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The decommissioning of nuclear facilities provides good examples of stakeholder issues and concerns and approaches to resolution. Nuclear power stations, licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), typically strive for license termination conditions that would permit unrestricted use of the site so that, in some cases, reutilization of the site would be possible for a specific use. Former nuclear weapons production facilities are decommissioned to a variety of end states, consistent with the ongoing mission of the site. In all cases, stakeholder concerns must be factored into the decision and the overseeing agencies, the NRC, the Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and State oversight agencies must be sensitive to their concerns.
In this chapter, we provide an overview of decommissioning activities, the types of facilities undergoing decommissioning and the different regulatory frameworks. Desired end states are discussed along with stakeholder concerns and issues. Examples of drivers and constraints for major decommissioning decision factors are examined. We end with a selected case study – the decommissioning of the Big Rock Point nuclear power station and lessons learned from this and other decommissioning activities.
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Currently, the DOE defines D&D as “Deactivation and Decommissioning,” although in the past D&D referred to “Decontamination and Decommissioning.” Definitions for these and other important decommissioning activities are provided in subsequent sections of this chapter. The American Nuclear Society uses the term Decommissioning, Decontamination and Reutilization in recognition of the fact that, in many cases, the land and possibly some of the structures can be continued to be used in a productive way.
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Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Part 20 SubpartE Radiological Criteria for License Termination.
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NRC (2009) Status of the Decommissioning Program, Annual Report, http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/commission/secys/2009/secy2009-0167/2009-0167scy.pdf Accessed 24 August 2010
NRC (2006a) NUREG 1757, Consolidated NMSS Decommissioning Guidance v1 rev.2 Decommissioning Process for Materials Licensees, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555–0001
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NRC (2003a) NUREG 1757, Consolidated NMSS Decommissioning Guidance v3 Financial Assurance, Recordkeeping, and Timeliness, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555–0001
NRC (2003b) NUREG 1700, rev. 1 Standard Review Plan for Evaluating Nuclear Power Reactor License Termination Plans, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555–0001
NRC Fact Sheet on Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants, (2010) http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/decommissioning.html Accessed 1 September 2010
Watson B et al (2010) Power Reactor Decommissioning – Regulatory Experience From Trojan to Rancho Seco and Plants In-Between. American Nuclear Society Topical Meeting and Technology Expo on Decommissioning, Decontamination & Reutilization, Idaho Falls, ID August 2010
- Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities and Stakeholder Concerns
James H. Clarke
Charles W. Powers
David S. Kosson
- Springer New York
- Chapter 9