Skip to main content
main-content

Tipp

Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen

2020 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

21. Defence Policy in the Canadian Arctic: From Jean Chrétien to Justin Trudeau

verfasst von: Adam Lajeunesse, P. Whitney Lackenbauer

Erschienen in: Canadian Defence Policy in Theory and Practice

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

share
TEILEN

Abstract

This chapter traces the evolution of Canadian defence policy related to the Arctic from the release of the Arctic Capabilities Study in 2000 to the release of Strong, Secure, Engaged in 2017. The authors observe that security aspects of Canada’s northern policy have remained remarkably consistent, predicated on a set of basic principles and priorities conceptualized by the military in 2000 as concerns surrounding climate change, northern development, Arctic shipping and geopolitical uncertainty began to refocus attention on the region. Although the Harper government justified its early investments in Arctic defence with “sovereignty on thinning ice” and “use it or lose it” messaging, it largely moved beyond these ideas after 2009 and returned to broader definitions of security that directed a whole-of-government response. Accordingly, successive governments have minimized the Canadian Armed Forces’ need to prepare for a conventional conflict in the North and recast the Forces in a supporting role to other government civilian departments and agencies in managing unconventional safety and security scenarios.

Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 69.000 Bücher
  • über 500 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Testen Sie jetzt 15 Tage kostenlos.

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 58.000 Bücher
  • über 300 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Versicherung + Risiko




Testen Sie jetzt 15 Tage kostenlos.

Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat Guarding the Arctic. 2004. Toronto Star, 5 April. Guarding the Arctic. 2004. Toronto Star, 5 April.
Zurück zum Zitat Andersson, T., and R. Liff. 2012. Multi-Professional Cooperation and Accountability Pressures. Public Management Review 14: 6. CrossRef Andersson, T., and R. Liff. 2012. Multi-Professional Cooperation and Accountability Pressures. Public Management Review 14: 6. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Borgerson, Scott. 2008. Arctic Meltdown: The Economic and Security Implications of Global Warming. Foreign Affairs, March/April. Borgerson, Scott. 2008. Arctic Meltdown: The Economic and Security Implications of Global Warming. Foreign Affairs, March/April.
Zurück zum Zitat Byers, Michael, and Suzanne Lalonde. 2005. Our Arctic Sovereignty is on Thinning Ice. Globe and Mail, 1 August. Byers, Michael, and Suzanne Lalonde. 2005. Our Arctic Sovereignty is on Thinning Ice. Globe and Mail, 1 August.
Zurück zum Zitat Canada. 2011. Chief of the Defence Staff/Deputy Minister Directive for DND/CAF in the North, April. Canada. 2011. Chief of the Defence Staff/Deputy Minister Directive for DND/CAF in the North, April.
Zurück zum Zitat Canada. 2012. Canadian Forces Northern Employment and Support Plan, November. Canada. 2012. Canadian Forces Northern Employment and Support Plan, November.
Zurück zum Zitat Canada, Canadian Forces Northern Region. 2000. Arctic Capabilities Study, DND file 1948-3-CC4C, June. Canada, Canadian Forces Northern Region. 2000. Arctic Capabilities Study, DND file 1948-3-CC4C, June.
Zurück zum Zitat Canada, Canadian Joint Operations Command. 2014. CJOC Plan for the North, January. Canada, Canadian Joint Operations Command. 2014. CJOC Plan for the North, January.
Zurück zum Zitat Canada, Chief of Force Development. 2010. Arctic Integrating Concept. Canada, Chief of Force Development. 2010. Arctic Integrating Concept.
Zurück zum Zitat Canada, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. 2010. Statement on Canada’s Arctic Foreign Policy. Ottawa. Canada, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. 2010. Statement on Canada’s Arctic Foreign Policy. Ottawa.
Zurück zum Zitat Canada, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. 2009. Canada’s Northern Strategy: Our North, Our Heritage, Our Future, July. Canada, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. 2009. Canada’s Northern Strategy: Our North, Our Heritage, Our Future, July.
Zurück zum Zitat Canada, Department of National Defence. 1971. Defence in the 70’s. Ottawa: Queen’s Printers. Canada, Department of National Defence. 1971. Defence in the 70’s. Ottawa: Queen’s Printers.
Zurück zum Zitat Canada, Department of National Defence. 1987. Challenge and Commitment. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada. Canada, Department of National Defence. 1987. Challenge and Commitment. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada.
Zurück zum Zitat Canada, Department of National Defence. 1994. 1994 White Paper on Defence. Ottawa. Canada, Department of National Defence. 1994. 1994 White Paper on Defence. Ottawa.
Zurück zum Zitat Canada, Department of National Defence. 2008. Canada First Defence Strategy. Ottawa. Canada, Department of National Defence. 2008. Canada First Defence Strategy. Ottawa.
Zurück zum Zitat Canada, Department of National Defence. 2017. Strong, Secure, Engaged. Ottawa. Canada, Department of National Defence. 2017. Strong, Secure, Engaged. Ottawa.
Zurück zum Zitat Canada, Foreign Affairs Canada. 2005. International Policy Statement. Ottawa. Canada, Foreign Affairs Canada. 2005. International Policy Statement. Ottawa.
Zurück zum Zitat CBC News. 2009. Canada Unveils Arctic Strategy, 26 July. CBC News. 2009. Canada Unveils Arctic Strategy, 26 July.
Zurück zum Zitat Dean, Ryan, P. Whitney Lackenbauer, and Adam Lajeunesse (eds.). 2014. Canadian Arctic Defence Policy: A Synthesis of Key Documents, 1970–2013. Documents on Canadian Arctic Sovereignty and Security 1. Calgary/Waterloo: Centre for Military and Strategic Studies and Centre on Foreign Policy and Federalism. Dean, Ryan, P. Whitney Lackenbauer, and Adam Lajeunesse (eds.). 2014. Canadian Arctic Defence Policy: A Synthesis of Key Documents, 1970–2013. Documents on Canadian Arctic Sovereignty and Security 1. Calgary/Waterloo: Centre for Military and Strategic Studies and Centre on Foreign Policy and Federalism.
Zurück zum Zitat Dodds, Klaus. 2011. We Are a Northern Country: Stephen Harper and the Canadian Arctic. Polar Record 47 (4): 371–374. CrossRef Dodds, Klaus. 2011. We Are a Northern Country: Stephen Harper and the Canadian Arctic. Polar Record 47 (4): 371–374. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Dolata, Petra. 2015. A New Canada in the Arctic? Arctic Policies Under Harper. Études Canadiennes 78: 131–154. CrossRef Dolata, Petra. 2015. A New Canada in the Arctic? Arctic Policies Under Harper. Études Canadiennes 78: 131–154. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Friesen, Joe. 2004. Arctic Melt May Open up Northwest Passage. Globe & Mail, 9 November. Friesen, Joe. 2004. Arctic Melt May Open up Northwest Passage. Globe & Mail, 9 November.
Zurück zum Zitat Genest, Philippe, and Frederic Lasserre. 2015. Souveraineté, sécurité, identité: éléments-clés du discours du gouvernement canadien sur l’Arctique. Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 21 (1): 64–84. CrossRef Genest, Philippe, and Frederic Lasserre. 2015. Souveraineté, sécurité, identité: éléments-clés du discours du gouvernement canadien sur l’Arctique. Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 21 (1): 64–84. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Griffiths, Franklyn, Rob Huebert, and P. Whitney Lackenbauer. 2011. Canada and the Changing Arctic: Sovereignty, Security, and Stewardship. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. Griffiths, Franklyn, Rob Huebert, and P. Whitney Lackenbauer. 2011. Canada and the Changing Arctic: Sovereignty, Security, and Stewardship. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Griffiths, Franklyn. 2009. Towards a Canadian Arctic Strategy. In New Chances and New Responsibilities in the Arctic Region, ed. George Witschel. Berlin: Kohlhammer. Griffiths, Franklyn. 2009. Towards a Canadian Arctic Strategy. In New Chances and New Responsibilities in the Arctic Region, ed. George Witschel. Berlin: Kohlhammer.
Zurück zum Zitat Harding, Luke, and Ewen MacAskill. 2007. Putin Revives Long-Range Bomber Patrols. The Guardian [London], 18 August. Harding, Luke, and Ewen MacAskill. 2007. Putin Revives Long-Range Bomber Patrols. The Guardian [London], 18 August.
Zurück zum Zitat Higginbotham, John. 2016. It’s Time for the Liberals to Show Us their Arctic Plan. Ottawa Citizen, 15 February. Higginbotham, John. 2016. It’s Time for the Liberals to Show Us their Arctic Plan. Ottawa Citizen, 15 February.
Zurück zum Zitat Huebert, Rob. 2003. The Shipping News Part II: How Canada’s Arctic Sovereignty Is on Thinning Ice. International Journal 58 (Summer): 295–308. Huebert, Rob. 2003. The Shipping News Part II: How Canada’s Arctic Sovereignty Is on Thinning Ice. International Journal 58 (Summer): 295–308.
Zurück zum Zitat Johannessen, O. M., E. V. Shalina, and M. W. Miles. 1999. Satellite Evidence for an Arctic Sea Ice Cover in Transformation. Science 286 (5446): 1937–1939. CrossRef Johannessen, O. M., E. V. Shalina, and M. W. Miles. 1999. Satellite Evidence for an Arctic Sea Ice Cover in Transformation. Science 286 (5446): 1937–1939. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Kirkey, Christopher. 1995. Smoothing Troubled Waters: The 1988 Canada-United States Arctic Co-Operation Agreement. International Journal 50 (2): 401–426. CrossRef Kirkey, Christopher. 1995. Smoothing Troubled Waters: The 1988 Canada-United States Arctic Co-Operation Agreement. International Journal 50 (2): 401–426. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Lackenbauer, P. Whitney, and Adam Lajeunesse. 2016. The Canadian Armed Forces in the Arctic: Building Appropriate Capabilities. Journal of Military and Strategic Studies 16 (4): 7–66. Lackenbauer, P. Whitney, and Adam Lajeunesse. 2016. The Canadian Armed Forces in the Arctic: Building Appropriate Capabilities. Journal of Military and Strategic Studies 16 (4): 7–66.
Zurück zum Zitat Lackenbauer, P. Whitney, and Adam Lajeunesse. 2017. The Emerging Arctic Security Environment: Putting the Military in Its (Whole of Government) Place. In Whole of Government through an Arctic Lens, ed. P. Whitney Lackenbauer and Heather Nicol. Antigonish: Mulroney Institute of Government. Lackenbauer, P. Whitney, and Adam Lajeunesse. 2017. The Emerging Arctic Security Environment: Putting the Military in Its (Whole of Government) Place. In Whole of Government through an Arctic Lens, ed. P. Whitney Lackenbauer and Heather Nicol. Antigonish: Mulroney Institute of Government.
Zurück zum Zitat Lackenbauer, P. Whitney, and Daniel Heidt (eds.). 2015. The Advisory Committee on Northern Development: Context and Meeting Minutes, 1948–67. Documents on Canadian Arctic Sovereignty and Security No. 4. Calgary and Waterloo: Centre for Military and Strategic Studies/Centre on Foreign Policy and Federalism. Lackenbauer, P. Whitney, and Daniel Heidt (eds.). 2015. The Advisory Committee on Northern Development: Context and Meeting Minutes, 1948–67. Documents on Canadian Arctic Sovereignty and Security No. 4. Calgary and Waterloo: Centre for Military and Strategic Studies/Centre on Foreign Policy and Federalism.
Zurück zum Zitat Lackenbauer, P. Whitney, and Rob Huebert. 2014. Premier Partners: Canada, the United States and Arctic Security. Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 20 (3) (Fall): 320–333. CrossRef Lackenbauer, P. Whitney, and Rob Huebert. 2014. Premier Partners: Canada, the United States and Arctic Security. Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 20 (3) (Fall): 320–333. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Lackenbauer, P. Whitney, and Ryan Dean (eds.). 2016. Canada’s Northern Strategy under the Harper Conservatives: Key Speeches and Documents on Sovereignty, Security, and Governance, 2006–15. Documents on Canadian Arctic Sovereignty and Security 6. Calgary and Waterloo: Centre for Military, Strategic and Security Studies/Centre on Foreign Policy and Federalism/Arctic Institute of North America. Lackenbauer, P. Whitney, and Ryan Dean (eds.). 2016. Canada’s Northern Strategy under the Harper Conservatives: Key Speeches and Documents on Sovereignty, Security, and Governance, 2006–15. Documents on Canadian Arctic Sovereignty and Security 6. Calgary and Waterloo: Centre for Military, Strategic and Security Studies/Centre on Foreign Policy and Federalism/Arctic Institute of North America.
Zurück zum Zitat Lackenbauer, P. Whitney. 2017. Arctic Defence and Security: Transitioning to the Trudeau Government. In Whole of Government through an Arctic Lens, ed. P. Whitney Lackenbauer and Heather Nicol, 308–340. Antigonish: Mulroney Institute of Government. Lackenbauer, P. Whitney. 2017. Arctic Defence and Security: Transitioning to the Trudeau Government. In Whole of Government through an Arctic Lens, ed. P. Whitney Lackenbauer and Heather Nicol, 308–340. Antigonish: Mulroney Institute of Government.
Zurück zum Zitat Lajeunesse, Adam, and P. Whitney Lackenbauer. 2017. Canadian Armed Forces Arctic Operations, 1941–2015: Lessons Learned, Lost, and Re-Learned. Fredericton: Gregg Centre, University of New Brunswick. Lajeunesse, Adam, and P. Whitney Lackenbauer. 2017. Canadian Armed Forces Arctic Operations, 1941–2015: Lessons Learned, Lost, and Re-Learned. Fredericton: Gregg Centre, University of New Brunswick.
Zurück zum Zitat McFarling, Usha Lee. 2003. Melting Ice, Winds of Change. Los Angeles Times, 19 January. McFarling, Usha Lee. 2003. Melting Ice, Winds of Change. Los Angeles Times, 19 January.
Zurück zum Zitat National Snow and Ice Data Center Newsroom. 2007. Arctic Sea Ice Shatters All Previous Record Lows, 1 October. National Snow and Ice Data Center Newsroom. 2007. Arctic Sea Ice Shatters All Previous Record Lows, 1 October.
Zurück zum Zitat Pharand, Donat. 2006. Legal Opinion on the Northwest Passage. Managing Turmoil. An Interim Report of the Standing Senate Committee on National Security and Defence. Pharand, Donat. 2006. Legal Opinion on the Northwest Passage. Managing Turmoil. An Interim Report of the Standing Senate Committee on National Security and Defence.
Zurück zum Zitat United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Signed December 10, 1982 at Montego Bay, Jamaica, came into effect November 16, 1994. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Signed December 10, 1982 at Montego Bay, Jamaica, came into effect November 16, 1994.
Zurück zum Zitat Vongdouangchanh, Bea. 2006. Cabinet Waiting for Defence Department’s 10-Year Arctic Military Plan: O’Connor. The Hill Times, 16 October. Vongdouangchanh, Bea. 2006. Cabinet Waiting for Defence Department’s 10-Year Arctic Military Plan: O’Connor. The Hill Times, 16 October.
Metadaten
Titel
Defence Policy in the Canadian Arctic: From Jean Chrétien to Justin Trudeau
verfasst von
Adam Lajeunesse
P. Whitney Lackenbauer
Copyright-Jahr
2020
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-26403-1_21

Premium Partner