (1971) O trabalho do geógrafo no Terceiro Mundo. EdUSP, São Paulo
Zurück zum Zitat Santos M (1960) Marianneem preto e branco. Livraria Progresso, Salvador Santos M (1960) Marianneem preto e branco. Livraria Progresso, Salvador
Zurück zum Zitat Silva JB (2012) França e a Escola Brasileira de Geografia: verso e reverso. Edições UFC, Fortaleza Silva JB (2012) França e a Escola Brasileira de Geografia: verso e reverso. Edições UFC, Fortaleza
Zurück zum Zitat Sousa Santos B, Menezes M (orgs) (2010) Epistemologias do Sul. Cortez, São Paulo Sousa Santos B, Menezes M (orgs) (2010) Epistemologias do Sul. Cortez, São Paulo
Zurück zum Zitat Svampa M (2016) Debates Latinoamericanos: indianismo, desarrollo, dependencia y populismo. Edhasa, Buenos Aires Svampa M (2016) Debates Latinoamericanos: indianismo, desarrollo, dependencia y populismo. Edhasa, Buenos Aires
Zurück zum Zitat Vanier M (2008) Le Pouvoir des Territoires: Essai sur l’Interterritorialité. Economica & Anthropos, Paris Vanier M (2008) Le Pouvoir des Territoires: Essai sur l’Interterritorialité. Economica & Anthropos, Paris
Zurück zum Zitat Walsh C (2009) Interculturalidad, Estado, Sociedad: luchas (de)coloniales de nuestraépoca. UniversidadAndinaSimón Bolivar & Abya-Yala, Quito Walsh C (2009) Interculturalidad, Estado, Sociedad: luchas (de)coloniales de nuestraépoca. UniversidadAndinaSimón Bolivar & Abya-Yala, Quito
Zurück zum Zitat Zaragocin S (2018) La Geopolítica del útero: hacia una geopolítica feminista decolonial en espacios de muerte lenta. In: Cruz, D. and Bayon, M. (eds) Cuerpos, territorios y feminismos. Abya-Yala & Estudios Ecologistas del Tercer Mundo, Quito Zaragocin S (2018) La Geopolítica del útero: hacia una geopolítica feminista decolonial en espacios de muerte lenta. In: Cruz, D. and Bayon, M. (eds) Cuerpos, territorios y feminismos. Abya-Yala & Estudios Ecologistas del Tercer Mundo, Quito
Metadaten
Titel
Decolonisation Challenges of the Brazilian/Latin American Geography/ies
verfasst von
Rogério Haesbaert
Copyright-Jahr
2022
Verlag
Springer Nature Singapore
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-3704-0_21