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2021 | Buch

Design and Construction of Smart Cities

Toward Sustainable Community

herausgegeben von: Ibrahim El Dimeery, Prof. Dr. Moustafa Baraka, Prof. Syed M. Ahmed, Assoc. Prof. Amin Akhnoukh, Assoc. Prof. Mona B. Anwar, Prof. Dr. Mahmoud El Khafif, Prof. Dr. Nagy Hanna, Assoc. Prof. Amr T. Abdel Hamid

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

Buchreihe : Sustainable Civil Infrastructures

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Über dieses Buch

This book focuses on how to maintain environmental sustainability as one of its main principles, and it addresses how smart cities serve to diminish wastes and maintain natural resources by having clean green energy that is operated by new smart technology designs. Living in a smart city is not something of the future anymore, it is here, and it is being implemented all over the world. A smart city uses different types of electronic Internet of things (IoT) sensors to collect data and then use these data to manage assets and resources efficiently. The smart city concept integrates information and communication technology (ICT), and various physical devices connected to the IoT network to optimize the efficiency of city operations and services and achieve sustainable solutions to allow us to grow with proper management of our resources.
Smart sustainable structures and infrastructures face the need of urban areas due to the growth of populations while in the same time save our environment. To achieve this, we need to revisit the conventional methods in design and construction and the conventional materials which are used now to optimize the design and provide smart solutions. In the past few years, the consumption of resources has been massive, and the waste produced from that consumption has been inconceivable. This is causing environmental degradation, which produces many environmental challenges, such as global climate change, excessive fossil fuel dependency and the growing demand for energy.
As well as, discussing the challenges facing the civil engineering design and construction of smart cities components and presenting concepts and insight from experts and researchers from different civil engineering disciplines., this book explains how to construct buildings and special structures and how to manage and monitor energy.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter
Seismic Performance Assessment of Commonly Used Structural Systems and Retrofitting Techniques Using Pushover Analysis

Seismic performance is an integral factor in the design of low-to-mid-rise buildings. Thus the selection of an optimized structural system is an important element in the design and planning of smart cities. This paper aims to investigate the most commonly used structural systems in reinforced concrete low-to-mid-rise buildings in Egypt as well as the most commonly used seismic retrofitting techniques. The findings of this study can facilitate the selection of structural system of new RC buildings in a smart city context, or retrofitting of existing buildings. The study uses Pushover Analysis techniques for seismic assessment. It is a multi-step static non-linear analysis which involves pushing the structure laterally until failure. Pushover analysis is becoming the preferred tool for seismic performance and evaluation of frame buildings, and some modern seismic design codes. The main objective is to investigate the lateral behavior of two commonly used structural systems for short buildings (5 stories) and mid-rise buildings (9 stories) which are: Moment Resisting Frames, Shear Walls. Additionally, two commonly used seismic retrofitting techniques are also investigated: RC Structures Retrofitted with Steel Bracing and Buckling Restrained Steel Bracing. Three main performance indicators were evaluated for each case. The response modification factor which reflects the ductility and over-strength of the structure. The performance point which indicates the expected seismic performance level. And the inter-story drift ratios which can be used to evaluate the damage demand of the structure. The results indicate that for low-rise buildings both the moment resisting frame and the shear walls systems showed similar performance levels; however, for mid-rise buildings, the shear walls system exhibited better performance.

Alisar Baderkhan, Ibrahim Lotfy
Modeling of a Reinforced Concrete Column Under Cyclic Shear Loads by a Plasticity-Damage Microplane Formulation

Modeling of nonlinear behavior and failure of concrete is a crucial aspect for reliable simulation of reinforced concrete structures. A new microplane formulation provide a way to model the behavior of concrete by defining constitutive model between stress and strain vectors on arbitrary oriented planes. A gradient enhanced element with coupled damage-plasticity microplane material is used to model the concrete behavior. The steel reinforcement will be simulated using one dimensional elements and a plastic material model. The incorporation of nonlinearities both in the concrete and in the steel reinforcement, as well as the use of a nonlocal formulation enable simulation of concrete under a wide range of loading situations as cyclic loading. Studies on model parameters and their identification will be performed to have an initial prediction about the effect of changing model parameters. A parametric study of a reinforced concrete column subjected to axial and cyclic shear loads is performed. The proposed microplane model shows a great capability of modeling cyclic loading. The damage split formulation can retrive the lost stiffness when changing from tension to compression stresses.

Mohamed Ali, Imadeddin Zreid, Michael Kaliske
Comparison Between BS EN 1998-1:2004, ECP 201-2011 and ASCE/SEI 7-16 for Code Requirements of Sky-Bridges Spanning Between Towers

The increasing urbanization coupled with the need to build smart and sustainable cities have led to the extensive construction of tall buildings, especially in highly populated countries. However, the wide use of tall buildings led to increasing the population of the cities at the ground plane which is the sole physical plane of connection. Introducing skybridges to link towers provides more levels for transportation. In addition, skybridges can also be used as escape routes in case of an emergency in one tower.The connection between skybridges and towers may either be roller, pinned or fixed connections. In this study, a steel skybridge connecting 160 m tall reinforced concrete (RC) twin towers using pinned-roller connection will be investigated. The lateral load resisting system of the twin towers is RC cores. The seismic loads will be calculated using the Euro-Code 8 (BS EN 1998-1:2004), Egyptian Code of Practice (ECP 201-2011) and the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE/SEI 7-16). A comparison between the bridge seat requirements using the three codes will be investigated. Moreover, the outcomes of converting the connection between the twin towers and the steel bridge to pinned-pinned connection will be presented.

Adel H. Elsaid, Hatem AlShaikh, Yehia El-Ezaby, Charles Malek
Analytical Fragility Curves for Non-Ductile Reinforced Concrete Buildings Retrofitted with Viscoelastic Dampers

Non-Ductile reinforced concrete frames (NDRCF) structures are found to be vulnerable during major seismic events. Unfortunately, the majority of low-rise buildings around the world were built prior to 1976, when the current ductility requirements in modal building codes were not developed yet. Few of the smart cities have been looking for ways to become more resilient and resistant to earthquakes. In this study, the feasibility of retrofitting these structures, using viscoelastic dampers are evaluated. Analytical Fragility curves are developed to evaluate the benefit of using the viscoelastic dampers in reducing the risk of damages during major earthquakes. The methodology that was used to develop the curves is based on calculating the maximum story drift using nonlinear time history analysis for different ground motions with different intensities and frequencies. The fragility curves are developed from the adjustments of distribution function of the analysis results. The produced fragility curves highlight the advantages of using viscoelastic dampers in reducing the level of damage these structures can experience during earthquakes which can be an efficient strategy to increase the resilience of building in a smart city.

Yasser S. Salem, Guseppe Leminto, Trung Tran
Enhancing Progressive Collapse Resistance in Existing Buildings

Progressive collapse is a chain reaction of structural element failures due to a relatively local structure damage. Different design codes began considering progressive collapse guidelines and specifications following the collapse of the Ronan Point building in 1996 and the world trade center in 2001. Researchers and government agencies were inclined to study means of enhancing progressive collapse resistance of structures in order to mitigate the destructive effect of accidents and/or reoccurring disasters. A common type of progressive collapse occurs as a results of a sudden column removal. The resulting dynamic straining actions can be resisted by three mechanisms; vierendeel action in framed structures, catenary action in the beams and membrane action in the slabs. This paper aims to enhance progressive collapse resistance of framed structures using retrofitting with steel plates. Using steel plates retrofitting to enhance progressive collapse resistance of existing structures can provide a clever and innovative solution for smart city applications. In this paper, the effect of the proposed scheme on progressive collapse resistance was investigated for multi-story reinforced concrete framed structures. A dynamic, non-linear, analysis following the guidelines of the ASCE 41 and the GSA was performed to accurately portray the behavior of the structures and assess their progressive collapse resistance in the event of sudden column removal. The findings of the parametric study conducted shows the potential of this method on the behavior of the retrofitted structures.

Karim Hammad, Ibrahim Lotfy, Mohamed Naiem
Damage Assessment and Sustainability of RC Building in New Cairo City Considering Probable Earthquake Scenarios

Recent occurred earthquakes in Egypt have highlighted the need for more studies about risk assessment, sustainability of buildings and infrastructures, even in case of moderate earthquake events. This work investigates the topic of seismic risk assessment for urban areas located at the new Cairo and new capital cities. The focus has been done to quantitative damages and sustainability of representative reinforced concrete buildings. A new proposed model has been developed to evaluate the required physical damages. A new lateral load pattern during pushover method is proposed. It is found that, the results provided by the proposed lateral load pattern gives reliable results compared to those provided by time history estimates. The fragility curves for representative building models located at new Cairo and new capital cities are derived. Quantitative damage risk assessment is generally performed using the integration between the imposed seismic hazards, building fragility curves and exposure. This new proposed model can be used to evaluate damages for buildings located at new Cairo and new capital cities due to expected earthquakes. Similar models can be generated to evaluate damages in other regions in Egypt and worldwide.

Abdelaziz Mehaseb Elganzory, Balthasar Novák, Ahmed Mohamed Yousry
Review of Seismic Provisions: Is Egypt Earthquake Safe?

A continuous improvement of any existing building code is a crucial responsibility of researchers, industry sponsors, and government officials. An integral part of any building code is its seismic provisions that need to be regularly updated as different aspects are revealed whenever an earthquake strikes. To give an example, major changes were introduced to the American code following the 1985 Northridge earthquake in California and similarly, provision alterations were applied to the Japanese code of practice following the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Likewise, the event of the 1992 Cairo earthquake drew major attention to enforcing earthquake resistant design the Egyptian code of building. Knowing that the Egyptian seismic provisions have not been majorly updated since last decade imposes a huge question of is it safe or is it overly conservative? And while major building codes are adding emphasis on the complex dynamic nonlinear analysis, the Egyptian provisions still utilize the traditional equivalent static load method as the main method of analysis. To answer these questions, a comparison of the Egyptian seismic provisions with its counterparts in the global code is presented in this study, followed by an application of the different provisions on the design of a steel building as a case study to verify the safety and feasibility of the current practice. Results reveal that the strict limits on drifts imposed by the Egyptian code, as well as the conservatism in calculating the seismic weight of the structure, yielded a structure with at least 23% more steel tonnage compared to structures designed according to other global building codes. Major steps need to be taken in order to optimize current code provisions to achieve the goal of building more sustainable cities.

Mohamed Afifi, Reem Ahmed
A Case Study of the Application of BIM in China: Tianjin Chow Tai Fook Financial Center

Building Information Modeling (BIM) is widely used in the AEC industry. With BIM, project stakeholders can coordinate and manage the information using 3-dimentional models throughout the project lifecycle. To apply BIM, innovative measures need to be implemented at the company and project level, and such measures may include the reengineering of the process and business structure, the establishment of hardware and software infrastructure, and training of their employees. China’s construction market has continued to grow and its construction industry accounts for a large portion of China’s gross domestic product (GDP). There are currently no BIM application standards or regulations for Chinese construction companies, however, the Chinese construction industry and the government have realized the benefits of BIM and are actively promoting the application of this technology. This research aims to gather data from the construction management team of the Tianjin Chou Tai Fook Finical Center project, standing 530 m tall as the eighth tallest building in the world in Tianjin, China, to identify the benefits, challenges, and experience for implementation of BIM in the project.

Junshan Liu, Dan Li, Scott Kramer
Identification of Wastes in Construction Projects: Case Study of Porto Sokhna Island Project

One of the main issues that impact the construction industry is the prevalence of wastes. These wastes have negative effects on the project including higher cost and need for larger inventory. One of the main tenets of lean is to eliminate these wastes in order to increase the value to the customer. This paper focuses on lean applications in construction projects, specifically on how to identify and classify wastes, and how to eliminate/reduce them. Firstly, literature review is conducted to collect the different classifications of wastes in construction. This is followed by a discussion of the eight types of wastes identified in context of construction projects and an application to a real-life case study, the Porto Sokhna Project in Egypt. This is performed to identify wastes that occurred and their impact as well as propose elimination/mitigation strategies. Project documents were analyzed and interviews were conducted to reach this. These wastes were then classified under eight main waste types. The effect of these wastes was then monitored and recorded in terms of cost and schedule. Finally, solutions were proposed to eliminate/mitigate the wastes.

Islam El-Sayed, Ahmed Abaza, Alyaa Kamel, Rana Khallaf
The Role of Geoinformatics in Renewable Energy Potential Estimation for Smart Cities - Emphasis on Solar and Wind Energy

Smart cities aim to enhance and sustain the quality of life for its residents. The focus in this research is to examine the potential location of constructing smart cities based on a major aspect of the availability and abundance of renewable energy that can be harvested to sustain such a city, with emphasis on wind and solar energy. Potential estimation for such renewable energy resources is investigated. Geoinformatics involves integrating and processing of geospatial data obtained from different earth measurement technologies, along with the capability of integrating attribute data (e.g. socio-economic). The ability of Geoinformatics to involve various data input in the process of decision-making has made Geoinformatics a viable approach for energy potential estimation. The role of Geoinformatics in estimating the potential of renewable energy is crucial and spatial analysis is utilized to build relations between different input parameters to reach for a potential production of energy at specific location.

Ahmed Agwa, Moustafa Baraka, Ahmed A. Sattar
Smart City Developments Using a BIM-Oriented Workflow

The term “smart city” is usually associated with eco-friendliness, resource efficiency and environmental sustainability. Also, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is vastly used within these developments as a catalyst for solving social and business needs during the operation of smart cities, with user-friendly solutions, optimized infrastructure and more sustainable approaches.In order to reach such criteria, adequate technologies need to be used from the very beginning of the smart city development. Building Information Modeling (BIM) is not a luxury anymore but a necessity as it facilitates collaboration and management of information and communication among teams involved in the construction process. BIM helps the construction process to start smart and stay smart as information gathered within the construction phase is later used to operate, maintain and manage these cities in an efficient way.This paper aims to create a suitable workflow that helps in achieving efficiency in the construction process using smart solutions as BIM. This workflow should not only help with the construction phase but also act as a stepping stone for the ultimate objective of creating a smart city.

Daniel Sorial, Mahmoud El Khafif
States DoT Roads and Bridges Network Inspection and Maintenance Practices

The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) infrastructure report card shows that the United States overall infrastructure score is D+, including a high percentage of structurally deficient and functionally obsolete roads and bridges. Due to the budget limitations at the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), innovative approaches are being selected to increase the efficiency of infrastructure inspection, provide a smart decision technique for maintenance activities prioritization, and conduct maintenance using low-cost high-performance materials.This paper provides a list of the state-of-the art practices followed by different State Departments of Transportation (DoTs), including the use of Automated Road Analyzers (ARAN) trucks for scanning, and Bridge Management Systems (BMSs) for maintenance, repair, and replacement of deficient structures. And finally, the use of economic high performance materials in construction of new projects and the maintenance activities of existing and aging inventory.The expected outcomes of using the afore-mentioned techniques include early detection of structural deterioration, sufficient maintenance provided given the FHWA budget deficiency, and improved infrastructure conditions.

Amin K. Akhnoukh, Amr Abdel Hameed, Abanoub Atteya
BIM and GIS Synergy for Smart Cities

An overview of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is presented, where BIM and GIS are distinct and shared characterisitics are examined. Both BIM and GIS involve realistic modelling through digital data. Nevertheless, BIM and GIS models these data differently, with varying scope and scale for representation of world objects to accommodate various envisioned applications. Recent research on the use of BIM and GIS in smart cities recommend the integration of both, for the many technical, administrative, economic, and environmental benefits. The paper highlights the challenges for integrations, along with possible integration schema and applications of BIM and GIS in smart cities.

Moustafa Baraka
Tolerance Management, Failure, and Defects in Construction

Tolerance in the construction industry has been regarded as a vague topic due to the paucity of information available on it. As a result, the effect of tolerance and its impact on a project has been neglected in many cases. This impact can sometimes be catastrophic to the testing and commissioning phase of the project and the overall project quality as well. Tolerance management as a science focuses on the acceptable margin of error or discrepancy. One of the main objectives of this paper is to raise awareness about tolerance in construction and how to approach tolerance failures and defects to reduce/eliminate waste. This paper focuses on tolerance management and addresses how it can be applied in the construction field. Literature review was conducted to collect data on tolerance management in various fields and report on its main principles. This paper also introduces two terms: tolerance failure and defects, and discusses the relationship between them. Furthermore, five categories of tolerance failures are introduced. Finally, preliminary solutions and mitigation strategies for tolerance failure categories are proposed.

Mohamed Kamel, Omar Habib, Mohamed Farahat, Rana Khallaf
Application of Modified Invasive Weed Algorithm for Condition-Based Budget Allocation of Water Distribution Networks

Water Distribution Network is one of the critical components in water supply systems. Most water systems around the world are subjected to severe aging and deterioration which could lead to disastrous failures or sudden shutdowns. Optimizing maintenance and repair works of these systems triggers the need for a rigorous budget allocation model. In view of this situation, this paper presents a model for optimizing maintenance and replacement of the water networks using a set of metaheuristic algorithms. It introduces a modified invasive weed optimization algorithm to amplify the search mechanism of the classical invasive weed optimization algorithm by enhancing both exploration and exploitation of the exhaustive search space. The proposed optimization algorithm is validated through comparisons with the particle swarm optimization algorithm, shuffled frog leaping algorithm, and artificial bee colony algorithm. The capabilities of the developed model are exemplified through its application in a case study in Shaker Al-Bahery, Qalyubia governorate, Egypt. The results reveal that the proposed method exhibited superior results when compared to the aforementioned algorithms, which eventually leads to the establishment of more efficient decision-making models.

Nehal Elshaboury, Eslam Mohammed Abdelkader, Mohamed Marzouk
GIS-BIM Data Integration Towards a Smart Campus

Smart cities are the key information for many purposes such as improvement of the educational environment, emergency response, and facilities management. Smart cities require the development of a digital system that can manage, visualize, share and exchange the attribute data and spatial data in a user-friendly environment. Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Geographic Information System (GIS) are widely used as the modeling sources of smart cities. In this paper, GIS and BIM data were integrated to implement applications that help in the creation of a smart campus for the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt. Campus data of various objects such as buildings, roads, trees, etc. were acquired using satellite remote sensing images, terrestrial images, and traditional surveying techniques (e.g., GPS and total station), as well as field visits. The acquired data were integrated and presented in two formats; (i) 2D interactive map of the campus on the web that represents information of various objects with geographic coordinates in real-time and (ii) smart building cellphone application that uses quick response (QR) codes to display building attributes from stored geodatabase upon scanning. The presented applications have proved that the smart campus implementation can be achievable and meet management requirements at universities level.

Yousif Ward, Salem Morsy, Adel El-Shazly
Risk Management Methodology for Green Building Construction Projects Using Fuzzy-Based Multi-criteria Decision-Making

Construction projects usually encounter a significant number of unforeseen events referred to as project risks. Those risks typically incur a noteworthy impact on the overall project duration, cost as well as quality. Therefore, a systematic means of construction project risk planning, analysis and management is required to ensure those negative impacts are brought to a minimum, especially in the case of green building construction given that it is a relatively new field of application in Egypt. However, a great deficiency in proper record keeping is experienced in Egyptian construction projects in general, which increases the complexity of the construction and diminishes possibilities of innovation. Accordingly, the current risk management procedure is mostly reactive, qualitative and involves a great deal of uncertainties associated with the subjective data collection methods. To overcome those limitations, this paper presents a predictive risk management framework that identifies, clusters and evaluates the most important risks in the Egyptian green construction industry. A novel Fuzzy-based Multi-Criteria Decision-Making methodology is utilized as part of this study to capture the uncertainties in the industry experts’ opinions, as well as consider a degree of indeterminacy to their decisions. The application of the aforementioned methodology results in the quantification of the priority level of each of the identified project risks that in turn suggests a risk management strategy to each individual risk. The risk planning procedure proposed in this study was applied to Egyptian construction projects and resulted in a significant declination in money losses and time-related delays, and accordingly, a reduction in the level of disputes between project participants and stakeholders.

Reem Ahmed, Ayman Nassar, Mohamed Afifi
Development of Wind and Flood Vulnerability Index for Residential Buildings

Building vulnerability assessment is an important technique for managing disaster, performing hazard mitigation, and managing disaster reduction practices. In the engineering field, vulnerability is mainly assessed based on the quantitative approach, which is a simulation-based technique that provides information regarding the potential loss or damage rather than accounting for indicators influencing building vulnerability. Identifying indicators that significantly contribute to building vulnerability is a key element to develop vulnerability index, which is a tool for understanding performance of building subjected to hurricane hazards and helping decision-makers to prioritize evacuation. This study qualitatively assesses residential building vulnerability through the development of Wind and Flood Building Vulnerability Index (WFBVI). WFBVI is categorized as a three-level (low-moderate-high) index using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). A dataset of single-family homes damaged by 2005 Hurricane Katrina is used to demonstrate implementation of the WFBVI. The application leads to valuable results on how hurricane building vulnerability can be reflected by quantifiable wind and flood index across spatial scales. Overall, the results provide engineers with insights on the actual performance of residential structures in areas subject to severe wind and flood hurricane hazards and provide qualitative information for developing effective strategies to mitigate future risk and improve decision-making processes.

Carol Massarra, Carol Friedland, Amin Akhnoukh
Smart Cities - Policy and Regulatory Frameworks

The paper aims at highlighting the policies and regulatory frameworks of smart cities. For that purpose, the paper will first outline the international framework, including Goal 11 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which aims at making cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. The latter necessitates the development of smart cities, since highly sophisticated ICT-based applications and services will not only contribute to greater energy efficiency but also improve the safety and well-being of inhabitants through for instance automated streetlights and better transportation solutions. Considering that more than 55% of the world’s population lives in urban areas, the switch to digital technologies allowing for smarter and more inclusive cities, where waste, resource consumption and environmental impacts are significantly reduced, is imperative to reach the SDGs. The paper will then investigate the existence of an internationally recognized definition for smart cities and different international assessment mechanisms. Hereinafter, the paper will look at the implementation of various initiatives at the national level of different countries, among them Egypt. The paper will close with addressing the critical question of dealing with highly sensitive data in an ethically responsible manner in the scope of smart cities. Against that background, the European Union’s legal framework for data protection in the virtual space will be assessed against a global citizen-driven initiative on promoting digital rights in smart cities.

Mahmoud El Khafif, Nora Salem
Energy-Efficient Layered IoT Smart Home System

The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the most prominent technologies that has recently penetrated in many application domains including smart homes. One of the main challenges in IoT applications is to design low-power systems such that they have prolonged lifetimes or can be powered via the ambient power harvested from the environments they are operating in. In this chapter, we propose an energy-efficient IoT-based smart home system design. The proposed design is based on a layered IoT architecture and aims to optimize the used hardware and software to reduce the energy consumed by the sensor nodes to prolong their lifetime. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed system to monitor and control the ambient conditions inside the smart home by efficiently controlling its lighting and cooling devices using an energy-efficient design.

Bassant Abdelhamid, Awab Al-Habal, Ahmed Khattab
Smart City - Role of PMC in Circular Economy

The world’s population is increasing drastically. 68% of people are supposed to live in urban areas by 2050 (UN 2019); this could damage infrastructure and increase the need for intensive investments. Limited resources are big challenge. The Smart City approach is to modernize existing or new cities by combining Information Technology with people’s intelligence. Smart City is established on the pillars of Transparency, Collaboration, Inclusion and Engagement among all stakeholders i.e. government entities, private entities, banks, developers, contractors etc. The Smart City plan addresses a city’s economy, mobility, security, education and environment; the world is moving from a linear economy dilemma toward a circular economy paradigm aiming to efficiently utilize resources using sustainability concepts that apply to Economy, Environment and Society. This will be achieved by implementing Information Technology by applying IOT, cybersecurity and analytics. Smart City provides sustainable solutions, better quality of life and economic competitiveness. Project Management Consultants (PMC) play a key role in advising public and private entities for delivering the Smart City concept. The mission of this paper is to outline how the PMC’s contribution in creating a Smart City ecosystem will benefit stakeholders, along with outlining the added benefits of adapting the circular economy concept within the construction industry.

Maged El Hawary, Aashley Bachani
Self-X Concrete Applications in Smart Cities

Recent studies shows that the construction industry comprises 9% of the total gross domestic product (GDP) of the United States. This dynamic-2 billion dollar- industry is currently researching smart materials to be used in future construction projects, including smart cities construction. Self-X concrete represents a group of concrete products with superior characteristics to be used in different projects according to the required concrete performance. This paper presents different self-x concrete mix designs, their superior fresh and hardened properties, and potential applications in infrastructure and smart cities construction. Self-X concrete mixes are highly beneficial in developing structural members with superior strength and high durability, with lower environmental impact, lower life cycle cost, and improved construction site safety.

Amin K. Akhnoukh, Carol C. Massarra, Pavan Meadati
Infrastructure Systems and Management in Smart Cities

Nearly half of the world’s population currently lives in cities, which has prompted serious concerns around scarcity of resources, deteriorating infrastructure and decline in living quality. To mitigate such concerns, an urgent global demand has risen to make cities “smart” through incorporating innovative information and communication technologies (ICTs) and capable smart solutions into city infrastructure developments. However, recent projects have shown that Egyptian smart city infrastructure developments are recurrently beset by critical challenges mainly attributed to Egyptian construction practitioners’ lack of awareness of smart implementation protocols and “know-how”. To contribute towards more successful Egyptian smart city infrastructure development projects, the aim of this paper is to enrich the existing body of knowledge on the applications, feasibility and benefits of ICTs integration into smart city infrastructure. It is apparent that this integration improves economic performance, safety, mobility and environmental sustainability for the benefit of all citizens and contributes towards more efficient infrastructure management.

Hana Elgamal, Mahmoud El Khafif
Hydraulic Reliability Assessment of Water Distribution Networks Using Minimum Cut Set Method

Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) are one of the most valuable infrastructure assets worldwide. Reliability analysis plays an important role in the efficient planning and operation of a water network. It is classified into two main categories, namely mechanical reliability and hydraulic reliability. Mechanical reliability is defined as the ability of the network to function during unplanned events such as structural/mechanical failure. Whereas, hydraulic reliability is concerned with the ability of the network to cope with changes in demand and pressure head over time. This paper presents a methodology for evaluating hydraulic reliability of WDNs using the minimum cut set approach. The methodology involves the simulation of the network in normal and failure conditions. The simulation results from both conditions aid in obtaining the required as well as actual pressure head at demand nodes, respectively. The model is formulated with pressure conditions to evaluate the available demand at demand nodes. The available demand is then compared to the required demand for assessing the hydraulic reliability of the selected network. A case study of a network in Shaker Al-Bahery in Egypt is presented in order to demonstrate the process of hydraulic reliability assessment and illustrate the practical features of the proposed model.

Nehal Elshaboury, Tarek Attia, Mohamed Marzouk
Trenchless Pipeline Rehabilitation in Smart Cities

Smart cities can be newly developed or existing old cities. The infrastructure, specially the gravity sewers, of new cities should be installed using the open cut technique before buildings and roads are constructed. However, the sewer lines of existing old smart cities cannot be replaced/constructed using the open cut technique without significant inconvenience and additional cost. For economic and social reasons, the smart cities attract population migration from rural areas. In developing countries like Egypt, this migration combined with high birth rate increase the current and future water and wastewater flow rapidly exceeding the capacity of these existing utilities causing environmental and health problems. Consequently, these smart cities need to install many new utilities, replace and rehab many existing pipelines to support the needed demand.Gravity lines are the most challenging because of their depth, accuracy, and size. Most of these pipelines are located underneath very congested and narrow roads. Pipeline rehabilitation techniques can be economical alternative to open cut that reduces disturbance to business and residents. This paper presents an overview of the available rehabilitation techniques that can be employed in smart cities to meet the flow demands.

Alan Atalah
Evolution of a Smart City from the Challenge of Flood Disaster: Case Study of New Owerri Capital City, South East of Nigeria

Owerri city, south east of Nigeria is a city bedeviled with perennial flood disasters. These disasters usually come with attendant loss of lives and properties of inestimable values.A critical study of Owerri city was conducted with respect to its flood plain, diverse range of drainages (drainage system), canals, rivers together with rain gauge values for the past 2 decades and other extenuating factors. All the varying factors were extrapolated to highlight possible cause or causes of constant flood disasters.These highlighted causes were made spring boards of solutions to mitigate future occurrence and establish smart city status for new Owerri with respect to flood control.

N. U. Okehielem, C. O. Owuama, C. J. Enemuo
Correlation of Non-destructive with Mechanical Tests for Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC)

The innovation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) has greatly reduced the high level of energy consumed in vibration to compact the fresh concrete. SCC has the ability to flow under its own weight and achieve full compaction even in congested reinforcement area or in case of complex shapes of concrete structures saving time, labour and energy. This paper investigated SCC mixes produced using kaolin and silica fume as additives to assess the mechanical properties in terms of destructive and non-destructive testing. Four SCC mixtures with different percentage of kaolin and silica fume were considered in this study. Compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths as destructive testing were carried out and determined. Furthermore, non-destructive testing such as Schmidt hammer and ultra-sonic pulse (UPV) were assessed and correlated with those of the destructive testing. From results, it was deduced that SCC with 10% kaolin and 15% silica fume achieved the highest compressive and flexural strength after 28 days. Moreover, the results provided the possibility of using non-destructive tests to asses the compressive strength of SCC.

Jeovany Amgad, Nancy Hammad, Amr M. El-Nemr
Investigating Barriers to Implement and Develop Sustainable Construction

The construction industry plays a crucial role in a sustainable development. The United States Green Building Council (USGBC) has traced almost 40% of Carbon Dioxide emissions in the United States to the construction industry. As the world’s population grows, the demand for housing, infrastructures, and other facilities grows as well. If trends continue as they are now, CO2 emissions initiated by the construction industry will continue to grow exponentially significantly endangering our planet. Therefore, implementing and developing sustainable practices in construction is critical to curbing the rising CO2 emissions, global warming, and environmental crisis to build sustainable and smart cities. Sustainable design and construction aim for efficiency and low operating costs at the life cycle of projects. Sustainable buildings and sustainability in construction have received much attention in recent years. Although statistics show a steady increase in the popularity of sustainable projects, the construction industry is lacking a large movement in sustainability. There are many obstacles and barriers in the way of future development for green living in smart cities. In order to widely implement sustainable practices and construct sustainable buildings, these barriers need to be identified, investigated, and tackled. The current study aims to investigate the barriers to the implementation and development of sustainable construction. Thirty construction professionals in the US were interviewed to find the most critical barriers of the sustainable construction. Fifteen obstacles were identified among which financial constraints, design constraints, inadequate technology are among the top factors. The results of this article can be used by construction professionals and policymakers to accelerate broad implementation of sustainability in construction projects. By implementing sustainability, the construction industry will take a huge step to protect our environment for the next generation and also to the development of smart green cities.

Mostafa Namian, Ahmed Al-Bayati, Ali Karji, Mohammadsoroush Tafazzoli
Potential of Straw Block as an Eco - Construction Material

Interest of using straw bale as construction material has increased worldwide. This result from the need of developing building envelopes which are climate responsive and can significantly reduce building’s energy consumption. Research on straw bale has shown that straw bale has good thermal conductivity while plastered straw bale assemblies has good mechanical properties. Up to date, straw bale construction consists of stacking straw bale in a running bond and use different techniques to push down straw bale wall before plastering them. No clue has been given if this method is structurally beneficial than to stabilized single straw bale before assembling them into a structural panel. This paper presents a method of construction that consist of manufacturing straw blocks before using them in masonry. Blocks of dimension 29 × 14 × 14 mm were manufactured using chopped straw with a natural binder. The average compressive strength and density of blocks are respectively 1.25 MPa and 522 kg/m3; which are respectively 73 and 5 times greater than that of straw bale. Also the average thermal conductivity of straw block and straw are similar (0.06 W/mK). Thus the use of straw blocks will improve the structural performance of straw houses.

Manette Njike, Walter O. Oyawa, Silvester O. Abuodha
The Role of Energy Modelling in the Development of Sustainable Construction Regulations for Al-Madinah City Central District

This article discusses part of the procedure used to develop the energy requirements in the new green standards for the central district of Al-Madinah city. A comprehensive energy auditing was conducted for sample existing buildings. Two buildings were selected representing both high-end and medium quality typical construction in the district. Field-collected energy use data were used to calibrate energy models to compare the performance of sample buildings with reference buildings complying with ASHRAE 90.1, 2010. It was found that current regulations, the type of ownership in the district, and the increase in utility cost lead to energy performances that matched buildings complying with ST90.1, even though no energy efficiency requirements are currently mandated. These results paved the road for proposing the application of mandatory energy performance regulations to the district that matches international standards and are applicable in the meantime.

Alaa Kandil, Mostafa Sabbagh, Samia Ebrahiem
The Impacts of Climate Zone, Wall Insulation, and Window Types on Building Energy Performance

Building energy consumption tends to increase over the next few decades due to the increasing level of urbanization and population. These days much attention has been paid to the enhancement of energy performance of residential and non-residential structures. One should consider various factors for proper building thermal design and assessment. In this study, a simulation-based investigation is applied to analyze the influence of building envelope, climate region, and window's physical features on energy performance. Building's energy consumption and amount of CO2 emissions are studied. EnergyPlus tool interfaced with DesignBuilder software was used to perform energy simulations. Annual energy analyses are carried out on the reference house model over the five climate regions from the Koppen-Geiger climate classification map. According to results obtained, climate condition, wall envelope, window type, and window to wall ratio can significantly influence a building's energy performance. Application of insulating materials and the use of specific window type results in considerable energy savings and reduction of CO2 emission amounts.

Abid Nadeem, Yerzhan Abzhanov, Serik Tokbolat, Mohamad Mustafa, Bjørn R. Sørensen
Re-imagining the Architecture of the City in the Autonomous Vehicles Era

The adoption of self-driving technology will likely birth new cities typologies with unique buildings and needs. Starting from centralized hubs where the cars park themselves to fewer congestions and empty parking lots and Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) repair shops. Although such technology can be a great tool and facilitate the passengers’ movement and minimize travel time, careful implementation to city configuration and urban planning is needed when applied. Priority should be given to people and places to minimize all possible undesirable effects such technologies might cause. Consideration should be given to pedestrians, cyclist, and walkability in the city.This paper aims at examining possible design configurations in the new and smart cities with Autonomous and connected vehicles to maintain safety, sustainability and walkability in the city while implementing such technologies.

Dalia O. Hafiz, Ismail H. Zohdy
Key Challenges of Smart Railway Station

This paper introduces the main concepts of establishing a smart railway station under the context of smart city. In the recent years, cities are digitally developing to enhance the all aspects of the urban life including economic, social and environmental aspects. These three aspects are considered to be the main pillars of sustainable development of a smart city. A core element in the smart city development is the mobility. This might include the physical mobility of people or the economic mobility. Introducing the smartness concept in the transportation infrastructure will influence the population growth and business needs. Railway points of contact such as the stations that can offer excellent economics development, environmental performance, and punctuality for passengers are recognized as a fundamental component of urban development. Stations are always considered the interconnection between different transportation modes which had to be adapted to the urbanisation growth. The proposed work presents a state of the art review for rail smart station design and illustrates the key challenges that can be faced when thinking in establishment of smart railway station.

R. E. Shaltout
A Smart-Left Decision Support System for Flashing Yellow Arrow Traffic Signals

The flashing yellow arrow (FYA) signal display creates an opportunity to enhance the left-turn phase with a variable mode that can be changed on demand. This paper presents phase II of the research. Phase I developed a decision support system (DSS) to select the FYA left-turn mode, and changing by time of day at intersections. There was a need to continue to refine the interactive framework to improve its service. However, the ultimate objective of the continued research of phase II was to demonstrate the ability to execute the automation of the process. Phase II of the FYA project provided additional intersection data that refined the model. Virtual testing of the DSS was first conducted using VISSIM application programming interface (API) before the field testing environment. A Custom communications software was developed to retrieve instantaneous channel input data, synchronize opposing thru green phase, analyze traffic information, provide the algorithm decision, and generate a real-time log recording the events to determine whether it would be optimal to switch the red arrow to a flashing yellow arrow. The algorithm determines the time interval between the successive arrivals of vehicles and computes the corresponding headway for each lane by cycle on a second-by-second basis. The DSS was ultimately tested at two different intersections in Seminole County. The FYA 4-section configuration provides the opportunity for a fully adjustable system and provides the TMCs with more tools to operate the intersections as efficiently as possible at peak and off-peak times.

Hatem Abou-Senna, Essam Radwan, Hesham Eldeeb
Using Computational Social Science Techniques to Identify Coordinated Cyber Threats to Smart City Networks

Smart cities are increasingly facing cyber-attacks due to the endeavors they have made in technological advancements. The challenge for smart cities, that utilize complex digital networks to manage city systems and services, is that any device that relies on internet connectivity to function is a potential cyber-attack victim. Smart cities use smart sensors. Online Social Networks (OSNs) act as human sensors offering significant contributions to the amount of data used in smart cities. OSNs can also be used as a coordination and amplification platform for attacks. For instance, aggressors can increase the impact of an attack by causing panic in an area by promoting attacks using OSNs. Public data can help aggressors to determine the best timing for attacks, scheduling attacks, and then using OSNs to coordinate attacks on smart city infrastructure. This convergence of the cyber and physical worlds is known as cybernetics. Quantitative socio-technical methods such as deviant cyber flash mob detection (DCFM) and focal structure analysis (FSA) can provide reconnaissance capabilities that enable cities to look beyond internal data and identify threats based on active events. Assessment of powerful actors using DCFM detection methods can help to identify and prevent attacks. Groups of powerful hackers can be identified through FSA which is a model that uses a degree centrality method at the node-level and spectral modularity at group-level to measure the power of a focal structure (a subset of the network). DCFM and FSA models can help cyber-security experts by providing a better picture of the threat which will help to plan a better response.

Mustafa Alassad, Billy Spann, Samer Al-khateeb, Nitin Agarwal
LoRa Wide Area Network Pragmatic Heterogeneous IoT Applications, Deployment Using Different Spreading Factors

Long Range Low Power Wide Area Network (LoRa LPWAN) offers ubiquitous connectivity in IoT applications, while keeping network structure and management simple. The technology is offering developers an attractive route to build IoT installations involving sensors located at kilometers rather than meters from the nearest gateway. LoRa uniquely relies on 6 spreading factors (SFs) ranging from 7 to 12. Higher distances are covered by the use of higher SFs at the expense of reduced data rate. On the other hand, higher SF consumes longer transmission time on air. The technology had been widely deployed world- wide and in order to support scientific research several network simulators have been conducted to answer the what-if analysis. This paper presents an Omnet++ simulation model developing the two conventional SF allocation schemes; modeling LoRaWAN with SF tiers representing Adaptive Data Rate activation and parallel quasi-orthogonal SF network. Moreover, the simulation model allows for heterogeneous IoT application deployment that shall act as a pragmatic network planning tool. The idea is to utilize fast transmissions of smaller SF networks by configuring end-devices with applications of large packet sized to use the small SF networks and utilize the developed simulator to inspect and analyze network performance.

Minar El-Aasser, Mohamed Ashour, Tallal Elshabrawy
Autonomous Vehicle Prototype for Closed-Campuses

Autonomous driving technology is an invention that mainly aims at giving a vehicle the ability to control itself and to successfully manage situations without human intervention. In this paper, we propose a prototype autonomous system that can manage moving from a starting point to a destination point on in a closed campus. Here, a unique set of challenges emerge. In particular, the interaction with an area with a high density of pedestrians that do not have a fixed crossing point. These closed campus challenges have not received sufficient attention in the literature. Our prototype is comprehensive and includes multiple modules such as Mapping, Perception, Planning and Control. Furthermore, we test the performance of these modules and identify open challenges that should be addressed in closed campus self-driving environments.

Abdelrahman Anwar, Amr Elmougy, Mohamed Sabry, Ahmed Morsy, Omar Rifky, Slim Abdennadher
Model-Driven Decision Support System for Broadband Penetration in Nigeria: Smart City Challenge

This paper proposes a novel model used for the development of a decision support system (DSS) to improve broadband penetration which is critical to the global goal of achieving 5G network implementation beyond 2020. Smart cities relied on information and communication technology driven by the rate of broadband provision in each country. Countries with smart cities have high broadband penetration rate as well as improved economic index. The model was developed after an analytical appraisal of factors affecting broadband penetration in a country case study using a 17-year data period (2001–2017). The significant variables were used to develop the DSS. The result of the analysis showed that the model developed achieved 70.2% reliability in terms of its ability to predict broadband penetration.

Cosmas Ifeanyi Nwakanma, Achimba Chibueze Ogbonna, Udoka Felista Eze, Esther Chiadikaobi Ugwueke, Christiana Chidimma Nwauzor, Joy Okwuchi Chizitere Oguzie
Perturbation-Based Analysis of Thin-Walled Steel Tubes Buckling Under Compression: Numerical and Experimental Study

This paper investigates the development and validation of a numerical model of a thin-walled steel tube under axial compressive loading. The tested specimens consisted of a thin steel tube with a coupler inserted and welded onto each end to reduce buckling due to edge distortion and allow an axial load to be applied when the tube is surrounded by a solid medium. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model was developed using LS_DYNA. A global imperfection field is used by implementing an imperfection-based perturbation method to accurately trigger the experimentally observed deformation. Validation of the behavior and failure of the model was based upon previous tests performed on four thicknesses of steel with diameter-to-thickness ratios (D/t) ranging approximately from 40 to 120 under monotonic axial compression. The FE results were found accurate for the stress-strain curve up to buckling and in the post-buckling region. It was revealed that the models did precisely match the location and type of local buckling and were able to predict well the buckling (bifurcation) loads.

Nicholas Colbert, Mohanad M. Abdulazeez, Mohamed A. ElGawady
Axial Behavior of Concrete Filled Pultrutded FRP Box

Pultruded FRP has been used for decades to save weight, increase corrosion resistance, provide aesthetic beauty and reduce maintenance costs. This paper presents the findings of an experimental study that was conducted to evaluate the axial of six specimens tested under axial loading with different lengths varies from 10 inches to 30 inches using two type of specimens concrete filled box, and reinforced concrete box. The results indicate that the addition on the concrete to the FRP section can improve compressive properties of the section. Also the mode of failure changed from local buckling in case without using concrete to global buckling in case of filling the box with concrete. Design approach were also used to determine the axial capacity of the section filled with reinforced concrete.

Amro Ramadan, Mohamed A. ElGawady
Compressive Strength of Revibrated Concrete Using Smart Combination of Sawdust Ash from Selected Wood Species to Partially Replace Cement

Study into the compressive strength of revibrated concrete using smart combination of sawdust ash from selected wood species to partially replace cement is presented. Apa and mahogany wood species were used to carry out this study. Chemical analysis of the ASDA and MSDA contain the major chemical oxides found in cement which includes SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3. Six (6) concrete cubes of 0% replacement by weight were produced with ordinary Portland cement (OPC), while another Six (6) concrete cubes were cast each using 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% replacement of OPC with SDA from the specified wood species giving rise to a total of fifty-six (56) cubes produced without revibration. These cubes were cured and subjected to a compressive strength test at 7 and 28 days. The optimum ASDA replacement for cement was attained at 5%, while that of concrete cube containing MSDA was attained at 10%. Another set of concrete cubes numbering eighty-four (84) was produced, fifty-six (56) of which were cast using the optimum percentage from ASDA and MSDA, while the remaining twenty-eight (28) were cast using OPC only. All the eighty-four cubes were revibrated for 1 min 20 s at 10 min intervals to a duration of 1 h after initial vibration. The cubes were cured for 7 days, 28 days and subjected to compressive strength test. The result reveals that the compressive strength of the revibrated concrete cubes increases up to a certain time lag and thereafter decreases to the lap hour of 1 h. The result also reveals that the percentage increase in compressive strength value obtained after revibration for a curing period of 7 and 28 days using 0% (only OPC) increased by 28.01 and 37.31%, that of the 5% ASDA optimum percentage replacement obtained increased by 48.40 and 40.49% and also that of 10% MSDA optimum percentage replacement obtained increased by 33.58 and 40.83% compared to the average value obtained for the corresponding percentage replacement for the non-revibrated concrete cubes. Hence, the study suggests that re-vibration enhances the strength of concrete once done within the plastic stage of the concrete.

S. M. Auta, V. N. Agie, M. Alhassan
Costs and Benefits Data Mapping of BIM Laser Scan Integration: A Case Study in Australia

Building information modelling (BIM) has been increasingly popular in the utility industry due to substantial benefits of cost and time savings, and improved performance and asset management during the operations and maintenance (O&M) phase. With the recent addition of point cloud from laser scanning, the level of details opted BIM 3D models from ‘as-designed’ to ‘as-constructed’ which paves the way for more benefits to other stakeholders during the O&M phase. This research identified and developed the cost benefit elements of the laser-scan integrated BIM as part of a case study research project of a water treatment plant (WTP) in Queensland, Australia. The costs elements from stakeholder’s perspective are predominantly BIM supporting software, hardware, labour and training. Whereas, the benefits are categorised based on communication, asset, data and risk management elements for the WTP stakeholders. This research evaluated the costs and benefits through 3D modelling, including asset input, of a WTP study section, site surveys and interviews. The research developed an association mapping between all costs and benefits elements for the WTP case selected.

Sherif Mostafa, Harold Villamor, Rodney A. Stewart, Katrin Sturm, Emiliya Suprun, Scott Vohland
Backmatter
Metadaten
Titel
Design and Construction of Smart Cities
herausgegeben von
Ibrahim El Dimeery
Prof. Dr. Moustafa Baraka
Prof. Syed M. Ahmed
Assoc. Prof. Amin Akhnoukh
Assoc. Prof. Mona B. Anwar
Prof. Dr. Mahmoud El Khafif
Prof. Dr. Nagy Hanna
Assoc. Prof. Amr T. Abdel Hamid
Copyright-Jahr
2021
Electronic ISBN
978-3-030-64217-4
Print ISBN
978-3-030-64216-7
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-64217-4