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Über dieses Buch

Within all areas of transportation, solutions for economical and environmentally friendly technology are being examined. Fuel consumption, combustion processes, control and limitation of pollutants in the exhaust gas are technological problems, for which guidelines like 98/69/EC and 99/96 determine the processes for the reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. Apart from technological solutions, the consequences of international legislation and their effects on environmental and climate protection in the area of the transportation are discussed.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Basics of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Gas Emissions

Abstract
The central topics of the book are fuel consumption and exhaust gas emission saving technologies, monitoring possibilities, infrastructure impacts, administrative and legislative options, and financial and social conditions in transportation.
Michael Palocz-Andresen

Chapter 2. Fuels in Transportation

Abstract
In 1900, there were no gas stations—blacksmiths and pharmacists sold the fuel. People first used petrol for lighting and later to lubricate machine tools.
Michael Palocz-Andresen

Chapter 3. Construction of Transportation Means

Abstract
Construction is the oldest field of work in the history of transportation means. In the Stone Age, people constructed carriages and ships from wood. Since the Industrial Revolution steel has gained the leading role in construction. Today, there is a broad range of literature and experiences are nearly unlimited for vehicle, airplane, and ship construction. For this reason, the main aspect of the current development in construction is to find the optimal path for decreasing fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions.
Michael Palocz-Andresen

Chapter 4. Fuel System and Fuel Measurement

Abstract
The fuel economy of SFC of the engine is usually measured on the test bench under nominal conditions and represented in a consumption identification diagram. The real fuel consumption in travelling, flying and shipping normally differs from the consumption on the test bench. Road vehicles’, airplanes’, and ships’ real fuel consumption depends on the performance, load, speed, operation conditions, etc.
Michael Palocz-Andresen

Chapter 5. Emissions

Abstract
Transportation produces exhaust gas emissions. The products are gases, particles, noise, and heat. However, pollutants can be emitted not only by engines but also by other devices such as fire extinguishers, fuel tanks, and refrigerators on vehicles, airplanes, and ships. In fact, most emissions are produced by the burning process in internal combustion engines.
Michael Palocz-Andresen

Chapter 6. Electronic Systems and Computer Technology

Abstract
Manufacturers of ships, airplanes, and vehicles introduced the first electronic equipment at the beginning of the 1980s. These systems have different names in road transportation, aviation, and marine transport, but they universally mean an internal system of monitoring and regulating all operation functions with electronic systems and computer technology.
Michael Palocz-Andresen

Chapter 7. Aerodynamics of Vehicles and Airplanes, and Hydrodynamics of Ships

Abstract
The aerodynamics of vehicles and airplanes, and the common hydro- and aerodynamics of ships determine all events which influence the flow around vehicles, airplanes, and ships. Resistance causes draught which results from the shape of the means of transportation designed by manufacturers and is decisive for the aerodynamics of road vehicles and airplanes, and the common aero- and hydrodynamic properties of ships.
Michael Palocz-Andresen

Chapter 8. Propulsion Systems

Abstract
The propulsion systems generate the power and drive vehicles, airplanes, and ships. Although the operation mediums, i.e., the road surface, the air, and the water are physically and chemically very different, propulsion systems are similarly structured in all means of transportation. Parts of the propulsion are often called the transmission or drive chain.
Michael Palocz-Andresen

Chapter 9. Vehicle Engines

Abstract
Internal combustion engines use fossil fuels. They determine the typical construction of transportation means by transforming the chemical energy in fuel into mechanical power. The principle is common in vehicles, airplanes, ships, and portable machines.
Michael Palocz-Andresen

Chapter 10. Airplane Engines

Abstract
Aircraft engines operate with reciprocating, i.e., a four-stroke internal combustion engines or with gas turbines. Gas turbines, operating continuously and using the principle of the Brayton-cycle, have gained a leading position in the last 50 years. Most modern airliners use gas turbines in jet engines, fly faster, and at higher altitudes than reciprocating engine and propeller-driven airplanes.
Michael Palocz-Andresen

Chapter 11. Marine Diesel Engines

Abstract
Marine diesel engines are very similar to the self-ignition engines in heavy-duty vehicles, but they are generally larger, more complex, and operate with higher efficiency. About 75% of all marine diesel engines are four-stroke engines; however, 75% of the installed power is produced by two-stroke engines. Four-stroke marine diesel engines are gaining importance not only in inland, but also in marine shipping, primarily in smaller container and bulk carrier ships. Fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions of ship engines depend not only on the principle of operation, but also on the type, the size, the power, the load, the speed, etc.
Michael Palocz-Andresen

Chapter 12. Type Approval and Type Certification

Abstract
Legislation prescribes strict procedures for the approval and certification of vehicles, airplanes, and ships worldwide, but the requirements are different in individual countries.
Michael Palocz-Andresen

Chapter 13. Inspection and Maintenance

Abstract
The inspection of vehicles, airplanes, and ships is defined by different directives, but there are common points regarding the inspection measures in all types of transportation.
Michael Palocz-Andresen

Chapter 14. Navigation

Abstract
The word “navigation” historically means the art of the steering a ship. Therefore, changes in operation are related to the route and the journey. Today, navigation is a widely used method for the optimal regulation of traffic on roads, water, and in the air.
Michael Palocz-Andresen

Chapter 15. Climate and Environmental Protection

Abstract
The air of the Earth can be divided into different layers, which are defined through clear temperature differences. Two lower layers are important when referring to climate change.
Michael Palocz-Andresen

Chapter 16. Transportation Costs

Abstract
Developments in transportation intensify effectivity of individual sectors of the economy. Beside freight transport, transportation has a high impact on labor mobility which is directly embedded in economic conditions not only in the private but also in the enterprising sphere. On the other side, economic development depends on engineering sciences, because technology forms the frame conditions of global transportation.
Michael Palocz-Andresen

Chapter 17. Future Transportation Systems

Abstract
Instead of a quick revolution, new technologies will slowly evolve in all sectors of transportation. However, customers need sustainable, high quality transport at a reasonable price worldwide (http://​people.​hofstra.​edu/​geotrans/​eng/​ch8en/​conc8en/​ch8c2en.​html).
Michael Palocz-Andresen

Chapter 18. Interaction Between Future Transportation Technology and Future Fuel Supply

Abstract
It seems to be a remarkable fact that discoveries and inventions for transportation were made at nearly similar time intervals (Jahresbericht, Berlin). Technology, legislation, social and financial conditions influence all sectors of transportation in a very similar way.
Michael Palocz-Andresen

Backmatter

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